Effects of KWL Instructional Strategy on Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Mathematics and English in Owerri North Lga of Imo State, Nigeria
Effects of KWL Instructional Strategy on Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Mathematics and English in Owerri North Lga of Imo State, Nigeria
 Nbisike Marvel Ijeoma
 Nbisike GynaSam Ogechi
 Dara Angela Onyinyechi
 Eluemuno Azukaego I.
 Nwaneri Patience Ngozi
 254262
 Mar 11, 2024
 Education
Effects of KWL Instructional Strategy on Academic Performance of Pupils in Primary Mathematics and English in Owerri North Lga of Imo State, Nigeria
Nbisike Marvel Ijeoma^{1}, Nbisike GynaSam Ogechi Ph.D.^{2}, Dara Angela Onyinyechi Ph.D.^{3}, Eluemuno Azukaego I. Ph.D.^{4}, Nwaneri Patience Ngozi Ph.D.^{5}
^{1}Department of Mathematics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
^{2,3,4}Department of Educational Psychology/G&C, Alvan Ikoku University of Education Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
^{5}Department of Educational Foundations and Administration, Alvan Ikoku University of Education Owerri Imo State, Nigeria
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1102020
Received: 06 February 2024; Accepted: 08 February 2024; Published: 11 March 2024
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to find out if learners taught algebraic expression/elementary statistics in Mathematics and parts of speech in English Language using KWL instructional strategy will have better academic performance than those taught with the conventional Teacher method at 0.05 alpha levels. The researchers used quasiexperimental design which adopted the pretest, posttest Experimental group method. The area of study was Owerri North LGA Imo State, Nigeria. The population of the study was all Primary 5 learners in Owerri North Public schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to select three primary schools and simple random sampling technique was used to select classes in each of the schools. The sample of the study was 120 primary learners. The data collection instruments for the study were treatment 1 (KWL instructional strategies), treatment 2, (TCM [Teacher conventional method), Treatment 3 (combined TCM & KWL), multiplechoice questions for each subject chosen from past FSLCE and Common entrance questions. Two research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. Mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA were the statistical tools used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that the group taught with combined TCM & KWL achieved higher academically than the group taught with only TCM or KWL. The study also discovered that KWL instructional strategy is gender friendly. It was recommended that primary school teachers should be encouraged to use KWL instructional strategy to facilitate learners’ performance in algebraic expression, elementary statistics and parts of speech. Furthermore Basic Education Stake holders should organize regular workshops and seminars to train and retrain teachers on the use of 21^{st} century teaching strategies.
Keywords: Mathematics and English language, KWL Instructional Strategy, academic performance.
INTRODUCTION
In the history of education worldwide, especially in Africa, America and Europe, English and mathematics are regarded as the major and basic subjects at all levels of educationPrimary, Secondary and Tertiary. They are prerequisites for studying any course; hence they are made compulsory for studying any course in institutions of higher learning. A lot of tasks in the educational world depend on the knowledge of mathematics and English language. Mathematics is a way of describing relationships between number and other measureable quantities. Eluemuno & Nwikpo (2020) posits that a good reader has a better opportunity for greater achievement because he recognizes the words quickly and effortlessly as a sequence of a textual whole. Azuka (2015) Opined that mathematics is not only the language of science but an essential nutrient for thought, Logic, and reasoning. While English language is the tool for the expression of the what one feels, sees and understands. Kolawale and Ajetunnobi (2013)]. Knowledge of Mathematics and English work hand in hand. Good knowledge of English gives tap root to mathematics. Good knowledge of English enhances good knowledge of mathematics and good knowledge of mathematics lays good and solid foundation of science and technology. This means that the level of English and mathematics knowledge citizens of Al; nation have determine the level of justice science and technology components of that nations. The pivotal positions of English and mathematics to national development have made education policy makers to resolve that English and mathematics should be compulsory subjects for admissions to tertiary institutions and employment purposes Kolawole [2013]. Mathematics and English are instruments to facilitate the learning of other formal school subjects and very important tools for resolving problem situation in all disciplines.
Despite the pivotal positions mathematics and English language occupy in the field of knowledge, learners performance in these two subjects have remained consistently poor and unsatisfying. According to Nwadia [2010], this unimaginable level of poor performance in mathematics and English across all levels of education has continued to be issue of immense concern to stakeholders in education, hence a pragmatic and conscientious proactive decision and action ought to be taken by concerned stakeholders to checkmate these incidents of mass failure so as to save the nation from imminent collapse of her educational sector. Adapting universal design for learning an approach to curriculum planning and mapping that makes learning engaging and accessible to wider range of learners with different strengths and needs; use of multiple modalities in teaching and allowing students to respond to learning with a variety of assessment tools. Engaging students in collaborative planning and teaching (Eluemuno et.al)
The KWL strategy stands for what I know, what I want to know, and what I learnt.
KWL is an instructional strategy that is used to guide Learners through a text.
Learners begin by brainstorming everything they know about a topic. This information is recorded in the K column of a KWL chart. Learners then generate a list of questions about what they want to know about the topic. These questions are listed in the W column of the chart. During or after reading, students answer the questions that are in the W column.
This new information that they have learned is written down in the L column of the KWL chart.
KWL instructional strategy elicits students’ prior knowledge, sets a purpose for the Learner to read and helps students to monitor and track their own comprehension.
How to Use a Kwl Chart
Start with column 1: know
Under the first column, here learners share what they already know about the topic at hand.
You can use the KWL chart for both group and individual learning. You may want to break the class up into small groups and then have each team share their notes with the rest of the class.
Consider drawing a chart on the board [or pulling up an online KWL chart on the projector] to fill out together as a class. Learner can also fill out their own worksheets individually as you go to help them stay on track through the lesson.
This is a great way for teachers to see what the class already understands collectively and plan their lessons accordingly.
Fill Out Column 2: Want To Know
Once you’ve identified what you [or your class] already know, the next step is to fill out the “W” column. Have students answer: what do you want to know about this topic? Again, you may want to split the class into smaller groups or pairs to start the discussion and then have them share their ideas with the whole class to record on a master KWL sheet. If your class doesn’t have much experience with or knowledge of the topic, provide prompting questions to help them brainstorm.
Complete Column 3: Learnt
Throughout the lesson or unit, learners can refer to their KWL chart and fill out the third column: learned. Here they will write down what they are learning and check off the questions they had listed in the second column that were answered. Learners can share anything they found interesting or surprising and identify any misconceptions they might have had from column 1.
Kwl Chart Example
Topic: Cloud
K  W  L 

what are storm clouds?  Types of clouds:
Stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, stratocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, cirrocumulus, altocumulus 

How do clouds form?  When warm air rises, it cools and condenses into tiny water droplets.
As more water droplets are created, a cloud forms. 

KWL CHART
WHAT DO I KNOW?  WHAT DO I WANT TO KNOW?  WHAT HAVE I LEARNED? 
Source: DAVS AIFCE hand book on 21^{st} century teaching strategies
KWL learning strategy exposes learners to self directive process which help to transform their mental abilities into task related academic skills. KWL strategy involves the actual mental work of the learners, involves self regulation, and helps the learner to construct a new way of understanding. KWL strategy which is anchored on constructivist approach to education help the learner to construct her own knowledge through active collaborative processes and also help the learner to develop and utilize learning skills like critical thinking/problem solving creativity/innovation, communication and collaboration. Daniels [2019] posited that KWL strategy emphasizes quality of learning rather than note memorization of content for KWL learning strategy to be more effective, the instructor must teach the learners [pupils] the KWL processes that facilitate learning. These processes involve setting of goals or objectives, planning, self motivation, attention control, use of various learning skills, selfmonitoring, collaboration and selfevaluation.
Statement of problem
English and mathematics education stake holders have been very much worried about the poor performance of pupils in FSLCE and SCEE mathematics and English despite the very important position English language and mathematics occupy in the story and history of education and examination, and their relatedness to other subjects, previous studies and previous exam results 20152019 obtained from exam development centre [EDC] and ministry of education Owerri Imo State revealed poor performances in mathematics, English and Igbo language are on the increase. The chief examiners report 2019 showed that majority of the candidates fail questions under elementary statistics and algebraic expression in mathematics and questions under parts of speech in English language. According to Agwagah & Benjamin [2004]. Many researchers and educators put the blame of this poor performance in mathematics and English on the inadequate instructional strategies which can actually create lack of interest of pupils in these two core subjects. It is well understood and well accepted that when pupils are taught with inappropriate instructional strategies which creates little or no interest in the pupils, the percentage of acquiring the needed knowledge and skill for the pupils total development will be very low. This study therefore investigates the effect of KWL 21^{st} century instructional strategy on the academic performance of pupils in mathematics and English with emphasis on algebraic expression, elementary statistics and parts of speech. Many previous studies carried out to investigate the factors that militate against the high academic performance in English and mathematics revealed the following as major factors:
Poor teaching method Kurumeh, (2006), students negative attitude towards English and mathematics Chiadikwe (2015), Ukpebor, (2005), lack of qualified teachers Anozie (2005), overloading of curriculum. Adewale, Adesoji and Iroegbu (2004) etc. based on the above findings, education stake holders recommended that English and mathematics instructors should use facilitating methods of teaching and appropriate teaching skills during teaching and learning process in order to increase performance from pass to credit and from low score to high score in FSLCE / common entrance examination. Mathematics and English are still faced with the problem of how to improve learners performance in English and Mathemations, mathematics/ English teachers and researchers have suggested different 21^{st} century strategies and instructional approaches. Example Nbisike [2018] studied the effect of peer tutorial on academic performance and suggested combined peer tutorial and teacher mediated instruction, habour peters cited in Igberucha [2020] compared the effect of the target task approach with the former approach on academic performance and suggested target task approach Azuka [2023] is of the view that for learners to have very good or excellent performance, psychosocial features of how humans learn must be put into great consideration in guiding the learners. Some of the psychosocial features are self regulatory and cooperative attitudes, interest and commitment. Since the 21^{st} century learning strategy is moving away from teacher contered to learner centered the choice of teaching method that can enhance primary school mathematics and English must be based on the psychosocial features above K.L.W learning strategy is one of the strategies that make learners to become very active participants in the teaching and learning process and when applied, can improve retention, remembrance and performance in English and maths. K.W.L learning strategy make learners to become masters of their learning monitor their academic goals and motivation, manage human material resources, control their decisions and performance in teaching/learning process.
Purpose of Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of KWL instructional strategy on the academic performance of pupils in mathematics and English language in Owerri North Local Government area of Imo State Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:
 Find out if any difference exists in the pretest/posttest mean scores of pupils taught mathematics and English using KWl Instructional strategy, normal teacher conventional method (TCM) and combined TCM/KW.L.
 Find out if any difference exists in the mean scores of male and female pupils taught mathematics and English using KWL instructional strategy
Research Questions
 What differences exist in the pretest/posttest mean scores of learners taught mathematics and English using KWL instructional strategy, normal teacher conventional method and combined KWL and TCM
 What is the difference between the mean scores of male and female pupils taught mathematics and English using KWL instructional strategy and normal teacher conventional method?.
Hypothesis
These hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 significant level.
Ho_{1}: There are no significant differences in the mean scores of learners performance in mathematics and English test after the treatments KWL, TCM and combined KWL/TCM.
METHOD
The study which is a quasiexperimental design adopted pretest, posttest experimental method. The study involved three experimental groups. Experimental group I received KWL instructional strategy as treatment, Experimental group 2 received teacher conventional method TCM as treatment and Experiemental group 3 received combined KWL/TCM as treatment.
The research was carried out in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. The population of the study which was 120, comprised all primary five pupils. Purposive sampling technique was used to select three local government out of 27 local Government Areas in the State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select three schools. Intact groups of all primary 5 pupils in each school were used. The instrument for data collection in this study were 25 items mathematics achievement test [MAT] which covered algebraic expression & elementary statistics and 25 items English achievement test [EAT] which covered parts of speech all selected from past FSLCE and SCEE past question papers. The intact groups were taught. Group 1 which was the experimental group 1 was taught using KWL instructional strategy group 2 which was the experimental group 2 was taught using normal teacher conventional method and Group 3 which was experimental group 3 was taught with combined KWL/TCM. Before the experiment started, the researchers administered pretest to both groups. Then the experimental group 1 was exposed to lessons on algebraic expression/elementary statistics and parts of speech using KWL instructional strategy for six weeks, the experimental group 2 was also exposed to lessons on algebraic expression/ elementary statistics and parts of speech using normal teacher conventional method for six weeks. While the experimental group 3 was exposed to lessons on algebraic expression/elementary statistics and part of speech using combined KWL/TCM. After the treatment, the pretest questions were renumbered and rearranged and were administered as posttest to the three groups. After scoring the script, the mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 significant level.
RESULTS
Research question one
What differences exist in the pretest/posttest mean scores of learners taught mathematics and English language using KWL instructional strategy, normal teacher conventional method TCM and combined KWL and TCM..
Table one: Mean scores in mathematics and English learners pretest scores and their score at posttest when taught through K.W.L, TCM and combined KWL and TCM.
GROUP N  MEAN  SD  MEAN DIF 
Maths/English KWL group  
Pretest  22.0  10.5  
Posttest  59.0  13.4  37.0 
Maths/English TCM group  
Pretest  21.9  10.6  
Posttest  43.0  5.2  21.1 
Maths/English KWL/TCM group  
Pretest  22.6  21.0  
Posttest  69.0  8.0  36.4 
Result on table 1 shows that the group taught elementary statistics and algebraic expression in mathematics and parts of speech in English using KWL learning strategy had pretest mean score of 22.0 with standard deviation of 10.5 and post test mean score of 59.0 with standard deviation 13.4. The difference between the pretest and post test mean scores was 37.0. The group taught parts of speech in English language and algebraic expression/elementary statistics in mathematics using TCM had pretest mean score 21.9 and standard deviation of 10.6 and post test mean score of 43.0 and standard deviation of 5.2. The difference between the pretest and post test mean scores was 21.1. The group taught elementary statistics and algebraic expression in mathematics and parts of speech in English using Combined normal teacher conventional method [TCM] and K.W.L had pretest mean 22.6 with standard deviation 21.0 and post test mean 69.0 with standard deviation 8.0. The difference between the pretest and posttest mean was 46.4. The result on the table shows that the means of the pretest and posttest when used TCM was 21.9 and 43.0 and mean difference was 21.1.
It can be therefore inferred that there is a difference in mean scores of the pretest and posttest when used TCM and posttest group achieved higher than the pretest group meaning that using TCM, there was effective learning occurrence by gaining a mean of 21.1. The table also shows that the mean scores of the pretest and posttest when used KWL are 22.0 and 59.0 respectively and the mean difference is 37.0. It can be therefore inferred that there is a difference in mean scores of the pretest and posttest when used KWL and posttest group achieved higher than the pretest group, this means that using KWL, there was effective learning occurrence by gaining a mean of 37.0.
Similarly, Table I shows that the mean scores of the pretest and posttest when used combined TCM/KWL are 22.6 and 69 and that the mean difference is 46.4. It can be therefore inferred that there is a difference in mean scores of pretest and posttest group when used TCM/KWL and posttest group achieved higher than pretest group. Meaning that using combined TCM /KWL, there was effective learning occurrence by gaining a mean of 46.4. The result above show that the mean gain of the methods TCM/KWL, and TCM are 46.4, 37.0 and 21.1 respective. Meaning that while TCM is effective, KWL is more effective and combined TCM/KWL is most effective in this experiment.
Research Question Two
What is the difference between the mean scores of male and female pupils taught mathematics and English using KWL instructional strategy.
Table 2: mean scores, standard deviation and mean difference of male and female pupils taught mathematics and English using KWL instructional strategy.
GROUP N  MEAN  SD  MEAN DIFF. 
Female  
Maths & English pretests  11.8  1.0  
Maths & English posttest  23.0  5.0  11.2 
Male  
Maths & English pretest  14.3  2.6  
Maths & English posttest  34.0  6.1  19.7 
Result on table 2 shows the mean scores of male and female pupils in elementary statistics and algebraic expression in mathematics and part of speech in English language. Result showed that male pupils had pretest mean score of 14.3 with SD 2.6 and post test mean score of 34.0 with SD 6.1 mean score difference of 19.7. While female pupils had pretest score of 11.8 with SD 1.0 and post test mean scores of 23.0 with standard deviation 5.0 and mean score difference of 11.2. The result showed that male pupils had a higher mean difference or mean gain of 19.7 than female pupils who had mean difference or mean gain of 11.2.
Hypothesis HO1: There are no significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean of learners performance in mathematics and English test after treatment TCM, KWL and combined TCM/KWL.
Table 3: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Ftest on the mean scores of the three treated groups in researcher made posttest.
Source  Sum of Squares  df  Mean Square  ComF  Cri F  Ls  Probability 
Corrected Model  3635,25  3  12111.75  
Intercept  22721.92  1  22721.92  
Pretest  84.33  1  84.33  
Group  3455,98  2  1727.99  16.84  3.80  0.05  .000 
Error  11906.34  116  102.64  
Total  443113.00  120  
Corrected Total  15541.59  119 
Table 3 shows that the Fcomputed (16.84) is greater than Fcritical (3.80) and the level of significance (0.05) is greater than the probability (0.00). This result rejects the null hypothesis that there are no significant (p<0.05) differences in the mean scores of the three treated groups in researcher made posttest and accepts the alternate hypothesis that there are significant (p<0.05) differences in the mean scores of the three treated groups in researcher made posttest. A pairwise Comparison test was ran on the mean scores to find out which of the groups significantly achieved higher.
Table 4 Pairwise Comparison of the achievement of the three treated groups.
GROUP  Posttest Means  Mean Difference  Probability  Significant (p<0.05)? 
Teacher Conventional Method  59.09  8.88  0.001  Yes 
Combined TCM/KWL  67.97  
KWL Instructional Strategy  54.34  13.58  0.000  Yes 
Combined TCM/KWL  67.97 
Table 4 shows that for TCM and TCM/KWL groups, probability (0.001) is less than the level of significance (0.05). This implies that there is significant difference in the mean scores of the two treated groups at posttest and combined TCM/KWL group significantly achieved higher than the TCM group.
For KWL and TCM/KWL groups; probability (0.000) is less than the level of significance (0.05). This implies that there is significant difference in the mean scores of the two treated groups at posttest and TCM/KWL group significantly achieved higher than the KWL group.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings and results of the study, the following recommendations are made:
1] KWL instructional strategies should be introduced into the senior primary schools by the government and education stake holders as an instructional strategy for mathematics and English language.
2] Primary school teachers should be encouraged to use KWL instructional strategy by providing needed materials and infrastructures
3] Workshops and seminars on the 21^{st} century teaching strategies should be regularly conducted for primary school teachers and they should be sponsored for such workshops and seminars.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study showed that the academic performance on elementary statistics, algebraic expression in mathematics and parts of speech in English can highly be enhanced by the use of combined TCM and KWL instructional strategy and also the use of KWL instructional strategy helped pupils to have better understanding of elementary statistics/algebraic expressions in mathematics and parts of speech in English. This was shown in the significant differences seen in the mean scores of those taught with KWL instructional strategy and those taught with teacher conventional method.
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