Examining the Relationship Between Demographic Profile, Level of Preparedness, and Competencies Among Senior High School TVL First Batch Graduates of Selected Public Schools of the Division of Puerto Princesa

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Examining the Relationship Between Demographic Profile, Level of Preparedness, and Competencies Among Senior High School TVL First Batch Graduates of Selected Public Schools of the Division of Puerto Princesa

  • Maria Chanchina F. Lagrada
  • Dr. Rastanura M. Bober
  • 445-477
  • May 11, 2024
  • Education

Examining the Relationship Between Demographic Profile, Level of Preparedness, and Competencies among Senior High School TVL First Batch Graduates of Selected Public Schools of the Division of Puerto Princesa

Maria Chanchina F. Lagrada, Dr. Rastanura M. Bober

Western Philippines University, Puerto Princesa City, Philippines

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1104033

Received: 18 March 2024; Revised: 05 April 2024; Accepted: 09 April 2024; Published: 11 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study described the demographic profile, level of preparedness, level of competencies and the problems encountered by the first-batch graduates of the Technical Vocational-Livelihood Track students during SY 2016-2017 from the selected public senior high schools in Puerto Princesa City. Frequency, percentage, weighted mean, analysis of variance, and Pearson-r correlation were employed to analyze the data collected. Analyzed data revealed that majority of the respondents are 24 years old, male, single, and SHS TVL Strand Electrical Installation and Maintenance graduates.

Most respondents were graduates with a Bachelor of Science in Criminology and working in private sectors on a contractual basis, earning a monthly income of PHP 9,999.00 and below. Additionally, SHS TVL first batch graduates are always prepared in the majority of indicators of Tertiary education, Middle-level skills development except for Entrepreneurship, and Employment with “somewhat prepared” as the result. In line with the level of competence, the graduates are entirely competent in the majority of indicators of Learning and Innovation Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills except for Life and Career Skills which is Fairly Competent.

The SHSTVL first-batch graduates agree that the SHS Program was effectively implemented, has helped graduates acquire the competencies expected of them to learn. Results further revealed that there is no significant difference between the age, sex, civil status and SHS TVL strand and the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates and between the age, sex, civil status and SHS TVL strand and the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates. However, there is a significant difference between the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates and their degree, work and monthly income, albeit no significant relationship between the level of preparedness and level of competencies of SHS TVL first-batch graduates and their age, sex, civil status, SHS TVL strand, degree, work, and monthly income. Among the identified solutions include strengthening of DepEd”s Work Immersion Program of Senior High School and establishing solid partnership with companies and agencies where the SHS graduates can be accommodated for employment.

Keywords: DepEd, Senior High school, Technical Vocational

INTRODUCTION

Our society is continuously progressing and to meet society’s demands, our curriculum needs to adapt and change. One of the comprehensive reforms that happened in Philippine education is the K to 12 Program.

The “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013,” encompasses at least one year of kindergarten education, six years of elementary education, and six years of secondary education, which includes four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school education, according to Republic Act No. 10533. The Government of the Philippines clearly discusses the establishment of the K to 12 Program it covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]). This provides sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. Kindergarten and Senior High School programs are added to the previous basic curriculum. Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education where; students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define the content of the sübjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. It is also reiterated from the official gazette of the Philippine Government that each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The academic track includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM). Students must undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them with relevant exposure and actual experience in their chosen track. Every K to 12 graduate is expected to be prepared to go on different paths – whether further education, employment, or entrepreneurship. Every graduate is expected to be equipped with the following skills: information, media and technology skills, learning and innovation, effective communication, and life and career skills (Official Gazette, Government of the Philippines, 2022). It has been six years since the implementation of the Senior High School program and there have been issues and challenges that the schools, parents and learners have encountered as revealed by several studies and articles.

Regarding SHS graduates” employment, the Special Report of Department of Education revealed that many companies accept only job applicants with at least two years of college education, potentially excluding SHS graduates. This hiring policy explains the discrepancy between the graduates” supposedly high competency and their low chances of getting a job. The Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry’s Human Resources Development Foundation Inc. (PCCI HRDF) believes the hesitance to hire fresh graduates may be due to the absence of the necessary skills and training that industries need but have not yet been provided by the current SHS program. Yee,J. (2018, April 07, 2018) Special Report: Jobs a hit or miss for senior high school graduates, Inquirer.net https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/980738/special-report-jobs-a-hit-or-miss-for-senior-high-schoolgraduates#:~:text=(PCCI%20HRDF)%20believes%20the%20hesitance, PCCI%20HRDF%20president%20Alberto%20Fenix.

The 2017 Socioeconomic Report of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) said the national unemployment rate last year 3 reached 5.7 percent, up from 5.5 percent in 2016. Employment creation remains challenging, as there were around 663,243 net employment losses in 2017 (Department of Education.2017)

UNESCO-IBE (2022) states that curriculum evaluation is necessary and important in any national education system. It provides the basis for curriculum policy decisions, for feedback on continuous curriculum adjustments and processes of curriculum implementation.

The offering of Senior High School Technology, Vocational and Livelihood (TVL) Track in public Senior High Schools started school year 2016-2017. Six years have passed and it is high time to track the life and career outcomes of the first-batch of graduates. The researcher was curious if the training facilities, tools equipment and materials required for teaching TVL students have prepared them for college, business or work life and would also like to gather information if learning and acquiring skills from attending the Senior High School program have equipped them with the essential skills that they needed in facing real-life challenges.

Objectives Of the Study

The focus of this study is to describe the demographic profile of the SHSTVL first-batch graduates, the levels of their preparedness and competencies and the significant difference between the profile and levels of their preparedness and competencies, as well as the problems they have encountered. Specifically, it aimed to:

  1. Describe the demographic profile of the Senior High School graduates of SY 2016-2017 in terms of age, sex, civil status, SHS TVL Strand, educational attainment, course graduated, work, nature of work and monthly income;
  2. Find the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates in terms of tertiary education, middle-level skills development, entrepreneurship, and employment;
  3. Find the level of competencies of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills;
  4. Assess the problems encountered by first-batch graduates in line with the SHS offering of DepEd along with the effectiveness of the SHS program, Competencies acquired by he SHS graduates, and Employability of SHS graduates.
  5. Assess the significant difference between the demographic profile and the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates;
  6. Assess the significant difference between the demographic profile and the level of competencies of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates; and
  7. Assess the significant relationship between the level of preparedness and level of competencies of SHS TVL first-batch graduates.

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the locale of the study, research design, respondents of the study, instrumentation, data collection procedure and treatment of data. Puerto Princesa City DepEd is one of the seven Division Offices of DepEd-MIMAROPA along with Marinduque, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Palawan, Romblon, and Calapan City. Data from the DepEd Puerto Princesa Portal (2022) show that there are 101 schools (75 elementary and 26 secondary) with an enrollment of 73,750 learners.

The researcher selected large and mega schools in Puerto Princesa City as the study locale. Based on the DepEd Memorandum 43 series of 2017, the schools” category is based on the number of teachers in a school. Schools with nine teachers and below belong to small schools; those with 10-25 are considered medium schools, large schools have 26 to 100 teachers, while those with 101 and more are categorized as a mega school. These schools were San Jose National High School, Irawan National High School, Sicsican National High School, Mandaragat- San Miguel Senior High School and Palawan National School.

San Jose National High School is located at Lomboy St., San Jose, Puerto Princesa City, 8 kilometres away from the city proper, with currently more than 140 teachers and 3,769 learners from both Junior and Senior High School curricula. The Senior High School curriculum from the said school offers the following tracks:

Academic- STEM, ABM and HUMSS and TVL- Bread and Pastry 56 Production, Carpentry, Agriculture, Food and Beverage Services and Information, Communications and Technology specializations.

Irawan National High School, on the other hand, is 12 kms away from the city proper, situated at Barangay Irawan, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan with 33 teachers and more than 767 learners. It offers Junior and Senior High School programs with more or less 1,000 learners. The SHS curriculum includes Academic Track- HUMSS and ABM and TVL- Carpentry, Electrical Installation, Food Processing, Tour Guiding and Hairdressing.

Sicsican National High School is a secondary high school, under the supervision of the City Schools Division of Puerto Princesa under a large school category, having 78 teaching staff and catering to nearly 1,965 both in the Junior High School and Senior High School curriculum offering Agriculture, Electrical Installation, Bread and Pastry Production.

Mandaragat-San Miguel Senior High School is within the city proper, located at Barangay San Miguel, Puerto Princesa, City. The aforementioned school has 30 teachers and 761 enrolled learners from Alternative Learning System and Senior High School program. The SHS Program offers STEM, ABM, HUMSS and TVL Track Electrical Installation, Food Processing, Home Economics, Food and Beverage and Information and Communications Technology Strands.

The Palawan National School, or PNS (formerly Palawan National High School) is the flagship campus and the largest public high school in Puerto Princesa, It is currently located in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan with 340 teachers and more than 11,000 students. It offers both Junior High School and Senior High School curricula.

The SHS program of PNS caters learners under Academic Track- 57 STEM, ABM and HUMSS, TVL- Electrical Installation, Food and Beverage Services, PNS takes pride as the only school offering a Sports Track in the city.

Research Design

This study utilized a quantitative research design employing descriptive inferential and correlational approaches.

For the descriptive design, the researcher described the demographic profile of the Senior High School graduates of SY 2016-2017 in terms of the following: Age, Sex, Civil status, SHS TVL Strand and specialization, Course Sicsican National High School Irawan National High School San Jose National High School Mandaragat -San Miguel Senior High School Palawan National High School 58 graduated, Work, and Monthly income. Their level of preparedness as SHS TVL first-batch graduates was measured along with these indicators: Tertiary education, Middle-level skills development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment using frequency distribution and percentage. Additionally, the researcher also described the level of competencies of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills using weighted mean and average weighted mean scores of each indicator.

Further, this study described the problems encountered by first-batch graduates in line with the SHS offering of DepEd in terms of the following: Effectiveness of the SHS program, Competencies acquired by the SHS graduates, and Employability of SHS graduates.

For the inferential statistics, a two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if there is a significant difference between 1: the demographic profile and the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates, 2. between the demographic proffle and the level of competencies of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates and 3. between the level of preparedness and level of competencies of the respondents.

For the correlational design, Pearson-r correlation was used to determine the significant correlation between the demographic profile and the level of preparedness and competencies of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Demographic Profile of the Senior High School Graduates of SY 2016- 2017 in terms of Age, Sex, Civil Status, TVL Strand, Educational Attainment, Course Graduated, Work, Nature of Work, and Monthly Income

Table 2 shows the basic information of profile of the Senior High School Technical Vocational Livelihood Track first-batch graduates in terms of age, sex, civil status, SHS TVL Specialization, educational attainment, course graduated, work, nature of work and monthly income.

In terms of age, it can be gleaned from the table that majority of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are 24 years old or 52.21 percent of the total respondents. This result reflects that the graduates* biological age is appropriate to their grade level when they graduated in Senior High School.

According to Gosalia (2015) those learners who are considered age-appropriate for their grade level can demonstrate understanding and readiness to learn and that is the best time for them to receive the best method in teaching.

Results imply that majority of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are within the appropriate age estimated after their SHS graduation. In line with sex, it can be noted from the results that majority of the respondents are male having 233 or 64.36 percent of the total sample size. Sex, according to the study of Roble (2023) has influence over the choice of strand and specialization in TVL.

On the other hand, along civil status, it is evident from the results that most of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are single with 337 or 93.09 percent of the total population sample. This result is the same with the study conducted by Burac. And Habla (2023) citing that first-batch graduates of SHS TVL are mostly single. In terms of TVL Strand, majority of the respondents are graduates of Agri-Fishery Arts with 109 or 30.11 percent, only few took the Industrial Arts with 48 or 13.26 percent. Results are the same with the study conducted by Abarce (2016) revealing that Arts track has the lowest frequency among the other track of TVL which is an indication that the learners prefer specialization and strand of Home Economics in the Senior High School. According to Magdadaro (2020) it is important that the learners take advice from their teachers or parents on choosing the strand and specialization when enrolling in SHS TVL Track.

Kilag, et.al (2023) states that there are factors that affect the decision making of the learners in line with choosing the appropriate SHS Track which include the academic performance, career prospects, personal interests, and parental influence. It is recommended that the SHS teachers should collaborate with the parents and career guidance designate and help the learners in making right decisions about their own career choice.

As for the educational attainment, majority of the graduates have already graduated their tertiary education having 161 or 44.48 percent. Only few have graduated vocational course with 2 or 0.55 percent of the total population sample.

According to Sergio (2011), graduates of K-12 will become more equipped with the skills and competence to pursue studies or work. They will be more ready to pursue higher education given the adequate training and academic preparation that the 67 basic education promises. The results are also the same with the data gathered by Feranil (2019) which revealed that majority of the graduates of senior high school pursue further education.

Along the course graduated by the SHS TVL first-batch graduates, it is observed and noted that most of them have finished Criminology course with 41 or 25.46 percent. However, only 1 or 0.06 percent had finished Computer Engineering Course. According to Chavez (2019), whatever course these SHS TVL graduates took, they have personal reasons about it which are influenced by their present career, financial matter, parental and social recommendations.

In terms of Work, the SHS TVL first batch graduates are working mostly in private sector with 93 or 25.69 percent. Least percentage comes from the SHS TVL graduates who are self-employed with 23 or 6.35 percent of the total population sample.

Dela Cruz (2023) examined the employability of Senior High School graduates in the Technical-Vocational and Livelihood Track. Results revealed that majority of graduates are employed, with 202 (68.9%) in service and sales industries, while 91 (31.1%) were unemployed despite having attended college, lacked experience, and had family concerns.

Paladio and Buayan (2023) support this results which revealed that the SHSTVL graduates are employed in different types of job which are irrelevant to the TVL strands and they desire to change their present employment with other sustainable livelihood opportunities.

This calls for an intensive review of the TVL curriculum by the concerned agency to address the gap of skills and employment of the SHS TVL graduates.

Along the nature of work of those graduates who are working, majority of them are in contractual basis with 100 or 93.46 percent. Few are holding Job Order positions as there are only 2 or 1.87 percent of the graduates. This is still good evidence that the SHS TVL graduates pursue employment after graduation wherein according to Merces et.al (2020), 22.13% of the 2019 graduates sought for employment which is higher compared to the 8% of 2018 graduates who landed job after graduation.

As for the income of those who are working on a monthly basis, majority of them are earning 9,999 and below with 83 or 63.85 percent and only 1 is earning 40,999 to 49,999 with 0.77 percent. According to Tan (2023), the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) survey revealed that SHS graduates in the Philippines are earning approximately 19% higher wages compared to those who completed the old high school curriculum.

In summary, majority of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are 24 years old, male, single, graduates of Agri-Fishery Arts, have already graduated their tertiary education, finished Criminology course with 41 out of 161 or 25.46 percent, working mostly in private sector in contractual basis and earning 9,999 and below with 83 out of 130 ог 63.85.

Visconde 2015) negates this result emphasizing that in line with issues and challenges that the program is experiencing especially with lack of university experience of SHS graduates. Along work, these results support the study of Qubeta and Rotestad (2020), stating that only a small proportion (a little over 20%) enter the labor force and most of them (more than 70 percent) continue with their education. It can be observed also that the SHS graduates work are mostly not in 69 line with their TVL Track, therefore, it can be an implication to the curriculum and can suggest further teaching and reiteration career choice of those Grade 10 learners who wanted to enroll SHS Tracks which can later influence their future careers.

Ofoba (2011) has the same result showing that with few SHS graduates who preferred self-employment, secondary school students have not learnt sufficient practical skills to allow for self-employment. This calls to a more emphasis on the development of their skills particularly when the Grade 12 TVL learners begin their Work Immersion Course.

Table 2. Frequency Distribution on the Demographic Profile of the Senior High School TVL First-Batch Graduates, SY 2016-2017 in terms of Age, Sex, Civil Status, TVL Strand and Educational Attainment.

Profile (n =362)

Age f %
30 years 7 1.93
29 years 4 1.10
28 years 2 .55
27 years 6 1.66
26 years 7 1.93
25 years 39 9.94
24 years 189 52.21
23 years 98 27.07
22 years 10 2.76

 

Sex f %
Male 233 64.36
Female 129 35.64

 

Civil Status f %
Single 337 93.09
Married 14 3.87
Living Together 11 3.04

 

SHS TVL Strand f %
Agri- Fishery Arts 109 30.11
Home Economics 99 27.35
Industrial Arts 48 13.26
Information Communications Technology 106 29.28

 

Educational Attainment f %
College Graduate 161 44.48
College undergraduate 6 1.66
Vocational Course Graduate 2 .55
SHS Graduate 57 15.75
Still studying 137 37.57

 

f %
Education 12 7.45
Business 31 19.25
Civil Electrical Engineering 18 11.18
Criminology 41 25.46
Philippine Air force 2 1.24
Fisheries 16 9.94
Hospital Management 22 13.66
Computer Engineering 1 .06
ICT 3 1.86
Forestry 2 1.24
Marine Engineering 3 1.86
Nursing 2 1.24
Sciences 8 4.97

 

Work f %
Government 14 3.87
Private 93 25.69
Self-employed 23 6.35
Unemployed 96 26.52
Still studying 136 36.19

 

Nature of Work f %
Permanent 5 4.67
Contractual 100 93.46
Job Order 2 1.87

 

Monthly Income f %
50,000 and above 1 .77
30,000- 39,999 3 2.31
20,000- 29,999 4 3.08
10,000-19,999 39 30.00
9,999 and below 83 63.85

Level of Preparedness of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Tertiary Education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship and Employment

Table 3a presents the Level of Preparedness of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Tertiary Education. A Likert scale was used to show the ratings from Always prepared (4) to Unprepared (1) summarized in Table 3b.

On the tertiary level, the results showed for the statement number 5, “the SHS” graduate is capable of knowing how to read and write with high level of independence” got the highest mean of 3.94 described as “always prepared”. Next are statements number 3, the SHS graduate is capable of choosing own career without the advice of other people (3.94), statement number 1, the SHS graduate is having proper state of mind (3.91), statement number 4, the SHS graduate is capable of managing oneself and perform at the best ability (3.90), statement number 8, the SHS graduate is capable of tracking assignments and other tasks as well as manage the time (3.88), statement number 4, the SHS graduate doesn’t need to take summer classes for prerequisite subjects (3.86), statement number 6, the SHS learner is aware of strengths and challenges in learning (3.85), statement number 7, the SHS graduate has clear set goals and determined to succeed in life (3.82) and the statement number 9, the SHS graduate is capable of building relationships with other people (3.75). The statement number 2, “the SHS graduate is somewhat prepared along taking the entrance examination with confidence to pass” was the least with the mean of 3.41 described as “somewhat prepared”. The overall mean from the SHS TVL first-batch graduates” responses attained 3.82, with a descriptive rating of “always prepared

The result affirms the goal of the K to 12 curriculum to prepare graduates for tertiary education. This also implies that the Senior High School curriculum has prepared the graduates towards their life and career skills as manifested in the results of their responses. It can be inferred from the overall mean of 3.82 that majority of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are always prepared in the pursuit of their tertiary education. However, the teachers are suggested to make their efforts in preparing the SHS learners especially along the preparations for college entrance examinations as they are somewhat prepared on this area. According to Tacata (2019), the chosen track of SHS does not determine their level of preparedness:

Sux and Salinas (2019) states that the SHS graduates show a very high level of aspiration and high level of readiness in pursuing college degree. The respondents” aspiration was a strong predictor of their readiness in pursuing college degree. In order to help the graduates in their career choice, it is recommended that the Junior High School career guidance program be intensified to help the graduates decide on their future careers. The teachers can also reach out to the parents and family members, train them and let them understand the importance of making right choices of career in life.

The study conducted by Siddiky and Akter (2021) revealed that the students” family preferences, teachers” advice and career development trainings have significant association with the students” career decision-making.

Along Middle-life skills development, it can be noted that the statement number 2, “the SHS graduate demonstrates willingness to upgrade skills” garnered the highest mean of 3.88 described as “always prepared”. This is followed by the statement number 8, the SHS graduate demonstrates creativity in presenting skills and output

(3.87), statement number 9, the SHS graduate can use a variety of means to present the skills and output (3.80), statement number 1, the SHS graduate can demonstrate skills learned (3.79), statement number 3, the SHS graduate is capable of showing other skills aside from what they have learned from school (3.74), statement number 6, the SHS graduate is capable of sharing their skills to other people (3.68) and statement number 5, the SHS graduate has mastered the skills taught in school (3.60). On the other hand, statement number 4, the SHS graduate is confident to include skills as part of experience (3.44), statement number 7, the SHS graduate always go “beyond the box” when it comes to delivering the output (3:44) and statement number 10, the SHS learner has minimal or zero errors when it comes to their skills (2.79) got the lowest mean with a description of “somewhat prepared”. The overall mean from the SHS TVL first-batch graduates” responses got 3.60 which is described as “always prepared”.

Xillamater (2019) reveals that the student’s preference in choosing SHS track has no significant relationship with their entrepreneurial skills. 74 Data imply that the Senior High School Program of DepEd has honed the middle-life skills of the graduates as manifested in the results of responses. It can be inferred from the overall mean of 3.60 that majority of the SHS TVL first batch graduates are always prepared in the acquisition of their middle-life skills development. However, there are some skills needing interventions on part of the SHS graduates which include the ability to demonstrate creativity, confidence and the effectiveness in carrying out tasks. These call for the emphasis and development of these skills to be facilitated by the teachers.

They may include the performance tasks that can boost the confidence of the SHS learners, regularly practice their skills and develop their creativity.

Chang et al (2022) reveals that the motivation of the learners are positively influenced by active leaming which include higher-order learning, integrative learning, and reflective learning and that active learning which include the higher-order learning, integrative learning, reflective learning positively influenced academic confidence.

In line with the preparedness of SHS TVL first-batch graduates on Entrepreneurship, the statement number 3, “the SHS graduate is capable of convincing potential customers to purchase products” obtained the highest mean of 2.92 described as “somewhat prepared”. This is followed by the statement number 10, the SHS graduate demonstrates willingness to take risks (2.78), statement number 3, the SHS graduate has convincing power to attract potential investors for the goods/services/business (2.69), statement number 8, the SHS graduate demonstrates the ability to manage people (2.67), statement number 4, the SHS graduate can conceptualize goods/services/business ideas (2.61), 75 statement number 6, the SHS graduate demonstrates mastery of skills in business (2.56) and statement number 2, the SHS graduate can persuade partners (2.54). On the other hand, the statement number 5, the SHS graduate knows how to care of business requirements (2.48), statement number 7, the SHS graduate is mentally prepared for business startup (2.48) and statement number 9, the SHS learner is capable of managing resources in line with goods/services/business (2.46) obtained the lowest mean with the description of “slightly prepared”. The overall mean in line with the SHS first batch graduates” level of preparedness in entrepreneurship is 2.62 described as “somewhat prepared”.

These results indicate low responses of the respondents which imply doubts on the part of the graduates in the field of business since it is only in the Accountancy, Business and Management Track of Senior High School that business is emphasized as part of the major subjects. It can be inferred from the data that majority of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are somewhat prepared in the acquisition of their entrepreneurship skills. These results are useful feedback for the teachers who are handling Entrepreneurship subjects in the Senior High School to make needed interventions to uplift the morale of TVL learners in business start-ups. According to Saukkenen (2017), there are strategies that the teachers can use in order to help the learners learn about business and these include their exposure to entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial thinking and principle via coursework, performing real-life assignments and full-time and effort work as start-up entrepreneur or employee.

As for the level of preparedness of SHS TVL first-batch graduates along employment, the statement number 10, “the SHS graduate has developed good 76 work ethics” got the highest mean of 3.99 described as “always prepared”. Next are statement number 9, the SHS graduate can show efficiency at work (3.73), statement number 3, the SHS graduate possesses good communication skills (3.69) and statement number 2, the SHS graduate has good work attitude (3.52). This result is opposite to the study conducted by Qubeta, et.al (2018) who claimed that SHS TVL graduates are not very confident that they will get a job after graduating from SHS and even passing National Certifications assessments, and most of them lack in-depth knowledge of the SHS program. Meanwhile, the statement number 1, the SHS graduate can write and submit application documents (3.47), statement number 7, the SHS graduate can work with other people (3.33), statement number, the SHS graduate can work with and under pressure (3.30), statement number 5, the SHS graduate can demonstrate my creativity at work (3.29), statement number 8, the SHS graduate can show effectiveness at work (3.29) and statement number 4, the SHS graduate demonstrates willingness to volunteer at any task (3.13) obtained the lowest mean with a description of “somewhat prepared”. The overall mean ‘in line with the SHS TVL first-batch graduates” preparedness level in terms of employment is 3.48 which is described as “somewhat prepared”.

These results imply the need to intensify the readiness in terms of employment in the curriculum of Senior High School Program as shown in the overall mean result of 3.48, “somewhat prepared”

Brillantes et al (2019) supports this stating that the graduating grade 12 students are not very confident about getting jobs as employers are still expected to prefer college graduates. 77 With the challenges encountered by the SHS, TVL first-batch graduates on writing and submitting applications, developing interpersonal skills, working under pressure, effectiveness at work and volunteerism can emphasized in the academic teaching of teachers. English teachers are asked to helping the learners to write and submit applications in preparation for the employment. Those teachers who are teaching personality development can also emphasize the development of interpersonal skills for them to learn how to deal with other people. The class advisers can also emphasize the importance of working under pressure, being effective at work and volunteerism as well which can start in the classroom chores. According to Harris and Beckert (2019), in order to positively impact society, it is critical that to promote character development and teach interpersonal skills.

These findings support the results of the study conducted by Dizenet. al (2019), which states that one of the challenges of the implementation of the K to 12 programs is the integration of lessons in the real-life context.

Table 3a. Mean Distribution on the Level of Preparedness of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Tertiary Education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment

A Tertiary Education Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
1.  Choose my own career without the advice of other people. 3.88 Always Prepared
2.  Take the entrance examination with confidence to pass. 3.41 Somewhat Prepared
3.  Have proper state of mind 3.91` Always Prepared
4.  Don’t need to take summer classes for prerequisite subjects. 3.86 Always Prepared
5.  Know how to read and write with high level of independence 3.94 Always Prepared
6.  Am aware of my strengths and challenges in learning 3.85 Always Prepared
7.  Have clear set goals and determined to succeed in life 3.82 Always Prepared
8.  Am capable to keep track of my assignments and other tasks. 3.88 Always Prepared
9.  Can build relationships with other people. 3.75 Always Prepared
10.   Can Manage myself and perform at my best ability 3.90 Always Prepared
Over-all Mean 3.82 Always Prepared

 

A Middle-Life Skills Development Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
1.  Can demonstrate the skills that I have learned 3.79 Always Prepared
2.  Am willing to upgrade my skills 3.88 Always Prepared
3.  Can show other skills aside from what I have learned from school 3.74` Always Prepared
4.  Am confident to include skills as part of experience. 3.44 Somewhat Prepared
5.  Have mastered the skills taught in school 3.60 Always Prepared
6.  Am capable of sharing my skills to other people. 3.68 Always Prepared
7.  Always go “ beyond the box “when it comes to delivering my output 3.44 Somewhat Prepared
8.  Am creative in presenting my skills and output. 3.87 Always Prepared
9.  Can use variety of means to present my skills and output. 3.80 Always Prepared
10.   Usually minimal or zero errors when it comes to my skills 2.79 Somewhat Prepared
Over-all Mean 3.60 Always Prepared

 

A Entrepreneurship Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
1.  Have convincing power attract potential investors for my goods/service and Business 2.69 Always Prepared
2.  Can persuade partners 2.54 Always Prepared
3.  Am capable of convincing potential customers to purchase. 2.92 Always Prepared
4.  Am confident to include skills as part of experience. 2.61 Somewhat Prepared
5.  Have mastered the skills taught in school 2.48 Always Prepared
6.  Am capable of sharing my skills to other people. 2.56 Always Prepared
7.  Always go “ beyond the box “when it comes to delivering my output 2.48 Somewhat Prepared
8.  Am creative in presenting my skills and output. 2.67 Always Prepared
9.  Can use variety of means to present my skills and output. 2.46 Always Prepared
10.   Usually minimal or zero errors when it comes to my skills 2.78 Somewhat Prepared
Over-all Mean 2.62 Always Prepared

Summary of the Level of Preparedness of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Tertiary Education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment

Table 3b provides a summary of the outcome on the level of preparedness in Tertiary Education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment. As gleaned from the results, the Senior High School graduates are”always prepared” when it comes to tertiary education (3.82) and middle-life skills development (3.60) whereas, along entrepreneurship and employment, the SHS graduates are “somewhat prepared” with mean results of 2.62 and 3.48, respectively.

Overall, the SHS TVL graduates are “somewhat prepared in terms of tertiary education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment with an overall mean score of 3.38, described as “somewhat prepared”

LEARNING AND INNOVATION SKILLS

The mean scores, with a consistent trend of “Strongly Agree” across all ten items, tells us that the first-batch graduates possess a well-rounded proficiency in various aspects of innovation. Graduates express a keen ability to elaborate on and refine their ideas for team and company success, emphasizing a collaborative mindset crucial for teamwork. Moreover, the strong agreement on using creativity and imagination for service improvement and creating new, unique products suggests a disposition towards innovative practices in professional settings. The acknowledgment of the importance of aligning ideas with client or user needs reinforces a customer-centric approach. The graduates’ demonstrated ability to apply learned knowledge to solve new problems and their versatility in using idea creation techniques further solidify their problem-solving and innovative capacities. Their inclination to balance originality with an understanding of real- world constraints suggests a pragmatic approach to innovation. Notably, the high agreement on acting on creative ideas to make tangible contributions says a lot about the graduates’ practical orientation, emphasizing their potential to bring innovative solutions to fruition in their respective fields. In essence, these competencies suggest that the graduates as valuable contributors to innovation in diverse professional contexts, equipped with the skills necessary to drive positive change and make meaningful contributions.

Life and Career Skills The mean distribution indicates a generally favorable level of agreement across the ten items. Graduates strongly agree on aspects such as following rules at work and beyond, recognizing limitations, and knowing when to consider alternatives. This signifies a commendable self-awareness and adaptability, crucial attributes in dynamic professional environments. The agreement on exercising flexibility, working effectively in diverse teams, and dealing positively with praise, setbacks, and criticism underscores their capacity for interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence. Moreover, the graduates’ willingness to offer assistance to others and their ability to monitor, define, prioritize, and complete tasks without direct oversight reflect a strong sense of teamwork, responsibility, and self- management.

The mean interpretation of 3.49 for the overall score in Life and Career Skills suggests an “Agree” response, indicating that the graduates possess a satisfactory level of proficiency in these skills. Implications of this result include 82 the graduates being well-prepared for the challenges of the professional world, equipped with the ability to navigate diverse work environments, handle feedback constructively, and contribute positively to team dynamics. These competencies not only enhance their individual employ ability but also contribute to a positive and collaborative work culture.

Communication Skills

A noteworthy overall mean of 3.74, indicating a strong consensus across the ten communication-related items. The interpretation reveals a high level of agreement, with graduates strongly agreeing on crucial aspects such as speaking clearly and professionally, answering questions concisely, and using appropriate body language during presentations. This suggests a well-developed proficiency in verbal and nonverbal communication, crucial skills for effective professional interaction.

Moreover, the graduates showcase an impressive ability to communicate alternative perspectives, listen effectively to decipher meanings, and utilize communication for a diverse range of purposes. This versatility in communication is paramount in navigating complex professional landscapes, where adaptability and clarity in expression are valued. The high agreement across these aspects implies that the graduates are well-prepared to contribute meaningfully to various professional environments.

Information, Media, and Technology Skills 

The SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates showcase a robust proficiency with an impressive overall mean of 3.60, signifying a strong consensus across the ten specified competencies. Graduates strongly agree on essential skills such as 83 making detailed plans about the use of technology, consistently using technology to manage project tasks, and gathering relevant information from diverse sources. These results underscore the graduates’ adeptness in utilizing technology for project management and information gathering, crucial skills in today’s technologically driven work environments.

Furthermore, graduates demonstrate a commitment to ethical practices in the use of technology, aligning with the growing emphasis on responsible and conscientious technology use. The ability to follow ethical guidelines in technology usage is becoming increasingly significant in professional settings, and the high agreement in this aspect indicates the graduates’ awareness of the ethical dimensions of technology.

The overall mean of 3.60 and the strong agreement across various Information, Media, and Technology Skills suggest that the SHS TVL First Batch Graduates are well-prepared to navigate the digital landscape of the professional world. The implications of these strong competencies are substantial, as they position graduates to contribute meaningfully to their chosen fields by efficiently managing information.

These results are opposite to the study of Nalupa (2021) which revealed that the level of employment readiness of the graduating students of SHS-TVL Track is very high since they are all passers of the national certification. They are rated very good in work attitude and good in communication skills

The data imply a need of DepEd to strengthen the development of SHS skills along entrepreneurship and employment as they are found to be somewhat prepared on these areas.

Table 3b. Summary of the Level of Preparedness of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Tertiary Education, Middle-Life Skills Development, Entrepreneurship, and Employment

Statement Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
Tertiary Education Middle-Life 3.80 Always Prepared
Skills Development 3.60 Always Prepared
Entrepreneurship 2.62 Somewhat Prepared
Employment 3.48 Somewhat Prepared
 Overall Mean 3.38 Somewhat Prepared

Legend:  Range Value Description MS-Mean Score VI- Verbal Interpretation

3.50-4.00 Always Prepared

 2.50-3.49     Somewhat Prepared

1.50-2.49 Slightly Prepared

1.00-1.49 Unprepared

Level of Competencies of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills

Table 4a presents the Level of Competencies of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills. A Likert scale was used to show the ratings from completely competent (4) to not competent (1) summarized in Table 4b.

Data reveal that the SHS TVL first-batch graduates in line with learning and innovation skills obtained the highest mean result of 3.80, described as “completely competent” in statement number 10, “the SHS graduate acts on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the field in which the innovation will occur”. This is followed by the statement number 4, the SHS graduate can create ideas that geared to the intended client or user (3.74), statement number 1, the SHS graduate can elaborate and improve ideas to contribute for the success of team or company (3.72), statement number 3, the SHS graduate can create new and worthwhile ideas (Mean=3.71), statement 85 number 2, the SHS graduate uses creativity and imagination to improve services (3.63), the SHS graduate can create new, unique and surprising products (3.60), statement number 6, the SHS graduate uses the knowledge learned to solve new problems (3.56), and statement number 9, the SHS graduate demonstrates originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real-world limits to adopting new ideas (3.56). The statement number 5, the SHS graduate can acknowledge respects other’s perspectives and statement number 7, the SHS graduate uses a wide range of idea creation techniques, got the lowest mean of 3.52, described as “ completely competent”. The overall mean result in line with the SHS TVL first batch graduates‟ level of competencies in line with learning and innovation skills is 3.64, described as “completely competent”. These results imply that the Senior High School program has honed the skills of these graduates to become completely competent along the aspect of learning and innovation skills as manifested in their responses

De Guzman and Cristobal (2021) support this result showing that TVL-HE graduates have expressed very high readiness and high competence in the workplace which implies that they are equipped to an industry which is related to the strand they took. Therefore, it can be noted that the respondents„ competence is a factor to their TVL-HE program and to the food service industry. The SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ level of competencies in line with Life and Career Skills, got the highest mean of 3.70 from statement number 1, “the SHS graduate can follow rules at work and outside work”, described as completely competent. This is followed by statement number 10, the SHS graduate can monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks without direct oversight (3.56), 86 statement number 2, the SHS graduate can track team’s progress toward goals and deadlines (3.54), statement number 6, the SHS graduate can recognize limitations and know when to consider alternatives (3.53) and statement number 9, the SHS graduate deals positively with praise, setbacks and criticism (3.51). Burac and Habla (2021) also support the result revealing that the SHS TVL graduates‟ interpersonal, personal and communication skills, work and skills competencies and skills are highly employable. On the other hand, statement number 4, the SHS graduate can offer assistance to others in their work when needed (3.45), statement number 8, the SHS graduate exercises flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal (3.45), statement number 3, the SHS graduate comes physically and mentally prepared each day for work or any commitment (3.41), statement number 7, the SHS graduate demonstrates ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams (3.39) and statement number 5, the SHS graduate improves their own work when given feedback (3.36) obtained the lowest mean result with a description of “fairly competent”. The overall mean of the SHS TVL first batch graduates along life and career skills is Results imply that the SHS graduates are to improve along offering assistance to others, flexibility, being helpful, physically and mentally prepared, ability to work effectively and respectfully and improve work based on feedback. These skills can be improved by the assistance and facilitation of Work Immersion teachers. It is recommended that they should focus on these skills to improve the competence of the SHS graduates. Frainer and Janeiro (2023) reiterates that those who focus on the future have proactive attitude toward changes in their long-term career goals. Students who are in higher grade levels would present higher levels of future orientation, active adaptation, and flexible thinking. In terms of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ level of competencies in communication skills, the statement number 10, “the SHS graduate can present opinions and ideas in an open, objective way”, obtained the highest mean of 3.85, described as “completely competent”. This is followed by statement number 1, the SHS graduate speaks clearly and professionally (3.83), statement number 6, the SHS graduate uses communication for a range of purposes (3.80), statement number 9, the SHS graduate responds open-mindedly to different ideas and values (3.76), statement number 3, the SHS graduate clearly communicates alternative or opposing perspectives (3.75), statement number 2, the SHS graduate answers questions clearly and concisely (3.74), statement number 4, the SHS graduate uses appropriate body language when presenting (3.69), statement number 7, the SHS graduate can communicate effectively in diverse environments (3.67), and statement number 8, the SHS graduate knows when it is appropriate to listen and when to speak (3.67). However, the statement number 5, the SHS graduate listens effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions got the lowest mean of 3.59, described as “completely competent”. The overall mean result of SHS TVL first batch graduates‟ level of competencies in terms of communication skills is 3.74, described as “completely competent”. This result indicates that the Senior High School 88 program have prepared the graduates to become completely competent along the indicators stated in line with the Communication Skills of the graduates3.49, described as “fairly competent”.

Asemanyi (2015) has an opposite result revealing that there are students who are admitted in first year college that have weak language backgrounds which affect their communicative competence and performance due to large class size, lack of modern lecture halls and facilities. According to Espallardo (2019), SHS TVL graduates have acquired most the communication skills in school. It is recommended that the SHS teachers have to keep on sustaining the communication skills of the learners as this is an important skill that they can use after graduation.

The SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ level of competencies along Information, Media and Technology Skills reveals that the statement number 10, “the SHS graduate can manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources” got the highest mean score of 3.77, described as “completely competent”. This is followed by the statement number 2, the SHS graduate consistently use technology to manage project tasks (3.73), statement number 7, the SHS graduate follows ethics in the use of technology (3.71), statement number 3, the SHS graduate gathers relevant and sufficient information from different sources (3.66), statement number 8, the SHS graduate utilizes multiple media and technologies (3.61), statement number 9, the SHS graduate accesses information efficiently and effectively (3.58), statement number 5, the SHS graduate makes research to contribute to the team (3.56) and statement number 1, the SHS graduate makes detailed plans about the use of technology (3.54). 89 On the other hand, the statement number 6, the SHS graduate creates designs using technology (3.46) and statement number 4, the SHS graduate thoroughly assesses the quality of information (3.42) got the lowest mean score with a description of “fairly competent”. The overall mean of the SHS TVL first batch graduates is 3.60, described as “completely competent

These results indicate the need to improve along designs and assessment of quality of information when it comes to technology use. These imply the need for further enhancement of Media, Information and Literacy subjects handled by the teachers focusing on the improvement and exposure of the SHS learners. Those teachers who are handling research subjects can also emphasize the importance of gathering quality information as the SHS TVL first batch graduates are found to be partially competent on this indicator. The DepEd can also look into consideration the provision and addition of ICT tools and equipment to be used by the teachers and SHS learners.

Indrinal (2022) emphasizes that in order to improve students’ knowledge and literacy in database applications, webpage design, and basic computer programming, an enhancement program may be applied to the specialization or integrated into other ICT subjects.

Constantino, et. al (2019) support the result revealing that in terms of Information, Media and Technology Skills, the TVL-ICT strand needs an enhancement program.

Table 4a. Mean Distribution on the Level of Competencies of the SHS TVL

First-Batch Graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills Statement

A. Learning and Innovation Skills Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
1. Elaborate and improve my ideas to contribute for the success of my team or company; 3.72 Strongly Agree
2. Use my creativity and imagination to improve my services; 3.63 Strongly Agree
3. Create new, unique and surprising products; 3.60 Strongly Agree
4. Create ideas that geared to the intended client or user; 3.74 Strongly Agree
5. Acknowledge and respect Other’s perspectives; 3.52 Strongly Agree
6. Use knowledge learned to solve new problems. 3.56 Strongly Agree
7. Use a wide range of idea creation techniques (such as brainstorming) 3.52 Strongly Agree
8. Create new and worthwhile ideas (both incremental and radical concepts) 3.71  Strongly Agree
9. Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real-world limits to adopting new ideas 3.56 Strongly Agree
10. Act on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the field in which the innovation will occur 3.80 Strongly Agree
Overall Mean 3.64 Strongly Agree
B. Life and Career Skills
1. Follow rules at work and outside work; 3.70 Strongly Agree
2. Track team’s progress toward goals and deadlines; 3.54  Strongly Agree
3. Come physically and mentally prepared each day for work or any commitment; 3.41 Agree
4. Offer assistance to others in their work when needed; 3.45 Agree
5. Improve my own work when given feedback; 3.36 Agree
6. Recognize my limitations and know when to consider alternatives 3.53 Strongly Agree
7. Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams 3.38 Agree
8. Exercise flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal 3.45 Agree
9. Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism 3.51 Strongly Agree
10. Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks without direct oversight 3.56 Strongly Agree
Overall Mean 3.49 Agree
C. Communication Skills
1.  Speak clearly and professionally; 3.83  Strongly Agree
2.  Answer questions clearly and concisely; 3.74 Strongly Agree
3. Clearly communicate alternative or opposing perspectives; 3.75 Strongly Agree
4. Use appropriate body language when presenting; 3.69 Strongly Agree
5. Listen effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions 3.59 Strongly Agree
6. Use communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade) 3.80 Strongly Agree
7. Communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual) 3.67 Strongly Agree
8. Know when it is appropriate to listen and when to speak 3.67 Strongly Agree
9. Respond open-mindedly to different ideas and values 3.76 Strongly Agree
10. Present opinions and ideas in an open, objective way. 3.85 Strongly Agree
  Overall Mean 3.74  Strongly Agree
D. Information, Media and Technology Skills
1. Make detailed plans about the use of technology; 3.54 Strongly Agree
2. Consistently use technology to manage project tasks; 3.73 Strongly Agree
3. Gather relevant and sufficient information from different sources; 3.66 Strongly Agree
4. Thoroughly assess the quality of information; 3.42 Agree
5.Make research to contribute to the team; 3.56 Strongly Agree
6. Create designs using technology; Follow ethics in the use of technology. 3.46 Agree
7. Utilize multiple media and technologies, 3.61 Strongly Agree
8. Access information efficiently (time) and effectively (sources) 3.58 Strongly Agree
9. Manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources 3.77 Strongly Agree
Overall Mean 3.60 Strongly Agree

Legend:  Range Value Description MS-Mean Score VI- Verbal Interpretation

3.50-4.00 Strongly Agree
 2.50-3.49 Agree
1.50-2.49 Disagree
1.00-1.49 Strongly Disagree

Summary of the Level of Competencies of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills

Table 4b shows the summarized results of the level of competencies of SHS

TVL First-Batch graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills.  The SHS TVL Track First-Batch Graduates are completely competent in all aspects of competencies namely: learning and innovation skills (3.64), communication skills (3.74) and information, media and technology skills (3.60) except for life and career skills (3.49) which is fairly competent.

These results manifest the need of DepEd to provide more intervention programs for the development of life and career skills of the Senior High School learners. Cielo and Niez (2023) reveals that there is a need for further development in such problem-solving and adaptability skills of SHS learners and schools should consider incorporating targeted training and development opportunities to enhance the interns’ problem-solving and adaptability skills by providing more varied and challenging internship experiences. Espallardo (2019) also states that in order to realize this, administrators, teachers and parents must work hand in hand in the implementation of the SHS program

Table 4b. Summary of the Level of Competencies of the SHS TVL First-Batch Graduates in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills

Statement Mean Score Verbal Interpretation
 Learning and Innovation Skills 3.64 Completely Competent
 Life and Career Skills 3.49 Fairly Competent
Communication Skills 3.74 Completely Competent
Information, Media and Technology Skills 3.60 Completely Competent
 Overall Mean 3.62 Completely Competent

Legend: Range Value Description MS-Mean Score VI- Verbal Interpretation

3.50-4.00 Completely Competent
2.50-3.49 Fairly Competent
1.50-2.49  Slightly Competent
1.00-1.49  Not Competent

Problems Encountered by First-Batch Graduates in line with the SHS Offering of DepEd in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program, Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates, and Employ ability SHS Graduates

Table 5a presents the Problems Encountered by First-Batch Graduates in line with the SHS Offering of DepEd in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program. A Likert scale was used to show the ratings from strongly disagree (4) to not strongly agree (1) summarized in Table 5b.

Based on the results, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ response in terms of the effectiveness of SHS program reveals that the statement number 2, “the SHS program has teachers who can effectively share their knowledge and skills to the SHS learners” obtained that highest mean result of 1.81, described as “agree”. This is followed by the statement number 4, the SHS program gives subjects that are needed for higher education courses (1.71), and statement number 5, the SHS program fully equips the learners before graduating from the Senior High School (1.67), statement number 3, and the SHS program provides various opportunities and skills for the SHS graduates (1.61). However, the statement number 1, the SHS Program has been effectively implemented during their Senior High School years, got the lowest mean of 1.46, described as “agree”. The overall mean result in line with the problems encountered by the SHS TVL first batch graduates along the implementation of SHS program is 1.65 which is described as “agree”.

These imply that the respondents agree that the SHS Program has been effectively implemented therefore the DepEd has to sustain the implementation of the program and look into possible ways on how to make it more improved through time. 95 As for the problems encountered by SHS TVL first-batch graduates in line with the acquired competencies, it can be observed that the statement number 4, “the SHS program has fully capacitated them to become 21st century learners”, garnered the highest mean of 1.84, described as “agree”. This is followed by the statement number 2, the SHS program has honed their talents and skills needed for college preparations (1.71), statement number 3, the SHS program has met the required competencies for higher level of learning (1.70), statement number 5, the SHS program has provided various learning opportunities for both study, life and work (1.69). On the other hand, the statement number 1, the SHS program provided the competencies that are acquired for lifelong learning obtained the lowest mean of 1.56, described as “agree”. The overall mean result in line with the SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ problems encountered along SHS acquired competencies is 1.70, described as “agree”.

Results imply that the respondents agree that the SHS Program has helped the graduates acquire the competencies expected of them to learn therefore the DepEd has to sustain the implementation of the program and ensure that the target learning competencies are properly carried out by the teachers in their daily teaching. Sergio (2011) agrees to the results emphasizing that graduates of K-12 will become more equipped with the skills and competence to work and be given the adequate training and academic preparation that the basic education promises. As for the SHS TVL first-batch graduates‟ problems encountered in line with employability, it is observed from the data that the statement number 1, “the SHS program has helped them to easily land a job after graduating Senior High School”, obtained the highest mean of 2.65, described as “disagree”. This is 96 followed by the statement number 2, the SHS program has provided various skills needed for work and employment (2.62) and statement number 5, the SHS program motivated them to work after graduating from Grade 12 (2.57). Delos Reyes (2019) reveals that 5 out of 48 SHS TVL students fall under the advanced skills in welding, all of the 48 students passed the National Competency Assessment and the teachers have applied intervention on the inadequate tools and equipment which significantly helped the students comply with the set standard competency.

On the other hand, statement number 4, the SHS program has immersed them into the nature of work in line with the chosen track (2.09) and statement number 3, the SHS program provided additional experience in preparation for work (2.07) got the lowest mean scores, described as “agree”. The overall mean result in line with the problems encountered by SHS TVL track first batch graduates along employability is 2.40, described as “agree”.

The results that garnered negative responses such as landing a job after graduation, providing skills needed for work and employment, and the motivation to work after graduation of SHS, call for further improvement. Dela Cruz (2023) supports the results revealing that work-related issues were the most common challenge faced by graduates.

The DepEd can collaborate with other private and public agencies for this matter. Further, the agency can also strengthen the Work Immersion Program of Senior High School and establish strong partnership with companies and agencies where the SHS graduates can be accommodated for employment. According to Orbeta, et.al (2018), there are ways that the DepEd can do in order to address the 97 concerns on employment of SHS Graduates and these include looking into the SHS curriculum and the competencies developed, identifying the types of jobs that fit the Grade 12 graduates, gathering the private sector perspective on the jobs available and appropriate for the Grade 12 graduates, and providing policy recommendations for the improvement of the implementation of the SHS program.

Table 5a. Mean Distribution on the Problems Encountered by First-Batch Graduates in line with the SHS Offering of DepEd in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program, Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates, and Employability SHS Graduates

Statement Mean Score Descriptive Interpretation
A. Effectiveness of the SHS Program
 1. Has been effectively implemented during my Senior High School years  1.46 Agree
 2. Has teachers who can effectively share their knowledge and skills to the SHS learners 1.81 Agree
 3. Provides opportunities and skills for the SHS graduates 1.61  Agree
4. Gives subjects that are NOT needed for higher education courses 1.71 Agree
5. Fully equip the learners before graduating from the Senior High School.  1.67 Agree
Overall Mean 1.65  Agree
B. Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates
1. Provides the competencies that are acquired for lifelong learning 1.56 Agree
 2. Honed the talents and skills needed for college preparations 1.71 Agree
3. Met the required competencies for higher level of learning 1.70 Agree
4. Fully capacitated me to become 21st century learner 1.84 Agree
5. Provided various learning opportunities for both study, life and work 1.69 Agree
Overall Mean 1.70 Agree
C. Employability of SHS Graduates
1. Helped me to easily land a job after graduating Senior High School 2.65 Disagree
2. Provided various skills needed for work and employment 2.62 Disagree
3. Provided additional experience in preparation for work 2.07 Agree
4. Immersed me into the nature of work in line with the chosen track 2.09 Agree
5. Motivated me to work after graduating from Grade 12. 2.57 Disagree
Overall Mean 2.40 Agree

Legend:    Range Value       Description MS-Mean Score VI- Verbal Interpretation

3.50-4.00 Strongly Disagree
2.50-3.49 Disagree
1.50-2.49 Agree
1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree

Summary of the Problems Encountered by First-Batch Graduates in line with the SHS Offering of DepEd in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program, Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates, and Employ ability SHS Graduates

Table 5b presents the summarized data in line with the problems encountered by SHS TVL Track First-Batch Graduates in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program, Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates, and Employ ability SHS Graduates. Results revealed that in all the indicators of the problems encountered from the SHS Program, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates agree in all the given indicators which imply a positive perception towards the Senior High School Program effectiveness, competencies acquired and employ ability.

Table 5b. Summary of the Problems Encountered by First-Batch Graduates in line with the SHS Offering of DepEd in terms of Effectiveness of the SHS Program,

Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates, and Employ ability SHS Graduates

Statement MS VI
Effectiveness of the SHS Program  1.65 Agree
Competencies Acquired by SHS Graduates  1.70 Agree
Employability of SHS Graduates  2.40 Agree
Overall Mean  1.92 Agree

SUMMARY

The primary objective of this research is to describe the demographic profile, level of preparedness, level of competencies and the problems encountered by first-batch graduates in line with the SHS offering of DepEd of the Senior High School TVL program of SY 2016-2017. This study involved 362 respondents from 5 schools in the Division of Puerto Princesa City. Convenience sampling was used to determine the appropriate number of respondents.

Frequency, percentage, weighted mean, analysis of variance and Pearson-r correlation were used to determine the significant difference and relationships between the demographic profile and level of preparedness and competencies of SHS TVL first-batch graduates and the problems that they encountered in line with SHS implementation.

Results revealed that most of the SHS TVL first batch graduates „age ranges from 24 years old (52.21%).

Regarding gender, the majority are male, whereas, concerning civil status, most respondents were single.

In terms of SHS Strand, most of the respondents are graduates of Agri-fishery Arts strandalong tertiary education, most of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates have already graduated wherein 25.46 percent or 46 have finished Criminology course. In line with work, majority of the graduates are working in the private sector and 93.46 or 100 are on a contractual basis where 63.85 or 83 are earning 9,999 and below.

In terms of the level of preparedness, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are always prepared in the majority of indicators of Tertiary education with the overall mean result of 3.82, described as “always prepared”.

Along the Middle-level skills development, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates indicate an overall mean of 3.60, described as “always prepared”.

However, they are “somewhat prepared” concerning Entrepreneurship with an overall mean result of 2.62, and Employment with an overall mean result of 3.48, described as “somewhat prepared”.

In line with the level of competence, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates are completely competent in the majority of indicators of Learning and Innovation Skills with an overall mean result of 3.64, described as “completely competent”. Under communication skills, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates obtained an overall mean result of 3.74, described as “completely competent”.

Regarding Information, Media and Technology Skills, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates garnered an overall mean result of 3.60, described as completely competent.

In terms of Life and Career Skills, the SHS TVL first-batch graduates obtained an overall mean result of 3.49 which is described as fairly competent. The SHS TVL first batch graduates agree that the SHS Program was effectively implemented and has helped the graduates acquire the competencies  expected of them to learn and disagree on some indicators of employability of  graduates.‟

Results indicate that only the variable, Employment shows a significant difference among the different age groups. The mean preparedness level for employment ranges from 3.42 (SD=0.23) for individuals above 24 years old to 3.49 (SD=0.19) for individuals aged 24 years.

Moving on to sex, the analysis reveals that the mean preparedness level for middle-level skills is 3.58 (SD=0.24) for males and 3.64 (SD=0.22) for females.

Examining civil status, the results indicate that in terms of entrepreneurship, the mean preparedness level for single individuals is 2.60 (SD=0.89). Analyzing the SHS TVL strand, the results show that among the different  strands, Home Economics has the lowest mean preparedness level for tertiary  education (3.78, SD=0.16). In contrast, Agri-fishery Arts has the highest (3.86, SD=0.12). Regarding age, the analysis shows no significant differences in competency  levels among SHS TVL graduates across different age groups (F = 0.219, p =  0.803). In terms of sex, there are no significant differences in competency levels between male and female SHS TVL graduates (F = 0.874, p = 0.35).

The same result was revealed under civil status in that there is no significant differences in competency levels based on civil status (F = 1, p = 0.368). Considering the SHS TVL strand, no significant differences in competency levels are observed among the Home Economics (M = 3.62, SD = 0.3), Industrial Arts (M = 3.66, SD = 0.2), Agri-fishery Arts (M = 3.58, SD = 0.36), and ICT (M = 3.63, SD = 0.31) strands (F = 0.948, p = 0.417).

Examining the course graduated, no significant differences in competency levels are found among TVL-Related (M = 3.61, SD = 0.32), Non-TVL-Related (M = 3.63, SD = 0.28), and Stopped/Studying (M = 3.61, SD = 0.31) courses (F = 0.326, p = 0.722). Regarding work, there are no significant differences in competency levels based on the type of employment (F = 1.16, p = 0.328).

Lastly, the analysis of monthly income indicates no significant differences in competency levels based on income levels (F = 1.58, p = 0.207).

CONCLUSIONS

In consideration of the significant findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. Most of the Senior High School graduates of SY 2016-2017 revealed that the majority are 24 years old, male, single, graduates of SHS TVL Strand Electrical  Installation and Maintenance, graduated their tertiary education courses  where mostly are Criminology graduates, working in private sector in  contractual basis and earning a monthly income of 9,999 and below.
  2. SHS TVL first-batch graduates are always prepared in most of the indicators ofTertiary education, Middle-level skills development except for Entrepreneurship, and Employment with somewhat prepared result.
  3. SHS TVL first-batch graduates are completely competent in the majority of indicators of Learning and Innovation Skills, Communication Skills, and Information, Media and Technology Skills except for Life and Career Skills which is Fairly Competent.
  4. The SHS TVL first-batch graduates agree that the SHS Program was effectively implemented, and has helped the graduates acquire the competencies expected  of them to learn and disagree on some indicators of employability of graduates.
  5. There is no significant difference between the age, sex, civil status and SHS TVL strand and the level of preparedness of the aforementioned strand’s first-batch graduates.
  6. There is a significant difference between the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates and their degree attained, work and monthly income.
  7. There is no significant difference between the age, sex, civil status and SHS TVL strand and the level of preparedness of the SHS TVL first-batch graduates.
  8. There is no significant relationship between the level of preparedness and level of competencies of SHS TVL first-batch graduates and their age, sex, civil status, SHS TVL strand, course graduated, work, and monthly income.
  9. There is limited association between SHS TVL graduates’ perceived preparedness in different areas (tertiary education, middle-level skills, entrepreneurship, and employment) and their actual competency levels.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Strengthen SHS skills in entrepreneurship and employment.
  2. Provide ICT tools for teachers and SHS learners.
  3. Sustain program implementation and ensure target competencies are met.
  4. Collaborate to strengthen the Work Immersion Program and secure employment partnerships.
  5. Provide entrepreneurship training and employment assistance to narrow preparedness gaps.
  6. Identify strengths and weaknesses of each strand, developing specialized curricula accordingly.
  7. Offer additional resources and industry collaborations to improve preparedness.
  8. Evaluate and refine SHS TVL curricula to equip students with necessary competencies.
  9. Examine the entrepreneurship curriculum for improvement and alignment with entrepreneurial needs.
  10. Provide job market-aligned training within SHS TVL programs.
  11. Enhance competencies of SHS TVL graduates for workforce transitions.
  12. Provide quality education considering diverse student needs.

School Head

  1. Develop targeted programs and resources to enhance graduates’ readiness for entrepreneurship and employment, focusing on practical skills and real-world scenarios.
  2. Implement mentorship programs and career counseling to assist graduates, especially those with lower preparedness levels, in navigating the job market and identifying career pathways aligned with their skills and interests.
  3. Strengthen partnerships between educational institutions and industries to ensure that SHS TVL programs align with current industry needs and equip graduates with the skills demanded by the job market, particularly in sectors with high employment potential.
  4. Conduct regular assessments to monitor graduates’ competencies over time and identify areas for improvement in the SHS TVL curriculum and delivery methods. This ongoing evaluation will help ensure the effectiveness and relevance of the program in preparing students for future employment and further education.

Teachers

  1. Offer professional development workshops and training sessions specifically designed for SHS TVL teachers. These programs can focus on updating teachers’ knowledge and skills in areas such as entrepreneurship education, industry trends, and career guidance techniques.
  2. Mentorship and Peer Support: Establish mentorship programs where experienced SHS TVL teachers can mentor newer colleagues, sharing best practices, resources, and strategies for effectively preparing students for the job market.
  3. Curriculum Review and Enhancement: Collaborate with teachers to review and update the SHS TVL curriculum to ensure it aligns with current industry demands and provides students with relevant skills and competencies. Teachers’ input and expertise can help identify areas for improvement and innovation in the curriculum.
  4. Industry Partnerships: Facilitate partnerships between SHS TVL teachers and industry professionals to bring real-world experiences and insights into the classroom. Guest speakers, industry visits, and collaborative projects can help students understand industry expectations and develop practical skills.
  5. Support for Career Guidance: Provide resources and training for teachers to effectively deliver career guidance and counseling to SHS TVL students. Teachers can play a crucial role in helping students explore career options, set goals, and develop strategies for achieving them.
  6. Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating teachers’ effectiveness in preparing SHS TVL students for employment and further education. Feedback loops and performance assessments can identify areas where teachers may need additional support or professional development opportunities.

By implementing these strategies, educational institutions can support SHS TVL teachers in effectively preparing students for the job market and empowering them with the skills and competencies needed for success in their chosen fields.

Based on the findings, the researcher recommends the following to the Department of Education: Strengthen SHS skills development in entrepreneurship and employment. Provide ICT tools and equipment for teachers’ and SHS learners’ use. Sustain program implementation and ensure target competencies are met daily. Collaborate with agencies to enhance the Work Immersion Program and secure employment partnerships. Offer entrepreneurship training, networking, and employment assistance to bridge preparedness gaps among different civil status groups. Identify strengths and weaknesses of each strand, developing specialized curricula and training programs accordingly. Provide resources, training, and industry collaborations to improve preparedness for tertiary education and middle-level skills. Evaluate and refine SHS TVL curricula to ensure alignment with job market requirements. Examine and improve the entrepreneurship curriculum for better alignment.

Parents

Discuss the importance of further education and lifelong learning with their children.

Encourage them to consider pursuing higher education or vocational training programs that will complement their SHS TVL education and enhance their career prospects.

Future Researchers

  1. They can pursue similar studies regarding the tracking of SHS graduates in other SHS Tracks.
  2. Other methods to collect data such as qualitative approach can be used to obtain in-depth information on the skills and problems encountered by SHS graduates.

AUTHOR ABOUT

San Jose National High School, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

Maria Chanchina F. Lagrada is currently pursuing her thesis writing for Master in Educational Management at Western Philippines University-Puerto Princesa Campus. She earned her Bachelor’s Degree in Hotel Hotel and Restaurant Management & Diploma in Teaching at Palawan State University in 2004, Presently, she is a teacher II at San Jose National High School, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan.

Dr. Rastanura M. Bober is full time employed as Faculty at Western Philippines University and Program chair of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Administration.

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  51. DO 31, s. 1994 – Rules and Regulations for the Implementation of R.A. No. 7686
  52. DO 44, s. 2015 – Guidelines on the Enhanced School Improvement Planning (SIP) Process and the School Report Card (SRC)
  53. Deped Order No. 67, s. 2012, Guidelines on the Implementation of Strengthened Technical-Vocational Education Program (STVEP) and Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE)       Curriculum. http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do67-s-2012
  54. DO 31, s. 1994 or known as Rules and Regulations for the Implementation of R.A. No. 7686 otherwise known as the Dual Training System Act of 1994
  55. DepEd Order No. 67, s. 2012, which is also known as Guidelines on the Implementation of Strengthened Technical-Vocational Education Program (STVEP) and Technology and       Livelihood Education (TLE) Curriculum
  56. RA 10533 THE ENHANCED BASIC EDUCATION ACT OF 2013 SHS PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK, Senior High School Manual of Operations

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