Exploring the Intersection of Tourism Business and Social Responsibility: A Study of Tourism Sector in Andhra Pradesh

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Exploring the Intersection of Tourism Business and Social Responsibility: A Study of Tourism Sector in Andhra Pradesh

  • Dr.K.N.Lokesh Kumar
  • Dr. Soumendra Nath Biswas
  • 298-312
  • May 6, 2024
  • Education

Exploring the Intersection of Tourism Business and Social Responsibility: A Study of Tourism Sector in Andhra Pradesh

Dr.K.N.Lokesh Kumar, Dr.Soumendra Nath Biswas

Associate Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Assam University, Silchar, Assam.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1104024

Received: 05 April 2024; Revised: 16 April 2024; Accepted: 17 April 2024; Published: 06 May 2024

ABSTRACT

The tourism sector is crucial for worldwide economic progress, but, its long-term viability continues to be a significant issue. Incorporating social responsibility into tourism business is decisive for promoting sustainable development in the tourism sector. However, the integration of social responsibility initiatives into tourism enterprises is impeded by various obstacles. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that integrate social responsibility in tourism business in order to obtain sustainable development within the industry. The study employed both primary and secondary data collection to analyze the impact of social responsibility within tourism sector of Andhra Pradesh. Factors such as Environmental Conversation, Cultural Preservation, Stakeholder Engagement, Corporate Social Responsibility and Socio-Economic Outcomes were considered for the study. The results showed that with effective corporate social responsibility, tourism business can develop sustainability and earn positive socio-economic outcomes. The study suggests that with the expansion of public-private collaborations, tourism organizations can be operated efficiently.

Keywords: Tourism business, Social responsibility, Environmental factors, Socio-economic outcomes, Sustainability, Stakeholders.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Tourism is the process of travelling to distant or nearby locations using a variety of transportation options for a variety of reasons. It may require lodging at the destination or it may only involve visiting, but it always ends up being a memorable experience for the host community and the visitors. The degree of happiness, the accessibility of tourism facilities, the views of the local population, and other socio-economic and environmental aspects of the place visited can all influence the attitudes of tourists. Travellers will have higher expectations of tourism items than they do of other products because they are made up of both tangible and ethereal elements. When combined with the elimination of poverty, tourism plays a major part in the development of economies, making it the fastest-growing sector in the world. In an ideal world, local communities would gain economically and socially from the growth of tourism while also being concerned with protecting the environment. A growing number of tourist industry participants are conscious of how tourism is developing and how their actions affect both the environment and the populace. The careful development of tourism in accordance with guidelines that ensure the preservation of ecological balance and prevent resource abuse, pollution, and other detrimental effects on the environment has received more attention in recent years. A sustainable community needs to take a three-pronged strategy that considers its cultural, environmental, and economic resources. Communities have to consider needs that are both short- and long-term. In order to promote long-term public interest, sustainable tourism development necessitates balancing conflicting interests and goals in favour of collaboration and partnership between decision-makers, processors, and consumers. Tourism rules of good practice need to be followed and put into action in order to accomplish these objectives. These ethics ought to be founded on internationally accepted norms and socially responsible at all tiers—national, regional, and local. Therefore, the researcher is making an effort to learn more about how to integrate social responsibility into tourism businesses in order to support the sustainable development of the Andhra Pradesh tourism industry.

INTRODUCTION

Tourism, sometimes referred to as nature’s industry, involves the utilisation of natural resources for the benefit of mankind. Thus, nature has paramount significance as a primary asset for the tourism business. The sustainable development of the tourism business relies on the calibre and plenty of natural resources. The tourist experiences optimal service when the destinations are maintained in a clean and well-preserved condition. This statement holds true since tourists typically allocate significant amounts of time to explore several sites, each having distinct attractions such as beaches, backwaters, and hill stations, each catering to different expectations. Tourism is often regarded as a feasible means of achieving economic growth, particularly in low-income nations. However, the present unsustainable practices associated with tourism can have detrimental effects on the environment, community, and the tourism industry itself. The tourism sector frequently engenders adverse effects on the environment, society, culture, and occasionally even the economy. Nevertheless, only a small number of countries are employing economic, regulatory, or institutional policy tools for the purpose of managing tourism.[1] The private sector has created social responsibility standards and procedures in response to external demand in most industries. The Tourism Policy 2016 of Andhra Pradesh emphasised its approach to achieving long-term economic sustainability by efficiently utilising existing resources and striving for a responsible and advantageous equilibrium. It also prioritised environmental sustainability through the preservation and effective management of natural resources, as well as social sustainability through community involvement, the creation of local livelihood opportunities, and the enhancement of employment quality. The concept of social responsibility is evident in the need to uphold safety measures and standards in and around tourist areas. Sustainability is currently a prominent phenomenon in various aspects of modern life, including the fields of development, operation, and tourism. Sustainable development is founded upon three fundamental pillars: economic growth, environmental conservation, and social progress.[2]

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TOURISM -CONCEPT

In today’s fiercely competitive global landscape, nations are actively striving to cultivate a favourable perception of their country with the aim of attracting business, investment, tourists, students, events, and establishing a distinct brand identity. This process encompasses a diverse array of aspects, including the environment, individuals, tourism, commerce, governance, politics, and various other elements. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an aspect that some countries are implementing, but they are not considering it as a part of their country’s branding strategy. CSR pertains to the ethical obligations that organisations have towards their employees, the broader community, and the natural environment. Responsible tourism includes customer satisfaction, environmental preservation, and a constructive contribution to development. Social responsibility refers to the moral and ethical duty that enterprises have to society. Social responsibility entails optimising the beneficial impacts and minimising the detrimental impacts on many societal stakeholders, including owners, customers, employees, community, government and suppliers.[3]

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND TOURISM ACTIVITY

Sustainable development refers to the process of achieving development that fulfils the requirements of the current generation while safeguarding the capacity of future generations to fulfil their own requirements. Sustainable development endeavours to establish a consistent theoretical framework for decision-making in any scenario involving the interaction between humans and their environment, be it environmental, economic, or social in nature. An authentically sustainable community must embrace a tripartite strategy that encompasses economic resources, the environment, and cultural resources. Communities must consider not only immediate, but also enduring need.

Sustainable tourism encompasses all types of tourism activities, administration, and growth that uphold the integrity of natural, economic, and social aspects, while ensuring the preservation of natural and cultural resources. The objective of sustainable tourism development is to guarantee the continuity of tourism activities in the long run, while avoiding any detrimental effects on the natural and cultural resources of a destination or jeopardising the welfare of the local communities that rely on tourism. The significance of sustainable tourism development is rising in tandem with the expansion of the tourist sector and the growing consciousness of travellers regarding the ecological and societal consequences of their travel decisions. Through the implementation of sustainable tourism practices, places may guarantee their long-term appeal and viability for future generations of visitors.

BARRIERS AND DRIVERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

The primary obstacles to implementing CSR policies encompass the substantial time and effort required to evaluate and adopt sustainable ideas and practices, as well as the considerable investments and operational expenses entailed.[4] The absence of awareness and understanding of sustainability among senior executives, along with limited government assistance, also pose obstacles to the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Tourism enterprises are primarily driven to adopt eco-friendly methods when they are convinced that such measures will lower operational expenses and provide them with a competitive edge in the market. Additionally, there is a strong desire to enhance the image, generate attention, and provide promotional opportunities. In addition to these motives, personal values such as the aspiration for a healthy lifestyle, as well as levels of awareness and education, have a significant impact on managers’ decision to incorporate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in their tourism firm.[5]

IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

The long-term sustainability of the tourism sector and the welfare of local communities and environs heavily rely on the development of sustainable tourism.

  1. Environmental Impact – The environmental aspect of sustainable tourism development focuses on conserving the natural environment and reducing the consumption of natural resources. This entails implementing measures to actively encourage ecotourism and prevent harm to flora and fauna, while simultaneously reducing both greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of water and fossil fuels.
  2. Minimises Adverse Environmental Effects: Conventional tourism development often leads to detrimental environmental consequences, including pollution, habitat degradation, and depletion of resources. The objective of sustainable tourist development is to mitigate these effects by diminishing waste, utilising renewable resources, and safeguarding natural habitats and ecosystems.
  3. Preserves Biodiversity and Cultural Heritage: Sustainable tourism development acknowledges the need of conserving biodiversity and cultural heritage for the benefit of future generations. Sustainable tourism development safeguards significant assets by advocating for conservation efforts and providing assistance to local communities in protecting their natural and cultural resources.
  4. Alleviates Climate Change: Tourism has the potential to make a substantial impact on the release of greenhouse gases and the occurrence of climate change. The objective of sustainable tourist development is to decrease carbon footprints and alleviate climate change through the promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible transportation practices.
  5. Socio-Cultural Impact – The socio-cultural aspect of fostering sustainable tourism is occasionally disregarded; however it is crucial for establishing a sustainable and enduring tourism sector in a certain area. This pertains to matters such as safeguarding indigenous culture, mitigating adverse effects on the local community, and reducing challenges such as overcrowding.
  6. Enables Local Communities: Sustainable tourism development prioritises the involvement of local communities in decision-making processes and ensures that they derive benefits from tourism development. This can enable communities to assume control over their tourism assets and exert more influence over their management.
  7. Preserves Cultural Identity: Tourism can potentially undermine the cultural identity of local communities by perpetuating stereotypes and fabricating tourist attractions. Sustainable tourist development upholds and advances local cultures and traditions, hence contributing to their conservation and promotion.
  8. Facilitates Cross-Cultural Understanding: Sustainable tourism development facilitates cross-cultural understanding and appreciation by fostering relationships between tourists and local populations. This can facilitate possibilities for cultural interchange and education, promoting mutual esteem and comprehension.
  9. Economic Impact: The economic aspect of sustainable tourism development focuses on matters related to finances. Tourism has the potential to make a significant economic impact on local communities, fostering their prosperity. Nevertheless, in the absence of proper procedures, the advantages for large and multinational corporations might significantly surpass the advantages for smaller local enterprises.
  10. Promotes Local Economies: Sustainable tourist development can generate economic advantages for local communities by fostering employment opportunities and bolstering local enterprises. This can help diversify local economies and lessen dependency on a single industry.
  11. Promotes Responsible Tourism: Sustainable tourism development promotes the adoption of responsible tourism practices that contribute to the growth of local economies, such as the support of local businesses through the purchase of local products and utilisation of local services. This can facilitate a more equitable distribution of tourism revenue across the destination, rather than its concentration in a limited number of major firms.
  12. Generates Long-Term Economic Benefits: Sustainable tourist development prioritises the generation of enduring economic benefits that can be maintained over an extended period. This entails allocating resources towards the development of infrastructure, enhancing the skills and knowledge of individuals, and fostering the growth of communities, rather than just prioritising the maximisation of immediate profits.[6]

TOURISM IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh is an area abundant with several heritage sites, including forts, citadels, and spectacular ruins. It also boasts breathtaking cliffs, stunning coastal stretches, and pristine beaches with golden sand. Additionally, the region is known for its lip-smacking regional cuisines. Tirupati Balaji, also known as the Lord Venkatesa temple, is located at the base of Tirumala hills and is reputed to be one of the wealthiest temples in the nation. The state of Andhra Pradesh is divided into 13 districts, which are located in two distinct regions known as Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. These regions are characterised by a remarkable combination of vibrant colours, striking contrasts, and diverse experiences. The state government’s emphasis on eco-tourism is expected to position AP as the premier destination for travellers, given its abundant array of picturesque tourist attractions spanning hills, forests, beaches, and valleys. This attribute is regarded unique because no other state offers such a multitude of attractions with distinct and significant qualities.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

To effectively integrate social responsibility, there is a dearth of comprehensive frameworks and rules that are customised to the various demands and situations of the tourism businesses. Current frameworks frequently ignore the social aspects that are essential for comprehensive sustainable development in favour of environmental sustainability. Due to limited resources, conflicting goals, and a lack of knowledge about best practices, tourism businesses have difficulties when attempting to adopt social responsibility programmes.[7] Ad hoc and dispersed strategies are the outcome, and they fall short of having a significant long-term influence or sustainability. The demand for socially conscious tourism goods and services is greatly influenced by the actions and tastes of travellers. On the other hand, little is known about how visitors make decisions, whether or not they are willing to fund sustainable projects, and how well communication tactics work to influence behaviour. A multidisciplinary strategy that takes into account the interactions between economic, social, and environmental elements in the tourism sector is needed to address these issues. For the tourist industry to flourish sustainably, research on workable tactics, instruments, and regulations that make it easier for businesses to incorporate social responsibility into their operations is crucial.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

  1. To find out the social responsibilities connecting tourism business
  2. To determine the factors influencing social responsibility and sustainability development in tourism sector
  3. To provide suggestions for improving sustainable tourism development in the selected study area

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

According to Sukhvir Singh and Venugopalan Thottekat (2023)[8], the study attempted to ascertain the favourable and unfavourable effects of tourism on the economy, culture, society, and the environment. The present research examines several studies undertaken on Sustainable Tourism Development in India. Our research indicates that tourism has a significant role in creating extensive job opportunities, particularly in disadvantaged and underdeveloped regions. This is particularly beneficial for women, both educated and uneducated, since it leads to an improvement in their living standards. Research has revealed that the tourism industry is responsible for contaminating water, air, and sound, hence creating an unfavourable environment for living organisms. Additionally, we have discovered that tourism plays a significant role in fostering national cohesion among individuals residing in many regions of the nation, each with their own distinct cultures, values, and languages. The analysis determined that tourist exhibits a greater number of favourable attributes in comparison to its unfavourable ones. However, it is imperative to enforce stringent regulations in order to ensure the preservation of sustainable tourist development in India.

Muhammad Arif, Sadaf Kashif and Muhammad Nadeem Dogar (2022)[9] identified that the existing body of literature on tourism lacks comprehensive critical analyses of the business and its operations, especially when compared to other sectors like energy and manufacturing. An indication of this lack of development is the disproportionate emphasis on achieving sustainability in tourism, without sufficient consideration of the obligation of industry participants to contribute to these endeavours. This study examines the potential outcomes by drawing on existing literature and incorporating insights from many interdisciplinary fields. This study examines the role of tourism industry participants, such as tour operators, in managing the harmful impacts of tourism and promoting the long-term viability of a tourism destination for all stakeholders involved. This social contribution will help enhance the sustainability of the tourism business.

Sanjana Mondala and Kaushik Samaddar (2021)[10] conducted a comprehensive evaluation of existing research published from 2002 onwards. They synthesised the findings and developed a roadmap for future studies in the field. This review aims to enhance understanding of theories, approaches, and emerging concepts discussed in responsible tourism literature, with a specific focus on different stakeholders. Furthermore, the study underscored the progress of research in this field specifically in the Asia-Pacific region.

Felix G. Bello and Grace Kamangab (2020)[11] analysed the factors that motivate and hinder the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the tourist sector of Malawi. Data was gathered via semi-structured interviews and subsequently subjected to theme analysis. The study demonstrates that the primary factors influencing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the tourism sector in Malawi are community expectations, management values and dedication, cost minimization, preservation of natural and cultural resources, competitive advantage, and firm size. The obstacles to the adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) encompass limited resources, absence of a well-defined CSR strategy and government backing, inadequate coordination, misallocation of CSR resources by communities, and insufficient understanding.

RESEARCH GAP

In the framework of sustainable development, there are not many established and standardised techniques for gauging and assessing the social responsibility programmes of travel agencies. Creating thorough frameworks and indicators to evaluate the impact and efficacy of such activities could be the main focus of research. Research that examines the cultural subtleties and contextual elements influencing social responsibility activities in Indian states like Andhra Pradesh is needed, as there are currently too many studies focusing on social responsibility initiatives in Western tourism destinations. By filling in these research gaps, the tourism industry can gain a better understanding of how to incorporate social responsibility into its business processes and thereby support sustainable development.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The study is characterised by its descriptive and empirical nature. The research methodology employed utilises primary data in conjunction with secondary data acquired from credible sources. A wide range of secondary data is gathered from sources such as books, published government reports, articles in journals and newspapers, websites, and electronic sources.

A total of 221 participants were chosen from the study region in Andhra Pradesh using a non-probability convenience sample method. Data was collected through interviews conducted among the population. The survey included the largest tour operators, managers, and workers of travel agencies, as well as tourists and local residents living near the eco-tourist area in Andhra Pradesh. The data acquired was subsequently transferred and analysed using SPSS software version 20, employing several statistical methods such as ANOVA and multiple regression among others, to determine the association between the variables under consideration. The collected data was processed and the results were interpreted using these statistical tools.

DATA ANALYSIS

Multiple Regressions

When there are several independent variables and one dependent variable, multiple regressions are conducted.

H01 – Socio-economic outcomes has no significant relationship with the environmental conservation, cultural preservation, stakeholder engagement and CSR.

Table – 1: Model Summaries – Socioeconomic Outcomes Vs Environmental conservation, Cultural preservation, stakeholder engagement and CSR

Model Summary – Environmental conservation

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. The error in the Estimate
1 0.002 0.000 -0.005 2.87010

Predictors: (Constant), environmental conservation

Model Summary – Cultural preservation

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.083 0.007 0.002 2.860

Predictors: (Constant), cultural preservation

Model Summary – Stakeholder engagement

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.042 0.002 -0.003 2.867

Predictors: (Constant), stakeholder engagement

Model Summary – CSR

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.001 0.000 -0.005 2.870

Predictors: (Constant), CSR

To make sure that R Square is impartial, the modified R Square accounts for the quantity of components in the model. This is often used to assess fit. The comparison between the modified R Square and R Square reveals a good fit between the data and the solution. The difference between the two values indicates that the regression equation is overfit, which leads to a restricted degree of generalisation. It is easy to conclude that there has been a little reduction since the data are identical.

The standard error may be used to measure the variability of the several relationships and also gives information on the value dispersion around the mean of the dependent variable. If the number is little, it is thought that the data more closely matches the regression model and the ensuing predictions. The standard errors of the research variables are as follows:

Environmental conservation scores – 3.755, Cultural preservation scores – 3.640, Stakeholder engagement Scores – 3.533, and CSR scores – 2.490

The aforementioned research factor scores showed that there is a strong likelihood that the predicted score would fluctuate within plus or minus the standard estimate values, and the study determined that these errors are within acceptable ranges.

With the use of an ANOVA, it is possible to assess whether the regression model effectively accounts for a significant percentage of the variance in socioeconomic outcomes. The Df, F value, and probability value are the three pieces of data required for an ANOVA and are shown in Table 2 below.

Table – 2: ANOVA Analysis

ANOVA a

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 0.006 1 0.006 0.001 .978b
Residual 1804.012 219 8.237
Total 1804.018 220
  1. Dependent Variable : socioeconomic outcomes Score
  2. Predictors: (Constant), environmental conservation Score

ANOVA a

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 12.565 1 12.565 1.536 .000b
Residual 1791.453 219 8.160
Total 1804.018 220
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomesScore
  2. Predictors: (Constant), cultural preservation Score

ANOVA a

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 3.193 1 3.193 0.388 .534b
Residual 1800.825 219 8.223
Total 1804.018 220
  1. Dependent Variable : socioeconomic outcomesScore
  2. Predictors: (Constant), stakeholder engagement Score

ANOVA a

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 0.001 1 0.001 0.000 .989b
Residual 1804.017 219 8.238
Total 1804.018 220
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomes Score
  2. Predictors: (Constant), CSRScore

The ANOVA results are as follows

Environmental conservation: F (1, 220) =0.001, p = 0.978

Cultural preservation: F (1, 220) = 1.536, p = 0.217

Stakeholder engagement: F (1,220) = 0.388 = 0.534

CSR: F (1, 220) = 0.000 = 0.989All of the aforementioned F-ratios are significant at p 0.01, indicating a fewer than 1% chance of F-ratios. This generally happens when the null hypothesis is correct. When the significance is less than 0.01, the model is significant at 99%, and when it is less than 0.05, it is significant at 95%. The significance calculation above suggests that there is a substantial correlation between employee commitment and CSR, stakeholder involvement, environmental conservation, and cultural preservation. As a result, it can be stated that the regressions that are generated are statistically significant.

Table – 3: Coefficients Table

Table – 3.1: Coefficients a –Environmental Conservation

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 19.787 0.846 23.377 0.000
Environmental Conservation 0.001 0.049 0.002 0.028 0.978
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomes

Table – 3.2: Coefficients a – Cultural preservation

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 20.833 0.848 24.573 0.000
Cultural preservation -0.062 0.050 -0.083 -1.239 0.217
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomes

Table – 3.3: Coefficients a –Stakeholder engagement

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 20.404 0.972 20.987 0.000
Stakeholder engagement -0.034 0.054 -0.042 -0.623 0.534
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomes

Table – 3.4: Coefficients a –CSR

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 19.975 1.158 17.088 0.000
CSR 0.001 0.064 0.001 0.013 0.989
  1. Dependent Variable: socioeconomic outcomes

The regression equations are provided in the Coefficients output table above. Each variable’s contribution to the model is shown in the Standardised Beta Coefficient column. According to the computed Pearson’s R values, socioeconomic outcomes contribute 0.978 to environmental conservation, 0.217 to cultural preservation, 0.534 to stakeholder engagement, and 0.989 to corporate social responsibility (CSR). These findings are evident from the coefficient’s tables.

The t value for Constant in the environmental conservation case is 23.377, p < 0.05, and the t value is 0.028, p > 0.05.

The cultural preservation example has a t value of -1.239, p > 0.05, and a t value of 24.573, p < 0.05 for Constant.

Stakeholder involvement has a t value of 0.534, p > 0.05, and a t value of 20.987, p < 0.05 for Constant.

When it comes to CSR, the t values for Constant and 0.013 are 17.088, p < 0.05 and 0.013, respectively.

Therefore the regression equation is 19.811+0.043X1-0.120X2-0.031X3+0.101X4

Analysis of Variance (One-way ANOVA)

H02: Age of the respondents has no significant difference among the environmental conservation, cultural preservation, stakeholder engagement, CSR and socioeconomic outcomes.

Table No – 4: Age and Environmental conservation

Sum of Squares D.F. Mean2 F Value P Value S/NS
Between Groups 206.641 2 103.320 6.957 0.001 S
Within Groups 3237.431 218 14.851
Total 3444.072 220

Source – SPSS Output

Table No – 5: Age and Cultural preservation

Sum of Squares D.F. Mean2 F Value P Value S/NS
Between Groups 46.615 2 23.307 1.584 0.208 NS
Within Groups 3208.444 218 14.718
Total 3255.059 220

Source – SPSS Output

Table No – 6: Age and stakeholder engagement

Sum of Squares D.F. Mean2 F Value P Value S/NS
Between Groups 120.827 2 60.414 4.855 0.009 S
Within Groups 2712.630 218 12.443
Total 2833.457 220

Source – SPSS Output

Table No – 7: Age and CSR

Sum of Squares D.F. Mean2 F Value P Value S/NS
Between Groups 253.543 2 126.771 15.528 0.000 S
Within Groups 1779.806 218 8.164
Total 2033.348 220

Source – SPSS Output

Table No – 8: Age and Socio-economic outcomes

Sum of Squares D.F. Mean2 F Value P Value S/NS
Between Groups 39.534 2 19.767 2.442 0.089 NS
Within Groups 1764.484 218 8.094
Total 1804.018 220

Source – SPSS Output

The study used a one-way ANOVA to determine whether there was a significant difference between the respondents’ age factor and the study variables, which were environmental conservation, cultural preservation, stakeholder engagement, CSR, and socio-economic outcomes. The null hypothesis was rejected for the variables like environmental conservation, stakeholder engagement, and CSR because the p-value was greater than the 5% level of significance for these variables; however, the null hypothesis was accepted for the variables like cultural preservation and socioeconomic outcomes because the significant value was greater there. The conclusion is that there is no significant difference between the age factor and cultural preservation and socioeconomic outcomes, but there is a significant relationship for environmental conservation, stakeholder engagement, and CSR.

FINDINGS

  1. According to the multiple regression analysis, tourism creates jobs, income for local companies, and infrastructure. At the same time, tourism can also cause inequity, community dislocation, and dependence on tourism profits. Environmental conservation reduces tourism-related pollution, habitat devastation, and resource depletion. It also promotes eco-tourism, appropriate waste management, wildlife habitat conservation, and natural and cultural heritage preservation. Tourism cultural preservation includes indigenous knowledge, languages, arts, crafts, cuisines, and architecture. It also promotes cultural interaction, respect for local customs, and indigenous community empowerment to benefit from tourism while preserving their culture. Effective stakeholder involvement in tourist business considers all stakeholders’ interests, requirements, and views, resulting in more sustainable and inclusive tourism development. Community consultations, public-private partnerships, stakeholder forums, and capacity-building are examples. Therefore, Multiple regression test shows that there is no significant relation among the independent and the dependent variables.
  2. The results of Anova inferred that, different age groups may have different perspective about tourism’s environmental challenges. They may choose eco-lodges or responsible tour operators and participate in conservation initiatives like beach clean-ups or wild-life monitoring. Older stakeholders may attend community meetings or join local associations to voice their concerns and contribute to tourism planning and management. CSR standards of tourism businesses might also be affected by age demographics. They may expect tourist companies to meet their social and environmental responsibilities to local communities and the environment and respect corporate honesty, transparency, and long-term sustainability. Hence, One-way ANOVA analysis among the age factor and the variables shows that age of the respondents have significant relation among the variables environmental conservation, stakeholder engagement and CSR.

CONCLUSION

Sustainable tourism encompasses all sectors of the industry, employing guidelines and criteria aimed at minimising environmental impacts, specifically the consumption of non-renewable resources. It employs measurable benchmarks to enhance tourism’s role in sustainable development and environmental preservation. The objectives of sustainable tourism are to cater to the requirements of tourists while simultaneously promoting the conservation of resources and maximising economic gains for the host. These aims suggest that the community plays a crucial role in achieving successful tourism development. Implementing social responsibility initiatives can address several challenges in the tourism sector related to encouraging sustainable practices. However, for the industry to enhance its engagement in social responsibility, it is crucial for them to receive government involvement and assistance.

Sustainable tourism development is a crucial strategy that aims to achieve a harmonious equilibrium between economic, social, and environmental goals within the tourism sector. It advocates for responsible tourism practices that mitigate adverse effects on the environment, conserve cultural and natural heritage, support local communities, and offer distinctive and genuine travel experiences for travellers. Sustainable tourism development not only helps the destination and its stakeholders, but also enhances global sustainability by mitigating the environmental impact of tourism, aligning with sustainable development goals, and advocating for sustainable consumption and production practices. Sustainable tourism development embodies a forward-thinking approach for the tourism sector, acknowledging the interconnectedness of economic, social, and environmental objectives. Its aim is to generate mutual benefits for all parties involved. Sustainable tourism has the potential to contribute positively to the preservation of biological variety. When local populations gain cash directly from tourist firms, they therefore enhance their appreciation of the resources in their surroundings, leading to heightened protection and conservation of those resources. Sustainable tourism also serves as a significant educational platform, fostering greater understanding of the environment and promoting reverence for natural ecosystems and biological resources.

SUGGESTIONS

Suggestions Based on Objective 1:

Government should prioritise enhancing the skills and capabilities of suppliers by implementing measures such as enforcing compliance with legislation related to environmental standards, reputation, and ethical business practices. Additionally, governments should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated for training and development opportunities for suppliers, and provide support to address any resource deficiencies. There should be an expansion of public-private collaborations in providing training for environmental and social awareness and mitigation techniques. Additionally, the tourism sector should be given incentives and reporting guidelines through industry groups. Facilitate the provision of training and the dissemination of optimal methods.

Suggestions Based on Objective 2:

Lack of tourism planning, well-established tourism ministries, and distinct roles and objectives are issues in many developing nations. Thus, prioritising public-private partnerships to promote the Corporate Social Responsibility agenda will significantly enhance the overall beneficial influence and propel the advancement of sustainable tourism in the industry. To promote sustainable tourism development in a country, it is necessary to prioritise aspects of the tourism industry that have a broad impact on many products and enterprises, and that contribute positively to the environment, society, and economy. In order to promote a more sustainable kind of tourism, it is necessary to implement more stringent regulations in conjunction with coordinated government efforts.

FUTURE SCOPE

Future researches can be based on the responsible tourism products and its impact in the market. A comparative analysis of social responsibility in the tourism industry can be carried out with respect to sustainable development in high potential and low potential areas.A prospective study can be done in several geographic regions in the future.

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  7. Jucan, C. and Jucan, M. (2010) ‘Social Responsibility in tourism and Sustainable development’, WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 10(6), pp. 677–685.
  8. Logar, I. (2010). Sustainable tourism management in Crikvenica, Croatia: An assessment of policy instruments. Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 125-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.02.005
  9. Muhammad Arif, Sadaf Kashif and Muhammad Nadeem Dogar (2022) Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development: From Tourism Perspective, Indian Journal of Economics and Business 20(3):1861-1877
  10. Sanjana Mondala and Kaushik Samaddar (2021) Responsible tourism towards sustainable development: literature review and research agenda, Asia Pacific  Business Review, https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2021.1857963
  11. Sukhvir Singh and Venugopalan Thottekat (2023) Sustainable Tourism Development In India: Positive And Negative Aspects, Journal of Fundamental & Comparative Research VII, No. 9(II)

FOOT NOTES

[1]Logar, I. (2010). Sustainable tourism management in Crikvenica, Croatia: An assessment of policy instruments. Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 125-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.02.005

[2]Iwona Florek (2012) Sustainable Tourism Development, DOI:10.1007/3-540-25815-9_16

[3]Cornel Nicolae Jucan; Mihaela Sabina Jucan (2010) Social Responsibility in Tourism, Wseas Transactions On Environment and Development, ISSN: 1790-5079, Issue 10, Volume 6

[4]Bohdanowicz, P. (2005). European Hotelier’s Environmental Attitudes: Greening the Business. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46, 188-204.

[5]Dagmar Lund-Durlacher (2015) Corporate Social Responsibility in Tourism, In book: Education for Sustainability in Tourism, pp. 59-73

[6]https://limbd.org/importance-and-benefits-of-sustainable-tourism-development/

[7] Jucan, C. and Jucan, M. (2010) ‘Social Responsibility in tourism and Sustainable development’, WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 10(6), pp. 677–685.

[8]Sukhvir Singh and Venugopalan Thottekat (2023) Sustainable Tourism Development In India: Positive And Negative Aspects, Journal of Fundamental & Comparative Research   Vol. VII, No. 9(II)

[9]Muhammad Arif, Sadaf Kashif and Muhammad Nadeem Dogar (2022) Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development: From Tourism Perspective, Indian Journal of Economics and Business 20(3):1861-1877

[10]Sanjana Mondala and Kaushik  Samaddar (2021) Responsible tourism towards sustainable development: literature review and research agenda, Asia Pacific  Business Review, https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2021.1857963

[11]Felix G. Bello and Grace Kamangab (2020) Drivers and barriers of corporate social responsibility in the tourism industry: The case of Malawi, Development Southern Africa, Vol. 37, No. 2, 181–196,

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