Exploring the Pedagogical Odyssey: An In-Depth Study of Pre-Service Teachers’ Lived Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans

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Exploring the Pedagogical Odyssey: An In-Depth Study of Pre-Service Teachers’ Lived Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans

  • Ryan Christian T. Bustillo
  • Russel Bhan Peligro
  • Adrian Mitch Enaje
  • 329-342
  • Apr 7, 2024
  • Education

Exploring the Pedagogical Odyssey: An In-Depth Study of Pre-Service Teachers’ Lived Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans

Ryan Christian T. Bustillo; Russel Bhan Peligro; Adrian Mitch Enaje

Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1103023

Received: 16 February 2024; Revised: 29 February 2024; Accepted: 05 March 2024; Published: 06 April 2024

ABSTRACT

This research delves into the intricate world of pre-service teachers’ experiences in crafting English lesson plans, shedding light on the challenges they face, the strategies they employ, and the support received from instructors and administrations. Through thematic analysis, the study uncovers the multifaceted difficulties pre-service teachers encounter, including the complexities of formulating clear objectives and designing engaging activities. Coping mechanisms encompass utilizing digital resources, simplifying tasks, seeking guidance from knowledgeable individuals, and fostering peer collaboration. Moreover, the essential role of instructors and administrators in refining lesson plans is underscored. Insights gained through this research emphasize the pivotal role of well-structured lesson plans in classroom organization, while also highlighting the demanding nature of the task, which necessitates patience, dedication, and creative problem-solving. This study underscores the perpetual learning process and adaptation required for effective lesson planning, providing valuable insights for pre-service teachers and the broader field of education.

Keywords: English Lesson Plan, phenomenological, challenges, strategies, coping mechanism

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Lesson plan serves as a blue print in the field of education. It organized the flow of discussion to measure the learning capacity of a learner. Planning allows the students to learn effectively in the classroom teaching so that they can gain specific competencies in the classroom teaching (Alanazi, 2019). According to the study ‘Problems met in lesson planning by the Pre-service Teachers’ by Ferrer, (2022), when the pre-service teachers are asked about their difficulties in practice teaching are, one of the usual answers given is “making lesson plans”. Alazani, (2019), effective teaching can be done only with effective planning. So, lesson planning is the key to successful teaching. The study of Fakhrunnisa, (2021) states that, pre-service teachers have difficulty in designing Lesson Plans, especially in determining learning methods.

An international study from the University of Calicut in India states that, student-teachers is more concerned with coping with the direct demands of teaching a class than learning to plan the optimal use of resources. Gafoor (2011), states that the collision began because of the misunderstanding of various approaches between the teachers and teacher educators in the University of Calicut. With that, this study attempts to stimulate critical thinking about the teacher-education practice for the development of lesson planning competencies among student-teachers in Kerala, (Gafoor, 2011). A study from Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College states that lack of pedagogical knowledge in teaching skills can impair the capacity to design learning, and considerable efforts must be made to train prospective teachers (Ferrer, 2022). Furthermore, the literature also emphasized that trainee teachers spent more time planning their lessons and find planning to be challenging.

Upon the literature cited above, this analysis aimed to determine the problem in crafting English lesson plan. The importance of lesson plan for student-teachers reflects to the ability of a learner. Thus, in this study, it determined the difficulties of student-teachers in terms of crafting English lesson plan. Furthermore, pre-service teachers shared their venture throughout their experience. This also specified the progress of student-teachers which measures familiarity in lesson planning.

Some pre-service teachers are not yet familiar with the characteristics of their students so they have not been able to determine the right and effective method for students. Thus, this study aimed to explore the experiences, challenges, coping mechanisms, and insights of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan.

Research Question

Based on the background stated above, the questions were formulated as follows:

  1. What are the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan?
  2. What are the coping mechanisms utilized by the pre-service teachers in their challenges in crafting English lesson plan?
  3. What are the insights gained by the pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan?

Theoretical Lens

In the Theory of Cognitive by Jean Piaget (1936-1950) in relation to learning and teaching explains how we process the learning we learn. Cognitive Learning theory on the other hand, suggests that the learner is an active participant in the process. When learning something new, individuals process and construct their own understanding of a topic based on their past experiences and knowledge. For Piaget, learning is the process of relating new information to what we already know. To support this, the trainer or facilitator should create a safe environment for learning. He added that in learned-centre approach Learning is cumulative and relative to each individual. When we’re learning, we start with a baseline of knowledge and go from there. Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist and pioneer of Cognitive Learning Theory, favoured this learner-centred approach to teaching. He suggested that accommodation, assimilation, and equilibration are all crucial to learning.

In connection to this study, in order to construct lesson plan, pre-service teachers are intended to acquire the learning process enable for them to organize the flow of discussion. The methods they apply carries the part in teaching which ensures to enhance the learner’s skills specifically in English. Pre-service teachers also evaluates the learning competency in a particular lesson to measure the learning perceived by a learner. Pre-service teachers acquire the knowledge and information they need throughout their studies enable for them to apply in designing lesson plan.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter includes previously written literature and conceptual material that is significant to this study. It gathered written material that determines the lived experiences, challenges and coping mechanism of the pre-service teachers.

Lesson Planning

Ferrer (2022), states that Lesson planning starts from the formulation of objectives, it is empirical that they should master the requirement of objectives which stands for the acronym “SMART” and should be suited to the subject matter which also requires the kind of materials to be used in the execution of the plan. He added that it begins with written specific objectives that lead to the description of a learning outcome. Objectives in a plan direct the students on what should be done to learn. Although objectives are prepared and planned by the teacher it is intended for the learners. For the learners to be developed holistically, objectives should comprise the three domains in learning such as cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

Borich (2014), “Planning is an important responsibility of teachers. Teachers are intent to decide about their entire course content such as form, mode of instruction, material coverage, time etc.,”. Lesson plan designing and implementing in the classroom are differentiated to cater for heterogeneous students’ abilities and learning styles. The lesson plan is suitable to adjust the lessons to accommodate the various learning needs of students. It must be developed into units linking syllabus outcomes and learning experiences, considering and accommodating students’ prior knowledge and experiences, (Alazani, 2019). Gafoor, et al., (2011), said that good lesson plans do not ensure students will learn what is intended, but they certainly contribute to it. Thus, Alanazi (2019), believes that effective teaching can be done only with effective planning. So, lesson planning is the key to successful teaching.

Lived Experiences of Pre-service Teachers in Crafting English Lesson Plans

Pre-Service Teachers need teaching practice to enter the classroom because teaching practice enables Pre-Service Teachers to be exposed to the real world of teaching English to students of other languages and to learn about the complexity of current classroom practice, which contributes to enhancing the motivation, attitudes, and commitment of Pre-Service Teachers to teaching professional, (Castaneda & Aguirre, 2018). Fakhrunnisa (2021), states that pre-service teachers have difficulty in designing Lesson Plans (RPP), especially in determining learning methods. That is because Pre-service teachers are not yet familiar with the characteristics of their students so they have not been able to determine the right and effective method for students.

It takes thinking and practice to hone this skill, and it won’t happen overnight, but it is a skill that will help to define one as a teacher. There is no one “best way” to plan lessons. Good lesson plans do not ensure students will learn what is intended, but they certainly contribute to it. Furthermore, the teacher should be aware of the background knowledge of their students, their development in social contexts along with the knowledge of the subject matter, curriculum goals, and teaching (Darling-Hammond, 2016). Planning for classroom teaching is one of the significant skills that pre-service teachers must gain during their training period (Alazani, 2019).

Coping Mechanism of Pre-service Teachers in Generating Lesson Plan

Coping mechanism is the process of attempting to manage the demands created by stressful events (Bland, et al., 2012). Providing that the term coping strategies is used to describe the ways that practice teachers manage the events or situations they regarded as stressful. She added that knowledge of how students cope with practicum stresses would have the benefit of informing teacher education programs of the most effective ways of providing support. She highlighted that effective coping strategies have been found to ameliorate the effects of stress. Thus, believes that knowledge of knowing how practice teachers cope with stress is important to provide lecturers and administrators in teacher education programs in providing support for practice teachers.

Pre-service teachers designed lesson plans using a diverse range of information for their lesson plans from outside sources, yet the full information is obtained through the internet. This is the most vexing trait among the trainees. The findings of lesson plan design conclude that trainee instructors’ usage of information and resources varies depending on their knowledge (Alazani, 2019).

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This study utilized Qualitative research design specifically a phenomenological approach. This approach is thought to be useful for addressing experiences, difficulties, and coping mechanisms of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plans. This design enables the researchers to gain understanding and reveal the target results that drive with refence to specific topic/issue. Moreover, phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group. The fundamental goal of the approach is to arrive at a description of the nature of the particular phenomenon (Creswell, 2013).

The researchers wanted to explore the why and how of a situation, instead of merely the what, where, and when. Qualitative Research is exploratory or interrogative research and tries to get “under the surface”. The aim is to gather insights into how people live; what they do, how they use things; or what they need in their everyday or professional lives (Government Design Service Manual, 2016).

Research Participants

The participants of this study were the 10 fourth-year Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English students from the Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology, Trento Satellite Campus.

Purposive sampling was used as a sampling method due to the nature of the research which it heavily relies on the particular profile or characteristics of the participants in relation to the study (Foley, 2018). Purposive sampling is used to select respondents that are most likely to yield appropriate and useful information (Kelly, 2010) and in a way of identifying and selecting cases that will use limited research resources effectively (Palinkas, Horwitz, Green, Wisdo, Duan, & Hoagwood, 2015). As such, homogenous purposive sampling was employed as informants will be selected based on shared set of characteristics (Crossman, 2018) of being pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan.

Research Instruments

The researchers-made interview guide was used in which the interviewers does not strictly follow a formalized list of questions. Instead, they were asked more open-ended questions, allowing for a discussion with the interviewee rather than a straightforward question and answer format. The interview guide questions were composed of 3 central questions with 1-2 probing questions. This was validated by the English language experts. Thus, the participants answered according to their preferred language which to express their thoughts without hesitation. The data were translated by the researchers to English and were transcribed following the research standard and ethics.

Ethical Consideration

In conducting this research, the following ethical considerations were highly observed: (a) permission from appropriate authorities were sought to ensure that the study will be conducted according to the prescribed limitations; (b) the researchers ensured that no physical or emotional harm is implicated by carefully asking questions during the conduct of interview(s); and (c) all pertinent information provided by the participants were dealt with utmost confidentiality. Coding was applied to protect the identity of the respondents.

The purpose of the study was explained to the participants to ensure one hundred percent participation during the interview. A letter to the Administrator informing him that the chosen English Major pre-service teachers will be asked to participate in the study. This was accomplished by explaining to the study’s participants that the study was entirely voluntary. The researchers made certain that they were well aware of the risks and advantages of their participation. The researchers explained to the participants how the data and information will be utilized with maximum confidentiality.

FINDINGS

This chapter presents the findings to the research questions that explored the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan. The primary focus of the exploration was the experiences, challenges, coping mechanism and insights of pre-service teachers. The research participants were preselected through a survey conducted to the Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology, Trento Satellite Campus (ASSCAT, TSC). And those pre-service teachers were short listed to 10, the desired number of sample for the in-depth interview.

The responses were subjected to content analysis where the themes across all responses were drawn. In keeping with the research ethics for qualitative research, codes had been used in order to conceal the identities of the research participants. The presentation of the result was done according to the order of specific research questions used in this study.

What are the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan?

This section presents the results to the 1st major research question; ‘What are the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan?’ Two specific research questions were used to gather data and information for this major research question.

The questions were intended to gather information on the understanding of the research participants regarding the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan, the description of pre-service teachers lived experiences in crafting English lesson plan and the coping mechanism on the challenges simultaneously.

Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans

The themes in this section were coming from the specific research question 1.1 ‘How do you describe your experiences in crafting English lesson plans?’ The responses generated two themes: challenging and difficult.

Challenges in Crafting English Lesson Plans

The themes in this section were coming from the specific research question 1.2 ‘What are your challenges in crafting English lesson plans?’ The participants generated five themes: making objectives, designing engaging activity, designing activity that connects to the topic, no format to follow, and step-by-step process in making lesson plan.

Coping Mechanism in the Challenges in Crafting English Lesson Plans

The themes in this section were coming from the specific research question 2.1 ‘What are the mechanisms you utilized to cope with the challenges in crafting English lesson plans?’ The participants generated five themes: utilized the internet, begin with the easy tasks, utilized other resources, ask help from the knowledgeable persons, and ask help from classmates.

Insights From Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans

The themes in this section were coming from the specific research question 3.1 ‘What are your gained insights from your experiences in crafting English lesson plans?’ The participants generated six emerging themes: lesson plan is important to organize the class, a need to learn more, crafting a lesson plan is not an easy task, one needs patience to finish a lesson plan, lesson planning requires effort and creativity, and it takes effort to learn.

DISCUSSIONS

The structured themes and the emerging topics were used as a foundation for expanding the discussion of the study’s findings. As each theme was linked to related literature and studies, substantial discussion was held in order to find their alignment with the theme.

Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans. The emerging themes in this structured theme were: challenging and difficult.

Challenging. The results gathered that pre-service teachers were challenged in making objectives. One of the participants shared that crafting an English lesson plan was challenging.

Effective lesson planning is a real challenge for many beginning teachers (Bailey, 2015). Effective lesson planning by pre-service teachers is a significant challenge in almost every teacher candidate preparation system or program. While the significance of lesson planning is widely acknowledged, research evidence on the subject is limited (Derri, Pampamitrou, Vernadakis, Koufou, & Zetou, 2014). This was supported by the study of Moscaya and Magbanua (2021), which stated that lesson planning is difficult and time-consuming task, and that pre-service teachers encountered issues throughout the process.

Difficult. Another lived experience by the pre-service teachers that crafting English lesson plan viewed as hard.

Participants encountered difficulties in crafting lesson plans, particularly in developing objectives. Crafting an English lesson plan is part of the teaching process for pre-service teachers which enables them to teach a class.

The study’s findings revealed that pre-service teachers struggled with lesson planning because they lacked knowledge and were hesitant to participate in lesson planning discussions with their teachers (Napanoy, Gayagay, & Tuazon, 2021).

Challenges in Crafting English Lesson Plans. The emerging themes in this structured theme were: making objectives, designing engaging activity, designing activity that connects to the topic, no format to follow, and step-by-step process in making lesson plan.

Making Objectives. Making objectives is one of the challenges encountered by the pre-service teachers in crafting English Lesson plan. One participant mentioned that making objective is one of the most challenging experienced in crafting a lesson plan. Planning ahead of time to identify a course of action that will effectively achieve goals and objectives is an important first step in any process, including education. The lesson plan is a detailed description of an instructor’s course of instruction for an individual lesson designed to help learners achieve a specific learning objective in education (Xaydarova, 2022). Before you begin planning your lesson, you must first identify the learning objectives for the class meeting.

Designing Engaging Activity. Designing Engaging activity imposed that having the appropriate activity for the lesson will engage students to participate in the class. One of the participants mentioned that in motivation, you need to think of an engaging activity where students can all participate.

A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map for what students need to learn and how it will be accomplished effectively during the course of the lesson. Then you can create appropriate learning activities and strategies for obtaining feedback on student learning. Design the specific activities you will use to get students to understand and apply what they have learned. Because you will have a diverse body of students with different academic and personal experiences, they may already be familiar with the topic. That is why you might start with a question or activity to gauge students’ knowledge of the subject or possibly, their preconceived notions about it (Milkova, 2012).

Designing Activity that Connects to the Topic. Connecting your activity to the topic is another factor in crafting English lesson plan. Based on tha participants’ response, the activities given to the students should be connected to the topic. Create appropriate learning activities and strategies for gathering feedback on student learning. A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates three key components: student learning objectives, teaching/learning activities, and strategies for checking student understanding. Defining concrete learning objectives will assist you in determining the types of teaching and learning activities you will use in class, while those activities will define how you will assess whether the learning objectives have been met (Milkova, 2012).

No Format to Follow. One participant mentioned that it is challenging for them to craft a lesson plan if there is no format to follow.

A lesson plan is a resource for the instructor that specifies what and how information will be successfully taught during class time. With this criterion in mind, a preliminary search for existing lesson plans in the current research identified just over fifty various formats from a combination of recently published peer-reviewed articles and books on the subject. Because of the range of lesson plan forms and elements, the question of which format to employ in class arises (Shimmel & Columba, 2016). The various formats and applications of lesson plans reflect the complexities of the teaching profession, including teaching styles, efficacy, decision-making, and how those factors connect to lesson preparation. These four items meet the requirement that teachers use a lesson plan structure with five or less elements. This fact makes the lesson planning process much more efficient and optimizes the direction the plan can provide throughout class, resulting in the most practical lesson plan conceivable. (Shimmel & Columba, 2016).

Step-by-Step process in Crafting Lesson Plan. According to the findings one of the participants struggled to sequence the process in crafting lesson plan.

Before the actual delivery of a lesson, instructors engage in a planning process. During this process, they determine the lesson topic (if states have implemented content standards, the topic should derive from them). From the topic derive the lesson objective or desired results–the concepts and ideas that learners are expected to develop and the specific knowledge and skills that learners are expected to acquire and use at the end of the lesson (Xaydarova, 2022).

Coping Mechanisms in the Challenges in Crafting English Lesson Plans. The emerging themes in this structured theme were: utilized the internet, begin with the easy tasks, utilized other resources, ask help from the knowledgeable persons, and ask help from classmates.

Utilized the Internet. Utiilizing the internet is one of the tactics of the pre-service teachers, they do not rely solely on one source of information. According to the participants they gather information from different sources from the internet on crafting an English lesson plan. Students who can solve information problems can identify information needs, locate information sources, extract and organize information from each source, and synthesize information from multiple sources (Walraven, Brand-Gruwel, & Boshuizen, 2019).

Begin with the easy task. One of the respondents mentioned, one of their tactics to simplify crafting English lesson plan by focusing on simple task.

Teachers must still pay attention to steps in lesson planning in order to create an ideal lesson plan. Teachers should consider several steps in compiling a lesson plan during the preparation stage. As a result, it can be concluded that there are several steps that teachers must take in order to create an ideal lesson plan. A thorough preparation may reduce the difficulties in developing a lesson plan. Teachers will almost certainly implement the plan after planning the teaching process (Emiliasari, 2019). Through the assessment process, a teacher can identify the strengths and weaknesses of students and give corrective feedback. Findings of the study is very significant for every teacher to develop their teaching quality and be suitable for embodying desirable learning and assessment techniques (Iqbal, Siddiqie, & Mazid, 2021).

Utilized other resources. Based on the participant’s response, pre-service teachers will benefit from crafting English lesson plan with the help of additional resources.

This paper addresses the development of effective lesson plans through the use of the Internet. Effective lesson design assists students in exploring ideas, acquiring and synthesizing information, framing and solving problems. Internet projects enable creative problem solving that is dependent on context, interrelationships, and real-world activities (Seamon, 2011). This was supported by the study of Sawyer and Myers (2018), in which the result revealed that preservice teachers in the education program used more Internet resources when planning lessons, according to the data.

Ask help from the knowledgeable persons. The Findings unveiled that pre-service teachers can craft English lesson plan by seeking assistance from someone with the necessary knowledge.

When faced with difficult tasks that necessitate the assistance of a more knowledgeable individual, the self-regulated learner is expected to seek help by asking questions (Newman, 2022).

Ask help from classmates. Crafting English lesson plan by the pre-service teachers is aided by peer sharing. This will assist them in learning about their shortcomings.

Sixteen lesson plans show that they had chosen ICT tools in providing a self-evaluation platform to evaluate their performance and obtain feedback from English pre-service teachers and peers directly (Drajati, Rakerda, Sulistyawati, & Nurkamto, 2021). Ruys, Keer, and Aelterman (2012), suggested that pre-service teachers discuss their lesson plans intensively with peers.

Assistance Given by The Instructor/Administration. The emerging themes in this structured theme were: provide a polished lesson plan, provide materials as a guide, give corrections for improvement, give advices, and conducted demonstration teaching.

In order to receive feedback before implementing the lesson plan, they also discussed it with the supervisor. Character education needs careful planning and ongoing learning; thus, this consultation is crucial. Responsible, honest, trustworthy, respectable, and pious are the characteristics or features that the lesson plan shares in common (Ashfihana, 2021).

Provide a polished lesson plan. The result revealed that having a guide makes lesson planning easier for the pre-service teachers; they will know what steps to take on and what to avoid.

A lesson planning template based on many of the foundational concepts of inclusive education is unveiled. This template is intended for preservice teachers and teacher educators to use across the curriculum to guide the design of inclusive lessons (Causton‐Theoharis, Theoharis, & Trezek, 2018). Pang (2016), propose scaffolding lesson planning in teacher training, using the companion guides of a planning template and a lesson plan pro forma.

Provide materials as a guide. According to the participants they are provided by their instructors with the materials as a guide in crafting English lesson plan that serves as a guideline.

The model guides teachers in developing lesson plans that progress students from the most basic kind of thinking to the most complex (Fox & Hoffman, 2011). As part of this, specific recommendations for constructing lesson plans using Internet resources are provided. Giving clear guidelines aids in convincing them that the activity is “doable” (Rake, 2012).

Give corrections for improvement. According to the findings, constructive criticism aids the pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plans. Constructive criticism is defined as constructive suggestions with socio-emotional consequences. A rationale for giving and receiving constructive criticism is provided. Critics and recipients of criticism are encouraged to collaborate; both are responsible, in their own way, for how criticism is received and interpreted (Petress, 2011).

Give advices. According to the findings, pre-service teachers benefitted greatly from having someone advise them on what are necessary and unnecessary. Institution and instructor support pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plans by offering guidance on how to properly craft a lesson plan and designing the activities. Higher education institutions have long argued that they play a distinct and critical role in initial teacher education as partners. Lesson planning and evaluation are essentially a set of procedural guidelines for how to plan lessons (Burn, 2016). Counseling is a broad term that includes guidance. For the purposes of this paper, ‘Guidance’ can be defined as assistance provided by the instructor to the learner in order to facilitate his achievement in the learning process (Alutu, 2017).

Conducted demonstration teaching. The results revealed that the outline for instruction is provided by lesson plans, which also give pre-service instructors a rough idea of the teaching objectives. Demonstrations with advisors will help pre-service teachers get feedback on their lesson plans and where they may make improvements.

To capture preservice teachers’ situational-specific skills as part of their planning competence, the study applies an innovative measurement approach, consisting of a standardized method for analyzing written plans of demonstration lessons of preservice teachers (König, Bremerich-Vos, Buchholtz, & Glutsch, 2020).

Insights from Experiences in Crafting English Lesson Plans. The emerging themes in this structured theme were: lesson plan is important to organize the class, a need to learn more, crafting a lesson plan is not an easy task, one needs patience to finish a lesson plan, lesson planning requires effort and creativity, and it takes effort to learn.

Lesson plan is important to organize the class. Based on the responses of the participants, a well-crafted lesson plan assists teachers and students in understanding the goals of the segment of instructions. Lesson plan is significant in organizing the class.

Jemali Nesari & Heidari (2014) asserted that a lesson plan is a rout map or mind map created by a teacher for a specific topic on a specific day. It is critical for teachers to consider their teaching before entering the classroom. A lesson plan is a thorough explanation of the teacher’s goals and objectives for a particular lesson with predefined students, class, and time. The majority of teachers believe it is impossible to teach successfully without creating a lesson plan and considering every area of instruction during the lesson.

A need to learn. Based to the participant’s response, the result implied that there is a need to learn more and more practice in crafting English lesson plan. Making lesson plan does not end after a lesson is finished. Lesson planning is provided, which not only emphasizes context-dependency but also views planning itself as a practice. This procedure is critical for fostering reflective participation throughout the many stages of the professional learning cycle (John, 2016).

Crafting a lesson plan is not an easy task. The findings unveiled that crafting lesson plan according one of the respondents it is not an easy task. Pre-service teachers had difficult time creating English lesson plans. According to the findings of Maisyaroh and colleagues’ research, teachers face difficulties in meeting process standards, specifically, teachers found it difficult to compile and craft Lesson Plans (Palobo, Sianturi, Purwanty, Dadi, & Saparuddin, 2018).

One needs patience to finish a lesson plan. According to the findings, pre-service teachers must be compassionate when crafting an English lesson plan. According to one participant’s statement, Patience is essential in crafting lesson plan as it takes time and effort.

The teaching and learning processes depend on effective lesson planning. A well-prepared teacher is well on the road to having a productive lesson. It takes a lot of effort and patience to plan lessons. You must be determined to invest the necessary time in this endeavor as a novice teacher (Sudhakar, 2017).

Lesson planning requires effort and creativity. When developing an English lesson plan, a pre-service teacher must use higher order thinking skills and be creative. According to the participant’s statement, effort, optimistism, positivity, and creativeness are essential in crafting an English lesson plan.

The strategy suggested in Lean Lesson Planning needs work and experience, but with time, it will improve teaching and produce higher-quality results with less input.  It describes a collection of mindsets and behaviors you can employ to assist you pinpoint and emphasize the teaching strategies that will have the greatest impact on your students. Less effort can lead to greater results. But it is also about having more confidence and happiness in the classroom. You will have more time and space to appreciate and think creatively about your work if you establish stronger routines around the necessities (Mccrea, 2015).

It takes effort to learn. The findings revealed that before mastering lesson planning, pre-service teachers must learn it step-by-step and overcome numerous obstacles. The participant asserts that if you do not have challenges when creating a lesson plan, you will never learn.

Almost anything worthwhile requires effort, so it is not surprising that effort has played such an important role. We begin by discussing effort as a theoretical construct that has a direct impact on achievement, and then we move on to the role of perceived effort in self-regulated learning (Dunlosky, Badali, Rivers, & Rawson, 2020).

Implication for Practice

In line with the findings of the study, the following implications for practice are offered:

Challenges in Crafting Lesson Plan. The findings showed that the challenges of the pre-service teachers were making objectives, designing engaging activity, designing activity that connects to the topic, no format to follow, and a step-by-step process in making lesson plan. Based on that, pre-service teachers find it difficult. To address the challenges, pre-service teachers should expand their source of information in relation of designing a lesson plan by asking more knowledgable one or by finding more information about it.

Instructor/Administration. From their first year to the end of their internship, Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture students shall be trained by the instructor on the right and proper to craft a lesson paln. Hence, pre-service teachers will benefit from constructive criticism as they create effective lesson plans. They should also receive training on crafting lesson planning because they frequently express difficulty in this area.

Experts. Pre-service teachers can be helped through collaboration between schools and subject matter experts on the best structure to utilize when crafting lesson plans. By having a manual, pre-service teachers can prepare lessons more easily since they will know what to do and what to avoid.

Implications for Future Researcher

The findings of this study are limited to the ten (10) participants who are pre-service teachers at Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology, thus precluding generalization beyond this specific group. Firstly, given the scarcity of research addressing the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in formulating English lesson plans, future investigations could explore additional issues or challenges encountered by pre-service teachers in different localities, enriching the research landscape with diverse perspectives and insights. Secondly, future research endeavors might involve re-interviewing select study participants to ascertain any shifts in their perceptions and attitudes over time. Lastly, while this study adopts a qualitative phenomenological research design, subsequent research could employ various research methodologies to delve deeper into the lived experiences of pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plans, thereby broadening the scope of understanding within the field.

Concluding Remarks

The study on the lived experiences of the pre-service teachers in crafting English lesson plan highlighted the importance and necessity of the study. As pre-service teachers they encountered different challenges and experiences in designing lesson plans. The findings of the study should be used to help the pre-service teachers enhance their skills and capability to craft a lesson plan.

The study’s contribution is totally dependent on participant discoveries based on their experiences and how they cope them. Since it focuses on comprehending rather than interpreting unique experiences, the study benefits from a qualitative method. Future researchers will be able to add fresh ideas and learn from their own experiences as a result of this

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