Exploring Tourist Behavior towards Bali Wellness Tourism Visits

Submission Deadline-23rd July 2024
June 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Deadline-20th July 2024
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

Exploring Tourist Behavior towards Bali Wellness Tourism Visits

  • Nyoman Sri Subawa
  • Ni Kadek Winda Yanti
  • Caren Angellina Mimaki
  • Made Srinitha Millinia Utami
  • Nyoman Sridiva Dian Prabarini
  • 705-730
  • May 16, 2024
  • Education

Exploring Tourist Behavior towards Bali Wellness Tourism Visits

Nyoman Sri Subawa, Ni Kadek Winda Yanti, Caren Angellina Mimaki, Made Srinitha Millinia Utami, Nyoman Sridiva Dian Prabarini

Universitas Pendidikan Nasional

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1104051

Received: 11 April 2024; Accepted: 18 April 2024; Published: 16 May 2024

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has caused a significant shift in people’s lifestyles, resulting in a new trend called wellness tourism, in which people come to tourist locations to enhance their physical and psychological health using a holistic approach. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors that influence domestic visitors’ decisions to visit wellness sites in Bali, using the extended theory of planned behaviour model, which incorporates numerous critical components such as wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourist value. Online surveys were utilised to collect empirical data. The use of purposive sampling resulted in the identification of 323 domestic tourists. The data was analysed using the structural equation model technique (PLS-SEM). Pull motivation, tourist value, perceived behavioural control, and wellness motivation were all strong predictors of tourists’ intentions to visit wellness places. Furthermore, pull motivation and tourist value have a significant influence on tourist perceptions. The data also showed that subjective norms, one of the main components of TPB, were ineffective in predicting tourists’ intention to visit. A broader understanding of the extent of intention to visit Bali for wellness tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings are critical for assessing the impact of motivations, values, and behaviour on domestic visitors’ intentions to visit wellness places.

Keywords: Theory of planned behavior, pull motivation, tourist value, visit intention, wellness destination, wellness motivation

INTRODUCTION

The year 2020 was one of the darkest in world history, marked by the development of the COVID-19 pandemic, which also slowed the movement of numerous existing industries. Some sectors that can adapt to technology and digitalization can survive and even thrive on occasion, but the tourism industry cannot function without tourist mobility (Widhiasthini et al., 2023); (Subawa et.al., 2024c). Several regulations have been implemented to prevent the spread of this virus, such as social distancing, studying and working from home, and restrictions on international and domestic travel access, resulting in a drastic decrease of up to 83% in travel and tourism activities in the first quarter of 2021, according to data released by the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO, 2021a). According to the UNWTO, international arrivals in Asia and the Pacific have continued to fall by 94% (UNWTO, 2021b). Similar to other countries, Indonesia saw a 74.84% drop in visitor arrivals during the epidemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on Bali, Indonesia’s main tourist destination, which has seen a 99.999 percent decrease in international and domestic arrivals since 2020 (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2022). From another angle, this outbreak has brought about some changes in human behaviour, beginning with their travel habits, how they study and work, interact, communicate, and socialise with one another.

The epidemic also has an impact on people’s physical and mental health, resulting in job loss, increased stress, excessive fear, worry, rage, and hopelessness. Surprisingly, despite the negative impacts of the epidemic, individuals become aware of the importance of starting a health-focused lifestyle and progressing towards a meaningful lifestyle. Society is currently focusing on developing healthy habits, healthy bodies, healthy minds, healthy souls, and pursuing well-being in order to achieve peak physical condition and promote mental health (He et al., 2021). Furthermore, today’s culture has chosen tourist places that will help them relieve stress, relax, meet their psychological demands, and create a sense of comfort. This is also known as wellness, and it has become a global phenomena in all sectors, particularly the tourism industry.  Kim et al. (2017) discovered that wellness tourism is a global phenomenon and a promising segment of the tourist business. This statement is substantiated by various data points given by the Global Wellness Institute, including the fact that wellness tourism was a $720 billion sector in 2019, and the wellness economy is expected to develop rapidly, reaching approximately $7 trillion by 2025. Furthermore, when compared to world tourism, wellness tourism is expected to expand at a 7.5% annual rate, reaching $919 billion by 2022. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic might be viewed as a wake-up call for the world to begin focusing on wellness, and it is hopeful that wellness will provide a new vision for a post-COVID-19 future (Muna et.al., 2023).

Bali, which suffered the most from this outbreak in terms of tourism, is beginning to see new promise for recovery through the expansion of the wellness tourism sector. There have been various wellness destinations in Bali, such as yoga retreats and wellness resorts, that provide services and facilities to fulfil the demands of each visitor, including spas, holistic and spiritual therapies, and much more. Given this, Bali has enormous potential for growing wellness tourism, has established itself as a niche market within the larger tourism industry, and is enjoying rapid growth with expectations for long-term development (Dillette et al., 2021). Unfortunately, the presence of these sites has gotten little attention, in contrast to amusement and night attractions such as nightclubs, beaches, cafes, and others, which have always been popular with local and foreign travellers. Given the enormous potential for promoting wellness tourism in Bali, it is critical to examine and understand the elements influencing tourist visit intention (Widhiasthini et.al., 2024).

Essentially, the intention of tourists to travel comes from motivation both internally and externally and perceived values related to the destination, where the motivation in this study is wellness motivation which encourages tourists from within for example the desire to relax and relieve stress, focus on themselves, and want to build a healthy lifestyle so that the intention arises to visit wellness destinations in Bali, as well as pull motivation which can be described as external or external factors-attraction, scenery, and culture that attract tourists to visit. There is some previous literature found that the higher the level of tourist motivation arises due to internal and external factors, the greater the formation of a positive attitude towards the destination when traveling (Chuang and Lai, 2019; Levitt et al., 2019; Luo and Ye, 2020; Meera and Vinodan, 2019; Pereira et al., 2019; Prayag et al., 2018; Zailani et al., 2021).  Similarly with tourist value, it was revealed in the results of previous research that there was a significant relationship between tourist value and the formation of tourist attitudes, which this indicated the more positive the value perceived by tourists towards destinations, the greater the positive attitude shown by these tourists. value of tourists, he revealed in the results of previous research that there is a significant relationship between tourist value and the formation of tourist attitudes, which this indicates the more positive the value perceived by tourists towards destinations, the greater the positive attitude shown by these tourists (Rousta and Jamshidi, 2020; Choe and Kim, 2018)s. However, there is still limited research in the tourism literature that examines the relationship between these constructs, especially those using specific wellness destinations in Bali as the subject of their research. Therefore, it is considered interesting to analyze and measure the influence of motivation (wellness motivation and pull motivation) and tourists’ values on tourist attitudes. Thus, through this research it is able to provide a more in-depth understanding regarding what motivational factors and values and how can help in forming a positive attitude of tourists which ultimately increases the intention of tourists to visit wellness destinations in Bali.

Additionally, in predicting tourists’ visit intention, a theory has been developed and has become a focus in tourism literature known as the Theory of Planned Behavior, which consists of three constructs, namely attitude (positive or negative evaluations), subjective norms (perceived opinions from significant references), and perceived behavioral control (perceived easiness and difficultness). Attitude is one of the most frequently used elements in measuring interest in visiting. Several previous studies in the tourism literature found that positive attitudes arising from tourists were able to increase the tourist’s intention to visit a destination and attitude was also considered a strong predictor in measuring tourist intentions to visit (Hsieh et al., 2016; Verma et al., 2019; Verma and Chandra, 2018; Yarimoglu and Gunay, 2020). In this study, attitude will be placed as a mediating variable which will be analyzed for its role in influencing both directly and indirectly between the constructs of wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourist value on visit intention. Then, the second construct in this conceptual model is subjective norms which refer to perceptions, opinions, and recommendations from the closest people such as friends, relatives, or work colleagues that can influence tourists’ decisions to engage in a tourism activity (Ajzen, 1991; Hasan et al., 2020; Magdy et al., 2020).

Finally, perceived behavioral control is defined as the perceived ease and difficulty when wanting to perform a behavior. Subjective norms and perceived behavioral control constructs have also been extensively studied regarding their relationship with tourist intentions to travel (Hsieh et al., 2016; Shin et al., 2022). Some of these studies found that there is a significant relationship between subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on visit intention, where these findings indicate recommendations and opinions that are considered important for tourists are very important which can influence decision making, so that when colleagues and relatives recommend visiting a destination and consider that the destination is good to visit, then the intention of tourists to travel is higher ( Bianchi et al., 2017; Muniandy et al., 2019; Seow et al., 2017; Verma and Chandra, 2018). Not only that, previous findings also reveal that perceived behavioral control has a significant influence on tourists’ visiting intentions, which shows that if tourists have the resources, capabilities, time, and opportunities in traveling, then the intention to be involved in these destinations is higher (Bianchi et al., 2017; Muniandy et al., 2019; Verma and Chandra, 2018). With limited studies applying this construct to the wellness tourism sector, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, this is an interesting topic to review regarding the relationship and its influence on Bali’s wellness destination visit intention. However, the influence of these three constructs which were previously felt by tourists when they wanted to travel is different from what was felt after the pandemic, therefore it needs to be reviewed (Kock et al., 2020; Shin et al., 2022).

Moreover, this study will prioritize domestic tourists, considering the bigger volume of domestic arrivals. From 4,927,937 visits in 2015 to 6,275,210 visits in 2019, Bali has seen a rise in the number of foreign visitors each year since 2015. Meanwhile, 7,147,100 domestic tourists visited in 2015; 10,545,039 in 2019. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there were far more domestic visitors (4,596,157 in 2020 and 4,301,592 in 2021) than there were foreign visitors (1,069,473 in 2020 and 51 visits in 2021), (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2022). The data above indicates the high potential of domestic tourists in visiting destinations, which is able to help Bali to recover the tourism industry during and after the COVID-19 outbreak. (Hartini & Fafurida, 2021; UNWTO, 2020). Unfortunately, domestic tourists are mostly ignored by developing countries, while developed countries take domestic tourism seriously as a way of realizing sustainable tourism development (Kabote et al., 2017). Seeing the magnitude of domestic tourism for Indonesian tourism, especially Bali, it is considered interesting to explore the potential of domestic tourists to visit wellness destinations in Bali (Subawa et.al., 2024a).

By seeing the great potential for developing wellness tourism in Bali, it is crucial to conduct in-depth research regarding the behavior of domestic tourists in traveling which is expected through the results of this study to help various parties such as the government, tourism actors, communities and other stakeholders in formulating strategies right on target. In addition, the literature on the topic of wellness tourism is still quite limited, especially those using Indonesia specifically Bali as the subject of post-pandemic COVID-19 studies. Moreover, the relationship between wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourist value on visit intention and the role of attitude as a mediating variable in this topic is rarely discussed. Therefore, this research was conducted to increase the understanding regarding the factors that influence the decision of domestic tourists to visit wellness destinations in Bali. This study also aims to examine the influence of fundamental constructs on this decision, how motivation, values, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms influence tourists’ desire to visit wellness destinations and look at other factors that can influence the decisions made by these tourists. Through the results of this study it is also hoped that it can provide theoretical and practical implications, along with recommendations that can be useful for various parties both nationally and globally in understanding tourists’ intentions to visit the wellness tourism sector so that in the future they can focus on development strategies and assist the development of the wellness sector for the sake of realizing sustainable development and helping to increase robust economic growth in 2025 through wellness tourism as projected by the government (Subawa et al., 2022);(Subawa et.al., 2024b).

LITERATURE REVIEW

Visit Intention

In tourism literature, visit intention is defined as tourists’ perceived likelihood of visiting a site for a specific period of time (Khan et al., 2019). Intention to visit can also be defined as the likelihood that tourists will wish to visit a specific location (Baker and Crompton, 2000). A combination of curiosity and the ability to travel to a location is also regarded a desire to visit (Luo and Ye, 2020). Whang et al. (2016) define visit intention as the possibility sensed when looking at and watching a tourist location during a specified timeframe. As previously said, this intention to visit demonstrates how travelers perceive themselves to be visiting a tourist destination within a specific time frame. It may be viewed as a mental process that also results in the conversion of travel motivation into activity.  Although now the tourism sector has experienced rapid development and growth globally, especially in Asia, it can be stated that there is still limited literature that raises topics related to tourist intentions, specifically domestic tourists, in visiting or being involved in wellness tourism. Thus, this study will analyze in depth the level of intention of visiting wellness destinations in Bali. Not only that, research that measures the relationship between the three constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior, motivation, and values on the intention to visit wellness destinations is still limited. Therefore, this study aims to provide an overview regarding the influence of subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, wellness motivation, pull motivation, value, attitude, on the intention of domestic tourists to engage in wellness tourism in Bali, and examine the role of attitude as a mediator between the two motivations and values on visit intention.

Wellness Motivation

Motivation is one of the variables that influence behaviour, and academics are now worried about its significance as the foundation of travel behaviour in the tourism industry (Park et al., 2019). Tourist motivation is seen as an intriguing topic worthy of further investigation, as it has the potential to increase the likelihood of tourists engaging in a behaviour. Motivation is described as an internal strength produced from an unsatisfied desire that serves as a motivator for individuals to engage in specific behaviours (Junaedi and Harjanto, 2020). Based on López-Guzmán et al. (2019), the main explanatory factor for features of tourism activities is motivation, thus it can be seen the reasons why visits to destinations are made.  Hasan et al. (2020), claims that since there is a connection between tourist demands and motivation, tourist motivation is the primary factor in the theory of tourist behavior. In connection with the trends that have emerged in recent years, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been changes in the purpose of traveling, namely to feel happy and relaxed, studies on travel motivation classify various dimensions of wellness (Kessler et al., 2020). Based on the literature that discusses tourist motivation in wellness tourism, it tends to have a similar pattern, namely multifaceted which indicates tourists are involved in a destination due to various factors. Wellness motivation can also be described as a combination of the needs and desires of the tourist which forms a tendency to enjoy the attractiveness of the wellness destination which can be in the form of a desire for relaxation, stress relief, improving quality of life, and realizing a healthy lifestyle (Kessler et al., 2020). Related to the definition of wellness motivation, Voigt et al. (2011) established the Benefit of Wellness Tourism Scale, which has twelve categories of benefits including bodytranscendence, health and physical appearance, escape and relaxation, significant other and novelty, rebuilding self-esteem and pleasure. Then it was re-developed in the research by Kessler et al. (2020), into seven dimensions consisting of movement & fitness, healthy food & diet, meditation & mindfulness, rest & relaxation, learning about wellness, self-care, and nature & disconnect. Despite the high interest in researching motivation in tourism, there is still little research examining the relationship between motivation and tourist attitudes, especially in the wellness sector. Thus, it is considered crucial to examine tourist motivation to visit wellness destinations and the influences that can influence them. (Soliman, 2019).

In tourism literature, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) conceptual model is commonly used to investigate individual behaviors in a variety of cases, particularly when analyzing and predicting travel behavior. Study by Prayag et al. (2018) discovered that certain motivational factors in particular have a favorable and considerable impact on people’s attitudes about their destinations. By following per under the TPB theory developed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1973), where one of the basic requirements to arouse attitude is the motivational disposition. Levitt et al. (2019) pointed out that when it comes to culinarhighly motivated visitorsy motivated tend to have the most positive attitude and have the biggest desire to eat the local cuisine. It can be said that when tourists have high motivation to be involved in a destination, which in this study is related to culinary tourism, most tourists will show a positive attitude which in turn creates a great desire to explore local food at that destination. Furthermore, Meera & Vinodan (2019) demonstrated that wellness motivational factors are proven to provide positive attitude of wellness tourist destinations among tourists. Tourist motivation can be defined as a motivation that supports travel-related activities, particularly those that promote health and wellness. A high level of wellness will result in good physical care, the application of positive thinking, effective emotional expression, and creative engagement with specific people. The factors that motivate tourists to use health and wellness facilities and services are most strongly influenced by desires for relaxation and alleviation. This suggests that tourists’ wishes to unwind and escape from daily life motivate them to look for health and wellness services (Zailani et al., 2021). As a result, the first hypothesis in this study were designed to explore how wellness motivation affects tourists’ attitudes.

H1. Wellness motivation significantly influence tourist’s attitude toward wellness destinations

Pull Motivation

Motivation is the fundamental notion of tourist behaviour that outlines the demands that drive people to participate in tourism activities and serves as the foundation for making decisions about which destination to visit (Mimaki et al., 2022; Park et al., 2019). John L. Crompton (1979) expanded the push-pull incentive model to include both internal and external factors in deciding tourist destinations. Furthermore, push-pull incentive theory was created to anticipate future travel behaviour and apply it to decision-making (Correia et al., 2013; López-Guzmán et al., 2019). According to this hypothesis, pull motivation derives from a destination’s exterior appeal and distinctiveness (Fieger et al., 2019). Pull motivation is a form of motivation that results from outside consisting of recommendations from the nearest and allure of tourist attractions (Phau et al., 2013). Wen et al. (2019) argued that external and situational motivations, such as characteristics of destinations and recreational in frastructure, can be classified as pull motivation elements. Pull motivation in the wellness tourism sector is still an area that has not been explored in depth, especially in wellness destinations in Bali, and there is still little research showing empirical evidence. Thus, it is urgently needed to examine the relationship between pull motivations on tourist intentions, especially domestic ones, in visiting wellness destinations in Bali, where the effect will be mediated by tourist attitudes. This study seeks to provide an understanding regarding pull motivation on tourist attitudes, and measure intention to visit a wellness destination.

From previous studies, pull motivation is often classified into several categories. According to He & Luo (2020), convenient access and transportation to a destination is regarded as a pull motivation factor, whereas Battour et al. (2017) suggested that pull motivation factor is in the form of natural scenery that is owned and continuously draws tourists’ attention and interest. Pull factors represent the external desires of travelers or the allure of destinations that can stimulate tourists’ visit intention (Salsabila and Alversia, 2020).  Pereira et al. (2019) through their research, demonstrating travel motivation such as knowledge of places, safety, and natural beauty, has a significant influence on the attitude of tourists. From these findings, it can be stated that views of nature and safety of destinations that are classified as pull motivation factors are able to foster positive tourist attitudes. Furthermore, in research by Chuang and Lai (2019), revealed that the higher the level of motivation possessed by tourists, the more positive their attitude towards the destination will be, as well as the greater the tourist’s trust in pull motivation, the better and more positive their attitude towards a destination will be. As a result, the second hypothesis below were created to examine how pull motivation influences tourists’ attitudes.

H2. Pull motivation significantly influence tourist’s attitude toward wellness destinations

Tourist’s Value

Value generally refers to a comparison between the costs of what the customer delivers and the benefits of the good or service that is used. One of the criteria for boosting competition in the service sector has been recognized as the creation of this value (Gronroos and Gummerus, 2014). Value, which is a term often used in tourism studies, can be interpreted as a measure of monetary value, a concept governing commodity exchange, and determining tourist satisfaction (Crossley and Picard, 2014). This perceived value is a multifaceted concept in which this concept consists of various dimensions, namely functional values, social values, and epistemic values or a sense of well-being (Suhartanto et al., 2020). The equity theory, which holds that this perceived value is a ratio between provider returns and consumer income, serves as the conceptual foundation for this perception of value (García-Fernández et al., 2018). One of the fundamental concepts in consumer research is value, particularly in the context of tourism (Lin et al., 2017). Since visitors aim to maximize value by receiving more benefits while spending less, the value concept development in this industry tends to be more distinctive (Light, 2017). Tourists will exert greater effort to maximize value by gaining more advantage and incurring fewer expenditures (Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, tourist value can be interpreted as a comparison between the costs incurred by tourists and the benefits that might be obtained when involved in tourism activities at a particular destination (Verma et al., 2019).  Several studies have found that a multidimensional approach to value is more relevant to service experiences, particularly in the tourism sector due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the tourist experience (Albayrak et al., 2016; Tsai and Wang, 2017). Therefore, this study applies a multidimensional framework to measure tourism value by utilizing functional values, money values, social values, emotional values, and novelty value  (Sharma and Nayak, 2019; Williams and Soutar, 2009). This conceptual makes it easy to understand the effect of tourist values on visiting intentions as a whole, seeing that there is still limited research examining the effect of the two constructs, so it is interesting to measure the effect of values on tourist attitudes which will increase the intention to visit wellness destinations in Bali.

Several studies have tried to examine the relationship between tourist value and attitudes held by tourists in the tourism literature. Research by Choe and Kim (2018) indicates that there is a strong relationship between tourist values and their behavior, where a positive influence of epistemic values is found on the positive attitude of tourists towards culinary tourism. Tourists who satisfy their curiosity regarding local food in this study and increase knowledge related to culture and taste food are able to foster a positive attitude towards local food in the destination, namely Hong Kong. Furthermore, the research conducted by Rousta and Jamshidi (2020), found that there is a positive influence of quality values by tourists on attitude, where this quality value is similar to the functional value which indicates the level of tourist trust in services and this level of trust can increase overall positive attitudes. Not only that, this study also found a positive influence between price value, emotional value, and prestige value on tourist attitudes. When tourists feel the value of a fair price on a product or service, which also turns out to be able to generate positive emotions such as joy or happiness will have a more positive attitude towards the destination. For prestige value, tourists will generally seek prestige and recognition through consumption or using certain products, so that tourists will show a positive attitude towards a destination when they feel a high prestige value. The following hypotheses were put forth to investigate the impact of tourists’ value toward attitudes.

H3. Tourist’s value significantly influences tourist’s attitude toward wellness destinations

Theory of Planned Behavior

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was first developed by (Ajzen, 1991), where in this model proposes three constructs—perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and attitudes toward behavior—in predicting the intention to do a certain behavior (Idris et al., 2017). One of the components of psychological aspects in behavior is attitude, which menggambarkan perasaan yang arises as a result of the opinions and thoughts of individuals in carrying out behavior that is created because of a sense of trust and can be described as a positive or negative evaluation of certain behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Hasan et al., 2020). Another construct is subjective norms, which refer to perceived social pressure and major reference opinions that may influence a person’s decision to engage in an activity or refrain from participating in one (Ajzen, 1991; Hasan et al., 2020; Magdy et al., 2020). Ajzen (1991) defined perceived behavioral control as the easiness or difficultness they felt while performing the behavior, and they evaluated this as a reflection of their prior knowledge and potential barriers. If tourists think they have sufficient access to resources and opportunity, their perceived ability exceeds their travel behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Hasan et al., 2020; Madden et al., 1992) . Until now, in the tourism literature, there have been several studies analyzing the relationship between the influence of tourists’ attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms on tourists’ visit intention (Hsieh et al., 2016; Shin et al., 2022). In addition, this conceptual model has been widely applied and modified in research related to travel behavior, so it is considered important to study for its application after the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in wellness tourism. The influence of these three constructs which were previously felt by tourists when they want to travel is of course different from what was felt after the pandemic, so it needs to be reviewed (Kock et al., 2020; Shin et al., 2022). The changes in behavior in individuals due to the pandemic are now focused on forming a healthy lifestyle and building a healthy soul and mind, which is also known as wellness. With this, the decisions made by tourists in traveling will certainly be influenced by different factors. So this study was compiled to analyze the influence of these three constructs on the intention to visit wellness destinations in Bali after the COVID-19 pandemic.

As explained earlier, several studies have been conducted to measure the influence of the three constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior model – perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and attitude- on interest in visiting a destination. Verma and Chandra (2018) in their study, indicate that perceived behavioral control is one of the crucial factors that can significantly influence consumers’ intentions to visit destinations in their study on young people’s intentions to stay at the Green Hotel. However, these findings indicate that when tourists have the resources, time, opportunities, and desire, their intention to visit Green Hotels when traveling is also higher. This study also found that subjective norms had a significant positive effect on consumer intentions to visit Green Hotels. This finding shows that recommendations and opinions from people who are considered important by tourists can influence decision making, so that when colleagues or relatives recommend and argue to stay at Green Hotels while traveling, the intention of tourists to stay at these destinations becomes greater. Similar results were also found in a study by Muniandy et al. (2019), where there is a positive relationship between PBC and visit intention, which indicates that if tourists get the opportunity and have the capability to travel to certain destinations, the higher the intention to go to visit these destinations. Through their study, a positive relationship was also found between subjective norms and eco-friendly hotels’ visit intention, which indicates that when people closest to them believe that staying at these destinations is good, the intention of tourists to visit is higher. Bianchi et al. (2017) through their research revealed that perceived behavioral control has a significant positive effect on visit intention, which in this study, time and resources are the most important factors for tourists when they want to visit a destination. The findings also reveal a significant positive relationship to visit intention, in which vacation choices are influenced by tourists’ beliefs about whether references will support the choices made or not. Besides that, Seow et al. (2017) who studied medical tourism in Malaysia found that reference groups had a significant influence on the intention to visit, where they cared about the opinions or thoughts of those closest to them in the decision making process.

The final construct of the TPB model is attitude, which is also often researched regarding its role in influencing tourists’ intentions to visit certain destinations. Verma and Chandra (2018) identified that attitude seemed to be a component that significantly influenced young consumers’ intents to stay at the Green Hotel. According to the survey, young people have stronger environmental attitudes and tend to care more about the environment, making the environmental practices used by the hospitality sector more appealing to customers. As a result, hotel guests’ attitudes about the environment will have an impact on how likely they are to stay there and even how much they will spend.  In addition, Hsieh et al. (2016) in their research found that attitudes exhibit stronger explanatory power on the intention of Taiwanese tourists to visit Japan, where the more positive the attitude towards a visit to Japan or when they feel that traveling to Japan is good, beneficial, valuable, and interesting, then the intention of Taiwanese tourists to travel to Japan will be even higher. Yarimoglu and Gunay (2020) through their findings revealed that attitude has a significant positive effect on green hotels’ visit intention by Turkish tourists and has the greatest influence compared to the other two constructs of TPB. From these results, it is indicated that when tourists feel that staying at a green hotel can protect the environment, enjoy healthy facilities, and are able to have a sense of social responsibility, then the intention to visit will increase. The following hypothesis was therefore put forth to measure the influence of perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and tourist attitude on wellness destinations’ visit intention.

H4. Perceived behavioral control significantly influences wellness tourism visit intention

H5. Subjective norms significantly influence wellness tourism visit intention

H6. Tourist’s attitude significantly influences wellness tourism visit intention

Proposed Research Model

Figure. 1. Proposed Research Model

METHODOLOGY

Study Context

The COVID-19 pandemic which started in 2020 has had a significant impact on almost all industries, especially tourism from regional to global. Bali serves as a gateway for domestic travel as well as the core of Indonesian tourism, where the sector contributes to nearly the whole country’s economy as well as local income in Bali, had to experience difficult times due to the pandemic with a decrease of 99.99%. Along with the impact of this pandemic, changes in human behavior are visible, such as how to interact or socialize with one another. Also with this pandemic, now people are experiencing changes of lifestyle, habits in carrying out daily activities, and changes in travel behavior (Yu et al., 2021). People are now showing a need to achieve ideal physical conditions and enhance their mental wellbeing which is also known as wellness. Related to wellness, Indonesia has a large market potential for wellness tourism which beased on the Global Wellness Institute report, Indonesia is ranked 19th as a wellness tourism destination market globally and in the top 10 largest markets in the Asia Pacific. Due of this, Bali as the wheel of tourism in Indonesia seems to have a significant amount of potential as a destination for wellness tourism, considering that Bali was once dubbed the World’s Best Island, World’s Favorite Tourist island, becoming one of the most popular spa destination markets in Asia (Pramono, 2013). Not only that, Bali also has a variety of wellness activities such as yoga, meditation, Balinese spa, and also body cleansing, and is famous for the use of spices and herbs as a holistic relaxation and rejuvenate. This shows that Bali has great potential to develop wellness tourism. However, most tourists are still not aware of this potential, they tend to go to places of entertainment such as nightclubs, cafes, and others. Thus, it is considered interesting to analyze what factors can influence the intention of domestic tourists to visit wellness destinations in Bali.

Measurements Scales and Data Collection

This research was held in Bali as a national tourism in Indonesia which also has great potential in developing wellness tourism. This study applies a quantitative approach with non-probability sampling which is purposive sampling method because there is no data on the population, the sample is determined based on certain criteria. This method was applied in research with the aim of making it easier to determine and obtain samples that are right on target and also determined the criteria for respondents in this study, where the criteria were domestic tourists who know about wellness tourism in Bali. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed online using Google Form via social media, namely Instagram and Telegram, because the target population is outside Bali, thus it is easier, more effective, efficient, time-saving, and able to reach more tourists. The distribution of this research questionnaire took approximately two months starting in February 2022 and ending in April 2022. The questionnaire in this study consisted of two sections, where the first section focused on the socio-demographic characteristics while the second section explored the factors that influence tourists to visit wellness destinations in Bali. Each validated item adapted from previous research was re-examined in this study and use a 10-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree to 10, strongly agree)  in order to describe the level of agreement, provides ease of use to respondents and respondents can describe and express feelings adequately, with a wide range of choices able to convey more information (Preston and Colman, 2000; Taherdoost, 2019). The conceptual model cover seven constructs: attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, pull motivation, wellness motivation, tourist value, and visit intention. Wellness motivation is analyzed with items from research by Kessler et al. (2020). In addition, the scale that is used to measure pull motivation is adopted from Salsabila and Alversia (2020); Wen et al. (2019). Moreover, for tourist value, the scale are adopted from Choe and Kim (2018); Sharma and Nayak (2019); Williams and Soutar (2009). Meanwhile, the three constructs of TPB are measured through modified items from Magdy et al.(2020); Salsabila and Alversia (2020). Finally, visit intention is assessed by the scale used in previous research, namely Luo and Ye (2020). Through questionnaires, a total of 353 responses were received, 30 responses were rejected because they did not meet predetermined criteria and did not fulfill the statement correctly. Thus, only 323 responses can be said to be valid for further analysis.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Data Analysis

From 353 responses obtained, only 323 responses could be said valid for use in the next analysis, in which 30 responses were rejected because they did not meet predetermined criteria and could not answer correctly. Demographics along with the profiles of the 323 respondents can be seen in Table 1. In the table, it can be seen that the majority of respondents are women (258), who are also dominated by tourists in the age range from 21-30 years (272), and almost all respondents are still taking education namely students (228). Of course, of the 323 tourists who answered this questionnaire, as many as (211) respondents had visited Bali once to five times, and had the desire to travel to wellness destinations in Bali with the aim of seeing nature and natural sights (161). Then, from the 323 responses received, it is followed by an analysis phase to evaluate the data for both outer and inner models through the application of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with SmartPLS 3.2.9. The first stage of analysis carried out in this study was validity testing which consisted of two stages, namely convergent validity by analyzing AVE and outer loading, and discriminant validity. As seen in Table 2, it can be seen that the AVE values for each variable obtain values in the range of 0.569 to 0.765, while for outer loading each construct produces values above 0.6. From these results, it can be stated that the research data met the validity criteria (Hair et al., 2013). Furthermore, the second stage was carried out to test the validity, namely discriminant validity which can be seen in Table 3, where the research data met the requirements well where the cross-loading value which had an indicator correlation value to the construct was higher than the indicator correlation value with other constructs along with the square root value AVE above from the correlation between latent variables (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). Thus, the research data can be declared valid by fulfilling the discrimanan validity requirements. Prior to the next stage, namely the hypothesis testing stage, each latent variable will be analyzed in terms of its reliability. Table 2 also shows the results of the reliability test, namely from the Cronbach’s Alpha value, where each variable is on a scale ranging from 0.816 to 0.897. In addition, the level of reliability can also be seen through the Composite Reliability value, where the data in this study obtain values in the range of 0.879 to 0.924. Through the values obtained in this reliability test, it can be seen that all constructs in this study have values above 0.70, thus it can be stated that the research constructs have met the reliability criteria well and the research data is declared reliable (Hair et al., 2013).

Table 1. Respondents’ demographic profiles (N = 323)

Features Category Frequency %
Gender Male 65 20.1
Female 258 79.9
Age < 20 45 13.9
21-30 272 84.2
31-40 3 0.9
41-50 3 0.9
Employment Employee 48 14.9
Entrepreneur 19 5.9
Student 228 70.6
Others 28 8.7
Numbers of Visit (times) Never 53 16.4
1-5 211 65.3
6-10 35 10.8
> 10 24 7.4
Future Visit Meditation & mind fullness 23 7.1
Learning about wellness 15 4.6
Cullinary 5 1.5
Culture 10 3.1
Destination attractions 23 7.1
Nature 161 49.8
Rest & relaxation 75 23.2
Self-care 11 3.4

Table 2. Results of validity and reliability (N = 323)

Variable Indicator Loadings Α CR AVE
Visit Intention VI1 I really want to visit wellness destinations in Bali 0.867 0.897 0.924 0.709
VI2 If I have time, I will visit wellness destinations in Bali 0.860
VI3 The possibility to visit wellness destinations in Bali is high 0.787
VI4 If I have a chance, I will visit wellness destinations in Bali 0.891
VI5 Bali’s wellness tourism will be the next vacation spot especially on post pandemic 0.801
Wellness Motivation WM1 I visit Bali’s wellness destination to become more fit/improve my fitness and to challenge myself physically 0.744 0.873 0.902 0.569
WM2 I visit Bali’s wellness destination to enjoy a variety of foods that fit my dietary needs 0.655
WM3 I visit Bali’s wellness destination to learn how to meditate and to be at peace with myself 0.711
WM4 I visit Bali’s wellness destination to escape the demands of everyday life and feeling rejuvenated 0.784
WM5 I visit Bali’s wellness tourism to learn general ways to improve my overall health and to better manage stressful situations 0.809
WM6 I visit Bali’s wellness tourism to focus on my own needs and to help recover from a major negative life event 0.838
WM7 I visit Bali’s wellness destination to connect with nature and feel grounded in nature 0.724
Pull Motivation PULL1 I visit wellness tourism in Bali to enjoy destination attractions 0.781 0.816 0.879 0.645
PULL2 Wellness destination in Bali has beautiful scenery and unique natural beauty 0.846
PULL3 I travel because of the ease of travel and ease of tour arrangement 0.731
PULL4 Wellness destination in Bali has interesting cultural events and activities 0.850
Attitude ATT1 Wellness tourism in Bali is good 0.860 0.866 0.909 0.714
ATT2 For me, visiting wellness tourism in Bali is very valuable 0.858
ATT3 In my opinion, wellness destination in Bali is positive 0.841
ATT4 In my opinion, traveling to wellness destination in Bali is a fun activity 0.819
Subjective Norms SN1 People whose opinion I respect would prefer if I visit wellness tourism in Bali 0.852 0.846 0.907 0.765
SN2 Most of the people who are important to me support me in traveling to wellness destination in Bali 0.900
SN3 Most people who are important to me think that I should visit wellness tourism in Bali 0.871
Perceived Behavioral Control PBC1 I have enough resources, time, and opportunity to visit wellness tourism in Bali 0.840 0.820 0.892 0.734
PBC2 There are many support facilities available to help improve my travel experience in Bali’s wellness destinations 0.877
PBC3 I am able to travel to wellness destination in Bali 0.853
Tourist Value TV1 I think that Bali’s wellness destinations are acceptable standard of quality 0.835 0.850 0.892 0.625
TV2 I think that Bali’s wellness destinations are reasonably priced/has a good value for money 0.682
TV3 I think that visiting wellness tourism in Bali gives me pleasure and makes me happy 0.838
TV4 In my opinion, Bali’s wellness destination will improve the way a person is perceived 0.782
TV5 In my opinion, visiting Bali’s wellness destination will fulfill my curiosity 0.806

Table 3. Results of Fornell-Larcker Criterion

ATT PBC PULL SN TV VI WM
Attitude 0.845
Perceived Behavioral Control 0.591 0.857
Pull Motivation 0.779 0.596 0.803
Subjective Norms 0.627 0.750 0.634 0.875
Tourists Value 0.757 0.723 0.724 0.723 0.791
Visit Intention 0.744 0.567 0.719 0.582 0.701 0.842
Wellness Motivation 0.705 0.628 0.804 0.695 0.726 0.689 0.755

 Hypothesis testing

This study examines and measures the relationship and influence of health motivation, motivational attraction, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control on intention to visit health purposes. After carrying out the analysis phase by testing the hypothesis through bootstrapping where the test results can be seen in Table 4. In the table, it can be seen that of the six hypotheses formulated in this study, only four hypotheses can be accepted. The findings in Table 4 supported H4 and H6 by showing that perceived behavioral control (t-statistics = 2.073, p-value below 0.05) and attitude (t-statistics= 10.107, p-value below 0.05) were positively significant on tourists’ visit intention. Both the pull motivation relationship (t-statistics= 6.050, p-value below 0.05) and the tourist’s value relationship (tstatistics= 6.577, p-value below 0.05) were found to be significant predictors on the tourist’s attitude. Hence, the H2 and H3 were accepted. However, subjective norms (t-statistics = 1.759, p-value above 0.05) was unable to account for tourists’ intentions to visit Bali’s wellness destination. Additionally, wellness motivation also unable to influence tourists’ attitudes toward Bali’s wellness destinations (t-statistics= 1.023, p-value above 0.05), thus H1 and H5 were rejected. Last but not least, this study’s findings showed that attitude was effective in mediating both the association between pull motivation and visit intention as well as the relationship between tourist value and visit intention (p-value below 0.05).

Table 4. Results of hypothesis test

Hypothesis Path Coefficient Sample Mean Standard Deviation T Statistics P Values Result
H1 WM -> ATT 0.068 0.070 0.066 1.023 0.307 Not Supported
H2 PULL -> ATT 0.447 0.446 0.074 6.050 0.000** Supported
H3 TV -> ATT 0.384 0.384 0.058 6.577 0.000** Supported
H4 PBC -> VI 0.133 0.137 0.064 2.073 0.039* Supported
H5 SN -> VI 0.107 0.108 0.061 1.759 0.079 Not Supported
6 ATT -> VI 0.598 0.595 0.059 10.107 0.000** Supported

 (Note: *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.01; VI: Visit Intention; WM: Wellness Motivation; PULL: Pull Motivation; ATT: Attitude; SN: Subjective Norms; PBC: Perceived Behavioral Control; TV: Tourist Value)

Table 5. Results of specific indirect effect

Mediation Path Coefficient Sample Mean Standard Deviation T Statistics P Values
Pull Motivation -> Attitude -> Visit Intention 0.267 0.265 0.053 5.019 0.000**
Tourists Value -> Attitude -> Visit Intention 0.229 0.228 0.040 5.785 0.000**
Wellness Motivation -> Attitude -> Visit Intention 0.041 0.042 0.040 1.012 0.312

(Note: *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.0

Discussions

This study applies a modified Theory of Planned Behavior conceptual model with several crucial constructs that are able to influence decision making by tourists when determining the destination to go to. Where, the crucial construct consists of wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourists’ value. Unlike previous studies, this study locates and measures the role of attitude as a mediating variable between wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourists’ value on visit intention. Thus, this study can provide a deeper understanding regarding the relationship between latent variables and the influence of attitude as a mediator in influencing domestic tourists’ visiting intentions to wellness destinations in Bali. After conducting an analysis by testing the hypothesis through bootstrapping, there are some interesting findings in this study.

First, the research findings show that wellness motivation has no influence or cannot explain tourists’ attitude toward Bali’s wellness destination, so that based on the hypothesis, H1 in this study cannot be accepted. This indicates that the wellness motivation that comes from within the tourists who are the respondents in this study has no influence on the positive attitudes that arise as a result of this motivation. Through these results, it can be seen that the majority of respondents are tourists who have visited Bali only once to five times, where these respondents most likely do not have a strong understanding of wellness destinations in Bali, thus their attitude towards wellness in Bali is not able to show a positive attitude. The insignificant influence of attitude on motivation can also be caused by the fact that only few people understand the concept of wellness. When they have little understanding, their attitude also tends not to show a positive attitude, which in the end also results in low motivation by tourists in visiting wellness destinations. This statement are supported by Joo et al. (2019) through their study, claims that travelers who have visited a place more than once would have a favorable attitude toward it while frequent visitors will have a more thorough understanding of the place. Abbasi et al. (2021) suggested that perhaps not all tourists are willing to travel to the destination and have a positive attitude about tourism. Additionally, a number of earlier research discovered that attitude frequently have very little to no influence on tourists’ decisions regarding where to travel (Bianchi et al., 2017).  The findings in this study are not in line with research by Levitt et al. (2019); Meera and Vinodan (2019); Zailani et al. (2021), where through their research they revealed that there is a positive influence of wellness motivation on attitude, where when tourists have high motivation for the destination they are going to, they will tend to form a positive attitude due to their great desire to explore and get involved in that destination.

Second, the results demonstrated that pull motivation was crucial in predicting tourists’ attitudes or it can be stated that there is a positive relationship between the two constructs in this research model, therefore H2 can be accepted. These results indicate that the higher the level of motivation that attracts tourists related to wellness tourism destinations, then this will be able to lead to positive attitudes perceived by tourists towards destinations. This findings are consistent with Pereira et al. (2019), discovered that factors influencing travel motivation, particularly the knowledge of place, security, and natural beauty dimensions, had a huge impact on tourist attitudes. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tourists will have more positive attitudes toward particular places the more motivated they are to escape, know about those locations, and appreciate their natural beauty. Besides, the results of this study are also in line with Chuang and Lai (2019) that stated tourist will have a more favorable and helpful attitude toward the location the more strongly they believe in the motivational behavior of the attraction. Tourists’ attitudes toward the location will be more favorable and positive the more strongly they believe in pull-motivated behavior. Through the results, it can be seen that pull motivation provides highest contribution on attitude, which can be supported by the response to the survey that shows 49.8% of domestic tourists, wish to visit Bali to see the natural scenery of wellness destinations in Bali. This implies that pull dimensions are important in tourist’s decision-making process to visit wellness destination in Bali

Third, this study also discovered that tourists’ value significantly in fluence tourists’ attitude, thus H3 proposed in this reserach can be accepted. These results indicate that the better the value given and perceived by tourists regarding tourist destinations, the more positive the attitudes perceived by tourists. The result in this study are consistent with the research by Han et al.(2020), where there is a significant relationship between personal values and tourist attitudes. In addition, Choe and Kim (2018) revealed epistemic value effectively explains tourists’ attitudes especially on local food tourism, which when tourists satisfy their curiosity regarding local food and increase knowledge related to culture and taste food, they will form a positive attitude related to their destinations. This finding also demonstrates that tourist’s value provides high contribution on attitude. Similar results were also found in a study conducted by Verma et al. (2019), where it was proven that value is crucial in the development of consumer attitudes regarding green hotels, which encourages travel to green hotels. The study also found that people will prefer to stay in green hotels and vice versa when the perceived benefits outweigh the actual expenses. This is also used in the concept of value and attitude toward wellness destinations, where consumers will undoubtedly develop a favorable attitude toward Bali’s wellness destinations when they believe the benefits in terms of quality, money, emotion, function, and novelty can outweigh the costs sacrificed. This will increase the number of tourists who intend to visit Bali.

Forth, the findings indicates there is a significant effect of perceived behavioral control towards visit intention, therefore H4 in this research can be accepted. The results of this study indicate that the more resources and opportunities tourists have to visit wellness destinations in Bali, the higher the intention of these tourists to visit these destinations. People are more likely to visit wellness places in Bali if they believe that getting there is simple, there is easy access, and getting around is simple. The likelihood that tourists will visit a location depends on how simple it is for them to learn about its amenities, regulations, and infrastructure (Dash, 2020). Besides, the result in this study are in line with  Verma and Chandra (2018) in their study, indicate that perceived behavioral control is one of the crucial factors that can significantly influence consumers’ intentions to visit destinations in their study on young people’s intentions to stay at the Green Hotel, which indicate that when tourists have the resources, time, opportunities, and desire, their intention to visit Green Hotels when traveling is also higher. Similar results were also found in a study by Muniandy et al. (2019), where there is a positive relationship between perceived behavioral control and visit intention, which indicates that if tourists get the opportunity and have the capability to travel to certain destinations, the higher the intention to go to visit these destinations. Bianchi et al. (2017) through their research revealed that perceived behavioral control has a significant positive effect on visit intention, which in this study, time and resources are the most important factors for tourists when they want to visit a destination.

Fifth, the empirical results also demonstrated that one of the TPB core constructs which is subjective norms, showed insignificant influence on tourist’s visit intention, thus H5 cannot be accepted.  Thus, this study found that support from the surrounding environment or people closest to it (subjective norms) could not affect the intention of tourists to visit wellness tourist destinations. This was in line with research by (Ibrahim et al., 2020) indicates that travelers who have the freedom to independently choose to visit wellness places without having to consider the perspectives or opinions of their family, relatives, and friends. The results of this research concurred with (Magdy et al., 2020), which revealed that subjective norms had no effect on domestic tourists’ desire to travel. This result implies that visitors’ interest in visiting Bali’s wellness tourist spots won’t be affected by the encouragement provided by their closest friends or family. In other words, given that most visitors appreciate wellness tourism that focuses on their own needs, the presence or absence of assistance from the surrounding environment will not alter the level of intention of tourists to visit. As a result, the intention of tourists to visit wellness locations will not be affected by the support of those around them because the key to visiting wellness destinations is to put an emphasis on one’s own growth on the mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. Meanwhile, these results are contrary to research by Muniandy et al. (2019), through their research found a positive relationship between subjective norms and eco-friendly hotels’ visit intention, which indicates that when people closest to them believe that staying at these destinations is good, the intention of tourists to visit is higher, and also in contrast with Seow et al. (2017), in the case of medical tourism in Malaysia also  found that reference groups had a significant influence on the intention to visit, where they cared about the opinions or thoughts of those closest to them in the decision making process.

Last, this study indicated that tourists’ attitudes have a major impact on their intention to visit, therefore H6 can be accepted. The results that show this positive direction indicate that the better the attitudes perceived by tourists regarding wellness tourism destinations, the more their interest in visiting.  This study also shows that attitude plays a role as a mediating variable in the relationship between pull motivation and visit intention, and the relationship between tourist’s value and visit intention. This indicates that the positive attitudes perceived by tourists related to wellness destinations can be triggered by the motivational factors that attract them and the value they perceive. Thus, a sense of optimism or a positive attitude that appears will be able to encourage interest in visiting wellness tourist destination. These results are consistent with studies done by (Verma and Chandra, 2018), where attitude appeared as a factor that had a significant effect of the strongest to predicate young consumer intentions to visit the Green Hotel. The findings of this research show that tourists believe Bali’s wellness destinations can offer them a variety of benefits, including a sense of tranquility, happiness, improved quality of life, relief from mental stress, and the elimination of negative aspects of themselves. These perceived benefits can lead to a positive attitude toward wellness destinations. In addition, Yarimoglu and Gunay (2020) through their findings revealed that attitude has a significant positive effect on green hotels’ visit intention by Turkish tourists and has the greatest influence compared to the other two constructs of TPB. From these results, it is indicated that when tourists feel that staying at a green hotel can protect the environment, enjoy healthy facilities, and are able to have a sense of social responsibility, then the intention to visit will increase.

CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND LIMITATIONS

The conceptual models applied in this study is a modification of the Theory of Planned Behavior model with the aim of broaden the tourism literature and offering a more comprehensive model which includes wellness motivation, pull motivation, tourist value, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and visit intention. This study intends to look into determinants tha can affect tourists’ intentions to visit Bali’s wellness destinations. From the results obtained in this study, there are some interesting findings. First, the results showed that the frameworks of pull motivation and tourist value could both account for tourists’ attitudes toward wellness destinations. In contrast, wellness motive failed in explaining the behavior of tourists. In addition, four constructs—wellness motivation, pull motivation, tourist value, perceived behavioral control, and tourist attitude—were successful in influencing visitors’ intention to visit. In the meantime, SN was unable to predict tourists’ intentions. An intriguing conclusion of this study is that attitudes play a moderating role in the relationships between pull motivation and visit intention as well as between tourist value and visit intention. This suggests that the motivating elements that draw visitors and the perceived value can both lead to the positive opinions that travelers have about wellness locations. Thus, it is possible to stimulate interest in traveling to wellness tourist places by displaying optimism or a good attitude. This result is consistent with the analysis’s findings, which indicate that pull motivation, tourist value to attitude, and attitude to visit intention are the three variables that contribute most.

This study applies the development of a model that is integrated with the Theory of Planned Behavior which aims to predict or analyze in depth related to what factors can influence the interest of visiting domestic tourists towards wellness destinations in Bali. This study also examines the relationship between wellness motivation, pull motivation, tourist values, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitude toward visit intentions. So from this study, there are several theoretical implications that can be given. First, there are still limited topics that raise exploration of wellness destinations in the tourism literature, especially those that make Bali their object. This study measures the potential that Bali has to develop wellness tourism and what factors are capable of growing tourist intentions, especially domestic tourists, to visit this one tourism destination. From the several factors analyzed in this study, the attitude of these tourists will be tested related to their role in mediating the influence between the constructs of wellness motivation, pull motivation, and tourist value on the intention to visit wellness destinations in Bali. Although there is no single or universal way of assessing intention to visit destinations in the literature, this study applies a multidimensional approach in providing an in-depth understanding of wellness tourism. Based on the results obtained, this attitude is able to mediate a significant influence between pull motivation and tourist value on the intention to visit wellness destinations. Where it is found, external factors owned by destinations such as scenery or culture and values such as new experiences are able to create a positive attitude of tourists which in turn can increase the intention to visit wellness tourism in Bali. As is known, the role of mediating attitudes in the relationship between motivation, values, and intention to visit is still little discussed or has received less attention in the literature. Therefore, this study can contribute through a better understanding of domestic tourists’ visiting intentions, the mediating effect of attitudes, and the influence of pull motivation constructs and values on visiting intentions.

Furthermore, by looking at the previous discussion, Bali has great potential in developing wellness tourism considering the many wellness facilities and services ranging from yoga, wellness retreats, resorts, spas, and so on. Bali is also known for various destinations that offer natural scenery that can help meet the inner needs of tourists such as stress relief, relaxation, and many more. But unfortunately, this potential has not received much attention from the public, especially tourism actors and facility providers, which they should be able to increase awareness of and also the intention to visit. Not only theoretical implications, this study also provides practical implications along with recommendations for the community and tourism actors, especially those involved in wellness tourism both in Bali and globally. First, from the results of finding pull motivation and values such as new culture, natural scenery, new experiences, they are able to create a positive tourist attitude towards these destinations, so that managers of tourist destinations must always maintain sustainability and show the attractiveness of these destinations, offering services that are able to provide new experiences, and also increase the awareness of tourists, especially domestic tourists, towards wellness destinations in Bali. Second, strengthening the marketing strategy with the aim of attracting the attention and interest of domestic tourists and even foreign tourists to visit. Maybe most of the current tourism has implemented marketing strategies such as promotions through social media or other platforms, but for this wellness destination itself there is still a lack of promotion so that even this potential is less visible to the public. Strategies that can be applied by utilizing social media such as Instagram, Facebook, and TikTok which are famous for being fast in spreading new trends, information, and becoming a means for promoting goods to tourist attractions. Apart from social media, these managers can create websites with an attractive appearance, detailed information, and easy for tourists to understand. Thus, it is considered very important to implement the right marketing strategy.

Third, knowing that post-pandemic levels of visiting tourists, both domestic and foreign, have begun to increase and recover and wellness tourism in Bali is growing, the government and tourism actors can introduce and promote wellness activities in Bali globally, especially activities that are closely related to culture. Bali, as an effort to introduce and promote activities, it is hoped that more and more tourists will visit Bali and have an interest in finding out and learning more about Balinese culture. Fourth, looking at the rapid growth of the wellness tourism sector around the world, amounting to 40 billion USD per year, or the equivalent of 30%, compared to the tourism industry as a whole, and this wellness sector is expected to increase even higher globally and become a fast growing industry in the world. , with the large potential for high demand, this request must be responded wisely by tourism actors and the government in Bali. Diman, service providers or companies working in the wellness sector can provide input and recommendations to travel agents to offer wellness tour packages that have been tailored to the requests and needs of these tourists, in which these packages are also able to provide new and unique experiences. Not only that, through this study, it is considered important to implement quality control, which is crucial for updating and maintaining the environment around destinations so that they still have their own beauty and uniqueness.

Finally, through the results of this study, the ease with which a behavior can be performed can influence an individual’s intention to carry out that behavior. In relation to wellness tourism in Bali, ease of access is known to be one of the most crucial elements for tourists that can encourage the desire to visit. Thus, it is very important for service providers and facilities to improve the quality of facilities and infrastructure that will ensure ease of travel for tourists in accessing wellness destinations. Through some of these implications and recommendations, it can be concluded that this research is able to help tourism actors and the government to develop the potential for wellness tourism in Bali. Additionally, this study includes a number of limitations that need be addressed by further study. Firstly, brand equity components and other relevant variables that can affect tourists’ intention to come are still not included in the TPB expanded model. Therefore, it is anticipated that future researchers will be able to add relevant variables to the TPB model to increase its capacity for prediction. Secondly, the sample in this study only includes domestic visitors; therefore, future researchers can expand the number of tourist samples, including the population of visitors from other countries to enable generalization. Thirdly, while this research is cross-sectional, it is hoped that future studies would take a longitudinal approach to better understand how tourists behave toward particular locations. Finally, it is anticipated that future researchers will be able to apply the same research model to a larger geographic object of study.

REFERENCES

  1. Abbasi, G.A., Kumaravelu, J., Goh, Y.-N. and Dara Singh, K.S. (2021), “Understanding the intention to revisit a destination by expanding the theory of planned behaviour (TPB)”, Spanish Journal of Marketing – ESIC, Vol. 25 No. 2, doi: 10.1108/SJME-12-2019-0109.
  2. Ajzen, I. (1991), “The Theory of Planned Behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 179–211, doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.
  3. Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1973), “Attitudinal and Normative Variables as Predictors of Specific Behaviors”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 41–57, doi: 10.1037/h0034440.
  4. Albayrak, T., Caber, M. and Çömen, N. (2016), “Tourist shopping: The relationships among shopping attributes, shopping value, and behavioral intention”, Tourism Management Perspectives, Elsevier B.V., Vol. 18, pp. 98–106, doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2016.01.007.
  5. Baker, D.A. and Crompton, J.L. (2000), “Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 27 No. 3, pp. 785–804, doi: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00108-5.
  6. Battour, M., Ismail, M.N., Battor, M. and Awais, M. (2017), “Islamic tourism: an empirical examination of travel motivation and satisfaction in Malaysia”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 50–67, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2014.965665.
  7. Bianchi, C., Milberg, S. and Cúneo, A. (2017), “Understanding travelers’ intentions to visit a short versus long-haul emerging vacation destination: The case of Chile”, Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 59, pp. 312–324, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.08.013.
  8. Carreira, V., González-Rodríguez, M.R. and Díaz-Fernández, M.C. (2022), “The relevance of motivation, authenticity and destination image to explain future behavioural intention in a UNESCO World Heritage Site”, Current Issues in Tourism, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 650–673, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2021.1905617.
  9. Central Bureau of Statistics. (2022). Publikasi statistik: Propinsi Bali. retrieved from https:// bali.bps.go.id/ accessed date: November 10, 2022
  10. Chikuta, O., du Plessis, E. and Saayman, M. (2017), “Nature-based travel motivations for people with disabilities”, African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Vol. 6 No. 1.
  11. Choe, J.Y. (Jacey) and Kim, S. (Sam). (2018), “Effects of tourists’ local food consumption value on attitude, food destination image, and behavioral intention”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Elsevier, Vol. 71 No. November 2017, pp. 1–10, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.11.007.
  12. Chuang, S.S. and Lai, H.M. (2019), Understanding Consumers’ Continuance Intention toward Self-Service Stores: An Integrated Model of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Push-Pull-Mooring Theory, Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 1027, Springer International Publishing, doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-21451-7_13.
  13. Correia, A., Kozak, M. and Ferradeira, J. (2013), “From tourist motivations to tourist satisfaction”, International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 411–424, doi: 10.1108/IJCTHR-05-2012-0022.
  14. Crossley, É. and Picard, D. (2014), “Regimes of value in tourism”, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 201–205, doi: 10.1080/14766825.2014.939385.
  15. Dash, A. (2020), “Exploring visit intention to India for medical tourism using an extended theory of planned behaviour”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 418–436, doi: 10.1108/JHTI-03-2020-0037.
  16. Dillette, A.K., Douglas, A.C. and Andrzejewski, C. (2021), “Dimensions of holistic wellness as a result of international wellness tourism experiences”, Current Issues in Tourism, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 794–810, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1746247.
  17. Fieger, P., Prayag, G. and Bruwer, J. (2019), “‘Pull’ motivation: an activity-based typology of international visitors to New Zealand”, Current Issues in Tourism, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 173–196, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2017.1383369.
  18. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. (1981), “Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research‏”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 382-388.
  19. García-Fernández, J., Gálvez-Ruíz, P., Fernández-Gavira, J., Vélez-Colón, L., Pitts, B. and Bernal-García, A. (2018), “The effects of service convenience and perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty in low-cost fitness centers”, Sport Management Review, Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 250–262, doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2017.07.003.
  20. Gronroos, C. and Gummerus, J. (2014), “The service revolution and its marketing implications: service logic vs service-dominant logic”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 592–611.
  21. Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2013), “Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: Rigorous Applications, Better Results and Higher Acceptance”, Long Range Planning, Vol. 46 No. 1–2, pp. 1–12, doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.001.
  22. Han, H., Kiatkawsin, K., Koo, B. and Kim, W. (2020), “Thai wellness tourism and quality: comparison between Chinese and American visitors’ behaviors”, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 424–440, doi: 10.1080/10941665.2020.1737551.
  23. Hartini and Fafurida. (2021), “Economics Development Analysis Journal Role of Social Media in Influencing The Visit of Domestic Tourist”, Economics Development Analysis Journal, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 96–104.
  24. Hasan, K., Abdullah, S.K., Islam, F. and Neela, N.M. (2020), “An Integrated Model for Examining Tourists’ Revisit Intention to Beach Tourism Destinations”, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, Routledge, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 716–737, doi: 10.1080/1528008X.2020.1740134.
  25. He, M., Liu, B. and Li, Y. (2021), “Tourist Inspiration: How the Wellness Tourism Experience Inspires Tourist Engagement”, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, p. 109634802110263, doi: 10.1177/10963480211026376.
  26. He, X. and Luo, J.M. (2020), “Relationship among Travel Motivation, Satisfaction and Revisit Intention of Skiers: A Case Study on the Tourists of Urumqi Silk Road Ski Resort”, Administrative Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 3, p. 56, doi: 10.3390/admsci10030056.
  27. Hsieh, C.M., Park, S.H. and McNally, R. (2016), “Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior to Intention to Travel to Japan Among Taiwanese Youth: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Past Visit Experience”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 33 No. 5, pp. 717–729, doi: 10.1080/10548408.2016.1167387.
  28. Ibrahim, A.N.H., Borhan, M.N. and Rahmat, R.A.O.K. (2020), “Understanding users’ intention to use park-and-ride facilities in malaysia: The role of trust as a novel construct in the theory of planned behaviour”, Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 12 No. 6, doi: 10.3390/su12062484.
  29. Idris, A., Edwards, H. and Mcdonald, S. (2017), “E-commerce adoption in Developing Countries SMEs : What Do the Prevailing Theoretical Models Offer Us ?”, 4th International Conference on E-Commerce.
  30. John L. Crompton. (1979), “An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 1, pp. 18–23.
  31. Joo, D., Cho, H. and Woosnam, K.M. (2019), “Exploring tourists’ perceptions of tourism impacts”, Tourism Management Perspectives, Elsevier, Vol. 31 No. October 2018, pp. 231–235, doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2019.05.008.
  32. Junaedi, S. and Harjanto, J. (2020), “Examining The Effect of Destination Awareness, Destination Image, Tourist Motivation, and Word of Mouth on Tourists’ Intention to Revisit”, International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics, Vol. 27 No. Economics of Emerging Markets, pp. 27–38, doi: 10.1108/S1571-038620200000027003.
  33. Kabote, F., Mamimine, P.W. and Muranda, Z. (2017), “Domestic tourism for sustainable development in developing countries”, African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 1–12.
  34. Kessler, D., Lee, J.-H. and Whittingham, N. (2020), “The wellness tourist motivation scale: a new statistical tool for measuring wellness tourist motivation”, International Journal of Spa and Wellness, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 24–39, doi: 10.1080/24721735.2020.1849930.
  35. Khan, M.J., Chelliah, S. and Ahmed, S. (2019), “Intention to visit India among potential travellers: Role of travel motivation, perceived travel risks, and travel constraints”, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 351–367, doi: 10.1177/1467358417751025.
  36. Kim, E., Chiang, L. (Luke) and Tang, L. (Rebecca). (2017), “Investigating wellness tourists’ motivation, engagement, and loyalty: in search of the missing link”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Routledge, Vol. 34 No. 7, pp. 867–879, doi: 10.1080/10548408.2016.1261756.
  37. Kock, F., Nørfelt, A., Josiassen, A., Assaf, A.G. and Tsionas, M.G. (2020), “Understanding the COVID-19 tourist psyche: The Evolutionary Tourism Paradigm”, Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, Vol. 85 No. May, p. 103053, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.103053.
  38. Levitt, J.A., Zhang, P., DiPietro, R.B. and Meng, F. (2019), “Food tourist segmentation: Attitude, behavioral intentions and travel planning behavior based on food involvement and motivation”, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, Routledge, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 129–155, doi: 10.1080/15256480.2017.1359731.
  39. Light, D. (2017), “Progress in dark tourism and thanatourism research: An uneasy relationship with heritage tourism”, Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 61, pp. 275–301, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.01.011.
  40. Lin, Z., Chen, Y. and Filieri, R. (2017), “Resident-tourist value co-creation: The role of residents’ perceived tourism impacts and life satisfaction”, Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 61, pp. 436–442, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.02.013.
  41. López-Guzmán, T., Torres Naranjo, M., Pérez Gálvez, J.C. and Carvache Franco, W. (2019), “Segmentation and motivation of foreign tourists in world heritage sites. A case study, Quito (Ecuador)”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 22 No. 10, pp. 1170–1189, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2017.1344625.
  42. Luo, J.M. and Ye, B.H. (2020), “Role of generativity on tourists’ experience expectation, motivation and visit intention in museums”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 43 No. March, pp. 120–126, doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.03.002.
  43. Madden, T.J., Ellen, P.S. and Ajzen, I. (1992), “A Comparison of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Theory of Reasoned Action”, PSPB, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 3–9.
  44. Magdy, H., Eman, H. and Abdel, M. (2020), “Investigating the Factors that Enhance Tourists’ Intention to Revisit Touristic Cities. A Case Study on Luxor and Aswan in Egypt”, International Journal of African and Asian Studies, Vol. 69, pp. 24–36, doi: 10.7176/jaas/69-04.
  45. Meera, S. and Vinodan, A. (2019), “Attitude towards alternative medicinal practices in wellness tourism market”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 278–295, doi: 10.1108/JHTI-06-2018-0037.
  46. Mimaki, C.A., Darma, G.S., Widhiasthini, N.W. and Basmantra, I.N. (2022), “Predicting post-COVID-19 tourist’s loyalty: will they come back and recommend?”, International Journal of Tourism Policy, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 1–23, doi: 10.1504/IJTP.2022.121941.
  47. Muna, N., Yasa, N. N. K., Ekawati, N. W., Wibawa, I. M. A., & Sri Subawa, N. (2023). Business network power as a process for enhancing firm performance: A perspective of RAToC. Cogent Business & Management, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2023.2207620
  48. Muniandy, K., Rahim, S.A., Ahmi, A. and Rahman, N.A.A. (2019), “Factors that influence customers’ intention to visit green hotels in Malaysia”, International Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 994–1003.
  49. Park, J., Musa, G., Moghavvemi, S., Thirumoorthi, T., Taha, A.Z., Mohtar, M. and Sarker, M.M. (2019), “Travel motivation among cross border tourists: Case study of Langkawi”, Tourism Management Perspectives, Elsevier, Vol. 31 No. April 2018, pp. 63–71, doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2019.03.004.
  50. Park, J.Y., Bufquin, D. and Back, R.M. (2019), “When do they become satiated? An examination of the relationships among winery tourists’ satisfaction, repeat visits and revisit intentions”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 11 No. October 2017, pp. 231–239, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.04.004.
  51. Pereira, V., Gupta, J.J. and Hussain, S. (2019), “Impact of Travel Motivation on Tourist’s Attitude Toward Destination: Evidence of Mediating Effect of Destination Image”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, pp. 1–26, doi: 10.1177/1096348019887528.
  52. Phau, I., Lee, S. and Quintal, V. (2013), “An investigation of push and pull motivations of visitors to private parks: The case of Araluen Botanic Park”, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 269–284, doi: 10.1177/1356766712471232.
  53. Pramono, J. (2013), “Strategi Pengembangan Health AND Wellness di Bali”, Jurnal Manajemen, Strategi Bisnis, Dan Kewirausahaan , Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 66–74.
  54. Prayag, G., Chen, N. (Chris) and Del Chiappa, G. (2018), “Domestic tourists to Sardinia: motivation, overall attitude, attachment, and behavioural intentions”, Anatolia, Routledge, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 84–97, doi: 10.1080/13032917.2017.1387583.
  55. Preston, C.C. and Colman, A.M. (2000), “Optimal number of response categories in rating scales: Reliability, validity, discriminating power, and respondent preferences”, Acta Psychologica, Vol. 104 No. 1, pp. 1–15, doi: 10.1016/S0001-6918(99)00050-5.
  56. Rousta, A. and Jamshidi, D. (2020), “Food tourism value: Investigating the factors that influence tourists to revisit”, Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 73–95, doi: 10.1177/1356766719858649.
  57. Salsabila, N. and Alversia, Y. (2020), “Examining Push-Pull Motivation and Travel Intention for Potential Travelers in Indonesia Using Theory of Planned Behaviour”, Proceedings of Tourism Development Centre International Conference, No. October, pp. 38–48, doi: 10.2478/9788395720406-004.
  58. Seow, A.N., Choong, Y.O., Moorthy, K. and Chan, L.M. (2017), “Intention to visit Malaysia for medical tourism using the antecedents of Theory of Planned Behaviour: A predictive model”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 383–393, doi: 10.1002/jtr.2120.
  59. Sharma, P. and Nayak, J.K. (2019), “Dark tourism: tourist value and loyalty intentions”, Tourism Review, Vol. 74 No. 4, pp. 915–929, doi: 10.1108/TR-11-2018-0156.
  60. Shin, H., Nicolau, J.L., Kang, J., Sharma, A. and Lee, H. (2022), “Travel decision determinants during and after COVID-19: The role of tourist trust, travel constraints, and attitudinal factors”, Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 88 No. December 2020, p. 104428, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104428.
  61. Soliman, M. (2019), “Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Tourism Destination Revisit Intention”, International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, Routledge, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 524–549, doi: 10.1080/15256480.2019.1692755.
  62. Subawa, N. S., Widhiasthini, N. W., Permatasari, N. P. I., & Wisudawati, N. N. S. (2022). MSMEs envisaged as the economy spearhead for Bali in the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Cogent Economics & Finance, 10(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2022.2096200
  63. Subawa, N.S., Basmantra, I.N., Utami, N.P.R., Mimaki, C.A. (2024a). Leveraging Social Media Marketing and Brand Awareness for Enhancing Purchase Intention in the Food and Beverage Industry Post-COVID-19. In: Alareeni, B., Hamdan, A. (eds) Technology and Business Model Innovation: Challenges and Opportunities. ICBT 2023. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 924. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53998-5_33
  64. Subawa, N.S., Basmantra, I.N., Juwita, P.R., Dinata, S. (2024b). The Effect of New Work Policies During Covid-19 on Employee Performance and Loyalty in Jepun Kuta Bali Hotel. In: Alareeni, B., Hamdan, A. (eds) Technology and Business Model Innovation: Challenges and Opportunities. ICBT 2023. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 924. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53998-5_42
  65. Subawa, N.S., Ningrat, F.A., Utami, M.S.M., Prabarini, N.S.D., Yanti, N.K.W., Basmantra, I.N. (2024c). Auditors Ability in Detecting Fraud: Evidence from External Auditor in Bali. In: Alareeni, B., Hamdan, A. (eds) Technology and Business Model Innovation: Challenges and Opportunities. ICBT 2023. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 924. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53998-5_46
  66. Suhartanto, D., Brien, A., Primiana, I., Wibisono, N. and Triyuni, N.N. (2020), “Tourist loyalty in creative tourism: the role of experience quality, value, satisfaction, and motivation”, Current Issues in Tourism, Taylor & Francis, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 867–879, doi: 10.1080/13683500.2019.1568400.
  67. Taherdoost, H. (2019), “What Is the Best Response Scale for Survey and Questionnaire Design; Review of Different Lengths of Rating Scale / Attitude Scale / Likert Scale”, International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 1–10.
  68. Tsai, C.T.S. and Wang, Y.C. (2017), “Experiential value in branding food tourism”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Elsevier, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 56–65, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.02.003.
  69. UNWTO. (2020), “UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, May 2020 – Special focus on the Impact of COVID-19”, UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, May 2020 – Special Focus on the Impact of COVID-19, Vol. 19 No. May, doi: 10.18111/9789284421930.
  70. UNWTO. (2021a), “UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex, May 2021”, UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.18111/wtobarometereng.2021.19.1.3.
  71. UNWTO. (2021b), UNWTO News Release 2021, UNWTO World Tourism Organization.
  72. Verma, V.K. and Chandra, B. (2018), “An application of theory of planned behavior to predict young Indian consumers’ green hotel visit intention”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier B.V., Vol. 172, pp. 1152–1162, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.047.
  73. Verma, V.K., Chandra, B. and Kumar, S. (2019), “Values and ascribed responsibility to predict consumers’ attitude and concern towards green hotel visit intention”, Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, Vol. 96 No. October 2018, pp. 206–216, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.021.
  74. Voigt, C., Brown, G. and Howat, G. (2011), “Wellness tourists: In search of transformation”, Tourism Review, Vol. 66, pp. 16–30, doi: 10.1108/16605371111127206.
  75. Wen, J., Huang, S. (Sam) and Ying, T. (2019), “Relationships between Chinese cultural values and tourist motivations: A study of Chinese tourists visiting Israel”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 14, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.100367.
  76. Whang, H., Yong, S. and Ko, E. (2016), “Pop culture, destination images, and visit intentions: Theory and research on travel motivations of Chinese and Russian tourists”, Journal of Business Research, Elsevier B.V., Vol. 69 No. 2, pp. 631–641, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.06.020.
  77. Widhiasthini, N. W., Subawa, N. S., Basmantra, I. N., & Wisudawati, N. N. S. (2023). The practice of new public management in the digitalisation of election campaign. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 14(4), 490–505. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEG.2022.129318
  78. Widhiasthini, N. W., Subawa, N. S., Fong Emmerson, M., Yanti, N. K. W., Utami, M. S. M., Kusuma, P. S. A. J., … Sudharma, K. J. A. (2024). Public regulation urgency in cryptocurrency based on administrative reform for Bali sustainable tourism. Cogent Social Sciences, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2024.2312657
  79. Williams, P. and Soutar, G.N. (2009), “Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions in an Adventure Tourism Context”, Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 413–438, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.02.002.
  80. Yarimoglu, E. and Gunay, T. (2020), “The extended theory of planned behavior in Turkish customers’ intentions to visit green hotels”, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 29 No. 3, pp. 1097–1108, doi: 10.1002/bse.2419.
  81. Yu, J., Lee, K. and Hyun, S.S. (2021), “Understanding the influence of the perceived risk of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the post-traumatic stress disorder and revisit intention of hotel guests”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 46 No. January, pp. 327–335, doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.01.010.
  82. Zailani, N.F.I.B., Albattat, A., Yee, W.S., Nazri, M.H.B.M. and Zuraimi, N.S.B.M. (2021), “Tourist Motivation Factors Towards Health and Wellness Tourism in Malaysia”, TOURMAN 2021 – 4th International Scientific Conference, “Restarting Tourism, Travel and Hospitality: The Day after”, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, No. May 21-23.

Article Statistics

Track views and downloads to measure the impact and reach of your article.

0

PDF Downloads

354 views

Metrics

PlumX

Altmetrics