Illocutionary Speech Acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram Account: A Multimodal Pragmatic Study

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Illocutionary Speech Acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram Account: A Multimodal Pragmatic Study

  • Putri Haryanti
  • Kundharu Saddhono
  • Atikah Anindyarini
  • 83-103
  • Mar 30, 2024
  • Education

Illocutionary Speech Acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram Account: A Multimodal Pragmatic Study

Putri Haryanti1*, Kundharu Saddhono2, Atikah Anindyarini3

1Student, Pascasarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta,Indonesia

2,3Lecturer, Pascasarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Indonesia

 *Corresponding Author 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1103009

Received: 02 March 2024; Accepted: 20 March 2024; Published: 01 April 2024

ABSTRACT

As the country’s leader, President Jokowi’s Instagram account functions as a medium of communication with the Indonesian people, so its substance contains educational values, including his speech acts. This research describes the form and strategy of illocutionary speech acts in posts on President Jokowi’s Instagram account. This research was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method, and the approach was multimodal pragmatics. Research data includes President Jokowi’s uploads on his Instagram account. The sampling technique uses a purposive sampling method in the form of uploads to President Jokowi’s Instagram account from January to February 2023. The data collection technique involves document analysis and interviews with language experts. Data validation tests were carried out by triangulating theory and methods. The data analysis technique uses flow analysis or typology. The research results show that (1) illocutionary speech acts on President Jokowi’s Instagram account include four forms directive, expressive, commissive, and declarative. The dominant form is directive speech acts; (2) the speech act strategies used in President Jokowi’s Instagram account include direct and indirect speech act strategies.

Keywords: illocutionary, strategy, context, multimodal pragmatics.

INTRODUCTION

Apart from being used to communicate, language also functions as a building block for writing literary works, scientific articles, and even writing on social media. In expressing an idea on social media, a person not only says something but also takes action through their words. These expressions are called speech acts. Speech acts are a theory that analyzes actions carried out through speech (Yule, 1996). In speech acts, communication not only depends on recognizing the meaning of the words in an utterance but also on recognizing what the speaker means by his utterance. This means context is needed as part of communication to understand the speaker’s intentions. The meaning of these speech acts can be studied in illocutionary speech acts (Searle, 1979).

Social media has changed the form of group interaction and individual and collective behavior of its users throughout the world (Gumabay et all, 2024). Communication on social media does not always use linguistic elements only; it can also use visuals. The same thing can also be found in the advantages of Instagram features. Instagram is an image-based social media tool encouraging users to generate images and engage in various activities. Image production aims to allow users to share by being influenced by each other and to express themselves easily (Carah & Shaul, 2015; Hazar, 2011:162). Instagram is not only used as a personal account, but it has become an effective medium for disseminating information packaged more attractively in the form of cartoons, caricatures, or videos (Pendri, 2019).

One of the most important figures in Indonesia who uses Instagram as a medium of communication with the public is the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Mr Joko Widodo. Through his official account @jokowi, he often shares his daily activities. The activities he shares include information about daily activities as well as the appreciation of an event with its unique characteristics. In several captions on his official Instagram account, President Jokowi writes invitations, appeals and information using word choices packaged using illocutionary speech acts. Illocutionary speech acts are intended to express an action contained in a speech or have a specific purpose, or it can also be said to expect a reaction from the speech partner. Illocutionary speech acts occur when speakers make statements with the aim of not only conveying information but also carrying out an action. Therefore, it is very important to see illocutionary speech acts when using language as an action. The dominant form is directive speech acts (Leech, 1993: 316; Prayitno, 2017: 50; Huang, 2022).

Illocutionary speech acts, according to Searle (in Rahardi, 2005:36), are grouped into five, including (1) Representative (assertive), namely a form of speech that binds the speaker to the truth of the proposition expressed. This speech act states something so that it can be judged whether it is true. For example, stating, reporting, showing and mentioning; (2) Directive (impositive), a form of speech intended by the speaker to create an influence so that the speech partner takes action. Directive speech acts aim to produce effects in the form of actions carried out by the listener, for example: ordering, ordering, requesting, demanding, advising, requesting, prohibiting, allowing, asking, and threatening; (3) Expressive (evaluative), namely a form of speech that functions to express or show the speaker’s psychological attitude towards a situation. This speech act expresses the speaker’s psychological feelings about a specific mood. (For example, thank you, express congratulations, praise, express satisfaction, complain, blame, make small talk, humour, etc.); (4) Commissive, namely a form of speech that functions to express something that shows that the speaker is more or less related to an action in the future. For example, promising, swearing, and threatening; and (5) Declarative, namely speech acts that function to express something that shows disappointment, dislike and pleasure. For example, deciding, cancelling, prohibiting, allowing, and apologizing.

Studies of speech acts mediated by social media that have been carried out by previous researchers, namely speech acts that create positive attitudes on social media (Argyris et al., 2021), speech acts on social media related to political issues (Tsoumou, 2020), speech acts on the media social Instagram @halostiki (Pande & Artana, 2020), illocutionary speech acts in podcasts and YouTube (Widyawati and Utomo (2020), and research on speech acts on social media Facebook related to Covid-19 (Abdalhadi et al., 2022) are still limited to linguistic (verbal) aspects only so that understanding language (text) is still based on one point of view, even though understanding language (text) would be better if based on more than one point of view or what is then called multimodal so that the complexity of the meaning of language (text) can be understood well.

The researchers’ reasons for choosing President Jokowi’s Instagram account were strengthened by data showing that the account was ranked 2nd in the country’s leader regarding Instagram followers, with 50.7 million followers (Goodstats.id, 2023). There has been extensive research conducted on President Jokowi’s Instagram account, covering various aspects and employing different methodologies. Cindy (2019) focused on Jokowi’s self-image portrayed on Instagram, while Pandiangan (2020) conducted a communication audit of Jokowi’s Instagram posts. Pensiuningsih (2021) analyzed metaphors used in Jokowi’s Instagram content, while Aryanti (2022) examined the use of personal pronouns in Jokowi’s captions. Purnomo (2022) adopted a behaviorist approach to analyze the meaning conveyed in Jokowi’s Instagram speech. Kusmanto et al. (2019) studied language politeness acts in comments on Jokowi’s Instagram account, and Eliastuti et al. (2023) explored language politeness in Jokowi’s Instagram interactions. The research results from this study still focus on the linguistic aspect only, and no one has studied it at the multimodal stage. Therefore, this study allows researchers to explore multimodal linguistic and visual elements of President Jokowi’s Instagram account.

The language context in pragmatic studies on social media has undergone such changes. This happens because of the communication situation that occurs using virtual media. In fact, communication mediated by social media not only uses linguistic modes but also uses multimodality in conveying meaning. This means that pragmatic studies that only analyze linguistic aspects are seen as less comprehensive in understanding the speaker’s intentions. Therefore, an approach is needed that accommodates not only linguistic elements but also accommodates multimodality in communication. A text is called multimodal if the text is realized from a combination of two or more semiotic systems. A semiotic system is a set of signs that have a relationship with each other and are used to convey meaning. Five semiotic systems can be identified in a text, namely 1) Linguistic, a semiotic system that uses language as a sign. 2) Visual, namely a semiotic system that uses images, photos or illustrations as signs. 3) Audio, namely a semiotic system that uses sound as a sign. 4) Gestural, namely a semiotic system that uses body movements as signs. 5) Spatial, namely a semiotic system that uses layout or arrangement as a sign (Anstey & Bull, 2010).

Semiotics in multimodal pragmatics focus on how signs interact in various modes of communication to create meaning. According to Leeuwen (2005), he puts forward semiotic analysis in a social context, emphasizing the importance of social context in understanding how signs are used in communication. Furthermore, Leeuwen (2005) discusses the concept of multimodal, which includes (1) Mode, which relates to how various modes (written text, images, sound, movement) work together to form a richer message; (2) Visual Design, which deals with how visual elements such as colour, composition, and layout contribute to meaning; (3) Social Context which relates to how social, cultural and ideological contexts influence the interpretation of signs in multimodal communication; (4) Sign Interaction which relates to how signs interact with each other to form a more complex meaning than just individual components (Leeuwen, 2005).

This research is important because 21st-century communication is not only limited to linguistic aspects but can also be done through images and visuals. The multimodal paradigm is very important in interpreting the significance of language use more comprehensively and accurately from a person’s behaviour (Huang, 2022). The study of multimodal pragmatics is considered relevant for understanding illocutionary speech acts in communication mediated through social media. The study of multimodal pragmatics is considered relevant because in analyzing illocutionary speech acts, we do not only analyze linguistics but also analyze multimodal communication, in the form of visual and audiovisual, so that we can strengthen the intent or purpose of the speech acts that President Jokowi wants to convey through his uploads. The dimensions of multimodality have now become very important in understanding the meaning of speech. Likewise, aspects of multimodality are now clearly involved in conveying the meaning of speech (Rahardi, 2022).

Based on the various descriptions presented above, the problem in this research is the form and strategy of illocutionary speech acts on Jokowi’s Instagram account. In line with the problem formulation, this research aims to describe the form and strategy of illocutionary speech acts in Jokowi’s Instagram account posts.

RESEARCH METHODS

This research is descriptive qualitative with a multimodal pragmatic approach. Descriptive qualitative research explores and understands the meaning of several individuals or groups of people originating from social problems (Creswell, 2016). Qualitative descriptive attempts to describe and analyze illocutionary speech acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram account uploads. Research data is data in words, schemes and images obtained through various data collection techniques such as interviews, document analysis or observations, which are then expressed as field notes (Sugiyono, 2015). The data taken by researchers is captions and uploads containing illocutionary speech acts on President Jokowi’s Instagram account. The data source in qualitative research is the origin of the data obtained (Arikunto, 2014: 172). The data source for this research was obtained from communication interactions on President Jokowi’s Instagram account. The context of the utterance influences the purpose of the communication interaction in a speech act. The sampling technique employed was purposive sampling, which involves selecting samples based on specific criteria or considerations (Sugiyono, 2016: 85). Purposive sampling technique was used to sort data (President Jokowi’s Instagram account uploads) containing illocutionary speech acts in the period January and February 2023.

The data collection technique involved analyzing documents such as President Jokowi’s Instagram account uploads and interviews with language experts. They triangulated theories and methods and carried out the data validity test to check the validity of the data that had been analyzed (Gunawan, 2014:219). The data analysis technique uses flow analysis or typology, which includes data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman, 2014: 16–20). In analyzing qualitative data, this study adopts Searle’s (1983) perspective on illocutionary speech acts to scrutinize linguistic aspects in uploaded captions. This research utilizes multimodal concepts from Anstey and Bull (2010) and van Leeuwen (2005) to analyze visual aspects in uploaded images. Multimodal analysis using this perspective includes (1) Linguistics, which is concerned with how various modes (written text, images, sounds, movements) work together to form a richer message; (2) Visual, which relates to how visual elements such as colour, composition, and layout contribute to meaning; (3) Social Context which relates to how social, cultural and ideological contexts influence the interpretation of signs in multimodal communication. The theories above will be applied to analyse illocutionary speech acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram posts.

Flow Analysis

Chart I.1. Flow Analysis

Source: Miles and Hubermen, (2014:16– 20)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Illocutionary Speech Acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram Account

Directive Speech Acts

A directive speech act is a type of speech act that requires the speech partner to act according to the content of the utterance. This involves expressing the speaker’s desire for the speech partner to carry out a specific action, as explained by Sumarti and Salamah (2015). This speech act aims to achieve results in the form of actions carried out by the speech partner. President Jokowi uses various types of directive speech acts in the captions on his Instagram account. The speech act of request includes speech intended to ask the speech partner to do something as stated by the speaker in his speech. The statement of this request can be found in the following quote.

Visual Elements Linguistic Elements
[1] Mari menyongsong harapan, tantangan, dan peluang yang baru.Tetap bersama melangkahi ambang tahun 2023 menuju Indonesia yang maju (IG010123)

[1] Let’s welcome new hopes, challenges and opportunities. Stay together, crossing the threshold of 2023 towards a developed Indonesia (IG010123)

Figure 1. 2023 New Year Greeting Post

Linguistic Elements

This speech act invites us to face the future together with full hope, ready to overcome challenges and take advantage of opportunities that arise. “Stay together over the threshold of 2023” This speech act emphasizes the importance of remaining united and supporting each other as we step over the threshold of the new year, signifying the spirit of togetherness in facing the journey towards 2023. “Towards a developed Indonesia”. This speech act shows a positive aim to encourage Indonesia’s progress. This can include hopes for progress in economic, educational, and social areas. Overall, the caption creates a picture of a positive, collaborative and optimistic spirit in facing the coming year. The caption above functions to invite people to welcome the hopes, challenges and opportunities in 2023. The caption contains a directive illocutionary speech act, which implies a positive spirit and optimism in welcoming the new year, namely 2023.

Visual Elements

Layout

The new year, which falls on January 1, especially in 2023, is the starting point of President Jokowi’s struggle to continue development in Indonesia, expressed through the “Happy New Year 2023” upload. The expression of a Happy New Year is conveyed through illustration work that displays various objects (Figure 1). A, shows President Jokowi holding a book that says Advanced Indonesia and seems to be planning various infrastructure advances in 2023. B, shows a tall building that uses solar panel power. C, shows a skyscraper with a roof planted with trees and plants. D, shows the sun with the words 2023 accompanied by light. E, shows the urban atmosphere in the mountains. F, several ships carrying containers use the red and white flag as their identity. G, shows wind power. H, shows winding toll road infrastructure. I, showing the Whoosh high-speed train. J, shows a long red bridge.

Composition

The main point of the visual is President Jokowi holding a pen as if planning infrastructure progress with various elements, including tall buildings equipped with solar panels, skyscrapers with environmentally friendly roofs, an urban atmosphere in the mountains, ships with red and white flags, wind power, winding toll roads, Whoosh fast trains, long red bridges, and golden yellow batik. All of this reflects a dedication to realizing the vision of Advanced Indonesia. The visual is equipped with the glowing words 2023, symbolizing hope for this year to unite towards an advanced Indonesia. President Jokowi’s choice of white on the shirt creates a positive impression regarding his leadership, depicting him as a peaceful, friendly and understanding figure (Rustan, 2019). The use of white gives a positive image of caring and friendly leadership. The colour white symbolically represents purity, cleanliness, refinement, virtue, honesty, light, gentleness, elegance and simplicity (Monica & Luzar, 2011).

The interaction between elements B, C, F, G, H, I, and J in the context of infrastructure development in 2023, starting from elements B (tall buildings with solar panels) and C (skyscrapers with roofs planted with trees), shows efforts to integrate technology green and environmentally friendly in urban infrastructure, by utilizing renewable energy sources and increasing environmental sustainability. Element F (ships with red and white flags) depicts enhanced international connectivity and trade, which is part of efforts to improve the country’s economy and trade. Elements G (wind power) and H (winding toll road infrastructure) illustrate efforts to expand modern, efficient and sustainable energy and transportation infrastructure. Elements I (Whoosh high-speed train) and J (a long red bridge) reflect the modernization of transportation infrastructure to increase mobility and connectivity between regions. Overall, the interaction between these elements illustrates the vision for infrastructure development in 2023, which aims to create a greener environment, increase connectivity and trade, and expand accessibility and mobility for society. These are important steps in realizing sustainable economic growth and moving the country towards a better future.

Elements D (the sun with the words 2023 accompanied by light) and E (the urban atmosphere in the mountains) may have a symbolic interaction that reflects the concept of a bright, light and innovative future. Here are some potential interpretations. The sun is often identified as a renewable energy source. Element D, which displays the sun with the words 2023, can be interpreted as focusing on utilizing solar energy for future needs. The urban atmosphere in the mountains may reflect efforts to integrate sustainability into urban design and lifestyle. The sun symbol is also often associated with symbols of progress and enlightenment. In this context, interaction with the urban atmosphere in the mountains can reflect a vision of an innovative and progressive future. The mountains’ urban atmosphere can symbolize a balance between advanced urban development and natural sustainability. This interaction can show commitment to building and developing modern cities without destroying the natural environment. In this context, mountains can be interpreted as high places that reflect a higher vision, ambitious missions, and progress towards a better future. Overall, this image’s interaction between elements D and E can provide symbolic meaning related to renewable energy, innovation, sustainability, natural balance, and a higher vision for the future. So, all these elements depict a bright, light-filled and innovative vision of the future. They reflect a commitment to integrating renewable energy, sustainability, and urban development in balance with nature. These elements also show the spirit of progress, a higher vision, and efforts to achieve progress in various fields such as technology, transportation, and infrastructure. In this picture, the future is seen as an opportunity to create a better world where human needs are met in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way.

Social Context

The interaction between the caption and visual elements in the image created a strong picture of the social context of 2023, primarily related to the vision of infrastructure development and Indonesia’s progress towards a better future. The following is how this interaction occurs (1) Emphasis on hopes and challenges. The caption emphasizes Indonesia’s new hopes, challenges, and opportunities for 2023. It provides context for visually depicting an ambitious and progressive infrastructure development plan. (2) Representation of the vision of Advanced Indonesia. Visual elements display various aspects of the Advanced Indonesia vision, such as modern buildings with solar panels, sophisticated transportation infrastructure, wind power plants, and international connectivity via ships with red and white flags. All of this reflects a dedication to achieving sustainable and inclusive progress. (3) The symbolism of the white colour on Jokowi’s shirt. Using white on President Jokowi’s shirt in the image creates a positive impression of his leadership, depicting him as a peaceful, friendly and understanding figure. This aligns with the caption message about welcoming a bright and hopeful future. (4) The sun’s symbolism and the mountains’ urban atmosphere. Elements D (sun) and E (urban atmosphere in the mountains) symbolize renewable energy, innovation, sustainability and a higher vision for the future. The sun is a renewable energy source, and the urban atmosphere in the mountains is a symbol of balance between advanced urban development and natural sustainability. (5) Continuity between elements. The interaction between visual elements, such as modern buildings with environmentally friendly infrastructure, wind power plants, and sophisticated transportation infrastructure, creates a comprehensive picture of Indonesia’s efforts to achieve sustainable and inclusive development. Thus, the interaction between the caption and visual elements in the image succeeds in depicting the social context of 2023 clearly and inspiringly, highlighting Indonesia’s vision for a better future through sustainable and progressive infrastructure development.

Visual Elements Linguistic Elements

[2] Masa berganti, tahun berlalu, dan tantangan boleh berubah, tetapi satu yang harus selalu hadir yaitu harapan bahwa esok akan lebih bahagia, sejahtera, dan semakin maju. (IG220123)

[2] Times change, years pass, and challenges may change, but one thing that must always be present is the hope that tomorrow will be happier, more prosperous, and more advanced. (IG220123)

Figure 2. Chinese New Year Celebration Post 

Linguistic Elements

This caption reflects an understanding of the natural changes in life and, in this context, the changing times and years. The following is an explanation of each element in the caption. “Times change, years pass”: this speech act reflects that time goes on and change is a constant. The new era and the year that has passed depict the cycle of life that continues to turn. “Challenges may change”: this statement recognizes that challenges in life do not always stay the same. Challenges may vary with time and changes in life. “But one thing that must always be present is hope”: emphasizing the importance of hope as a consistent and necessary element in every change and challenge. Hope is a driving force to look at the future with optimism. “Tomorrow will be happier, more prosperous and more advanced”: this expression describes the desired hope for the future. The hope for happiness, prosperity, and progress is a positive foundation that is desired for tomorrow. Overall, the caption contains a directive illocutionary speech act that provides a message of invitation to maintain hope when facing changes and challenges, with the belief that the future has the potential to be better.

Visual Elements

Layout

Chinese New Year is one of the most important celebrations in Chinese culture. The 2023 Chinese New Year celebration falls on January 22. President Jokowi also enlivened the commemoration by uploading it to his Instagram account. The upload is presented through illustration work showing various objects. (Figure 2). A, identify two children playing. B, shows President Jokowi holding the hand of the child beside him. C, show two people playing dragon (liong) during Chinese New Year celebrations. D, show a family eating food happily. E, shows the interaction of a family with a lion dance. F, show an orange cat flying as if doing a lion dance. G, shows an orange tree bearing fruit and red packets hanging from its branches. H, shows a father and son lighting a lantern on a boat. I, show several lanterns floating on the lake. J, shows a rabbit-shaped cloud.

Composition

The focal point of the visual is object D, which depicts a large family gathering to eat food. When celebrating Chinese New Year, the tradition of eating with family is an important moment that holds the meaning of happiness, reconciliation and family reunion. The dinner serves symbolic dishes such as oranges, fish, and basket cakes, which symbolize the abundance of good luck, as well as the hope of long life; eating together is not only a means to enrich taste but also serves as a way to maintain and celebrate Chinese cultural heritage (Rahayu, 2020). During this event, families gather to pray and make offerings to ancestors while sharing stories and family values. The tradition of eating together during Chinese New Year celebrations creates a warm and meaningful atmosphere, strengthens family bonds, and celebrates the richness of Chinese culture. The most dominant colours in this object are red and gold. The colour red has the meaning of protecting from the influence of evil. When someone wears red clothes, it symbolizes joy, happiness and success. This tradition reflects the hope that the coming year will be free from evil, disasters and the influence of evil spirits. On the other hand, the colour gold means achieving hopes for abundant fortune. Choosing the colour gold is often associated with aspirations to achieve prosperity and financial luck. These two colours, red and gold, are important symbols of celebration and deep beliefs during Chinese New Year celebrations and in most Chinese cultures (Hashanah, 2014).

Besides the tradition of communal dining, Chinese New Year festivities are also significant for their lion dance performances featuring lions on object E and dragons, also known as liong, on object C. Lion dance and dragon performances during Chinese New Year celebrations have rich symbolic and traditional meanings in Chinese culture. The lion dance symbolizes luck, courage and good spirits, while the dragon symbolizes strength, luck and success. This performance is thought to have the ability to ward off evil spirits and bring good luck and glory in the New Year. The agile and dramatic movements of the lion dance, together with the diversity of colours and body lengths of the dragon, create a lively and enthusiastic atmosphere (Rahayu, 2020). This performance reflects the hope for a prosperous life for the Chinese people in the new year. Apart from that, these performances are also considered a means to actualize Chinese society’s cultural values and spirituality, creating a close relationship between performing arts and deep cultural traditions.

Another characteristic of Chinese New Year celebrations is the tradition of giving Ang Pao or Hung Bao, which is a red envelope like the object G. Ang Pao is believed to have the power to protect good fortune, and the money in it is considered a symbol of the seeds of good fortune (Aliyanto & Sari, 2019). Giving Ang Pao to younger family members is also an integral part of this tradition, adding a sense of togetherness and hope for the new year. Next is object E, which shows clouds shaped like rabbits. In Chinese astrology, each year is represented by one of the twelve zodiac signs, and 2023 is the Year of the Rabbit. Each zodiac sign is associated with specific characteristics and traits, which can provide clues or predictions about what to expect in the year. The Year of the Rabbit 2023 brings the meaning of balance, peace and wisdom. Considered a year favouring creativity and sensitivity, it also provides opportunities to increase harmony in personal life and interpersonal relationships. Although rabbits tend to be calm, vigilance is necessary to progress wisely. This year can also be a period that supports family harmony and relationships. The expectations include a mix of calm and carefully monitored progress.

Social Context

The collaboration between captions and visual elements in depicting the social context of Chinese New Year celebrations is powerful and evocative. Here are some of the ways these interactions succeed in creating a rich and deep picture (1) Emphasis on expectations and traditions. The captions highlight the importance of hope for a better future, while the visual elements depict Chinese New Year celebrations’ rich and meaningful traditions. This includes the tradition of eating with the family, lion dance and dragon performances and giving Ang Pao. (2) The symbolism of the colours red and gold. The use of red and gold in visual elements is consistent with Chinese culture’s deep traditional meaning. Red symbolizes good luck, joy, and protection from evil, while gold symbolizes prosperity and financial luck. (3) Relevance of the Year of the Rabbit zodiac sign. The visual element featuring rabbit-shaped clouds connects the image to Chinese astrology and predictions for a particular year. This adds a predictive and reflective dimension to the picture, highlighting the characteristics and expectations associated with Chinese New Year 2023. (4) The atmosphere of family reunions and well-being. Through depictions of the tradition of eating together and giving Ang Pao, the visual elements create an atmosphere of family warmth and togetherness. It reflects the important values of reconciliation, happiness and family well-being that are the focus of Chinese New Year celebrations. (5) The symbolism of the Barongsai and Dragon performances. Visual elements featuring lion dance and dragon performances depict the spirit, luck and success expected in the new year. It also shows the deep connection between the performing arts and Chinese cultural heritage. Thus, the collaboration between the caption and visual elements in the image successfully depicts the social context of Chinese New Year celebrations with rich detail and deep meaning, reflecting the hopes, traditions and values that are important to Chinese society.

The speech act in the sentence “Times change, years pass” reflects an understanding of change as an inevitable part of life, describing a cycle that continues to turn. The statement “Challenges may change” acknowledges the dynamics of challenges that may vary over time but emphasizes that hope must remain present as a driver of optimism. This message implies the need to maintain hope in the face of change and challenges. The phrase “Tomorrow will be happier, more prosperous and more advanced” shows positive hope for the future, creating an optimistic picture of happiness, prosperity and progress. In another context, regarding the 2023 Chinese New Year celebration, President Jokowi also enlivened the event by posting on Instagram illustrations that summarize elements of happiness, family, and various Chinese New Year traditions. Overall, the message includes positive meaning and hope for the future. The President’s post emphasized the importance of celebrating culture and traditions with family during Chinese New Year celebrations. The post provides a visual illustration of the festive and meaningful atmosphere that Chinese New Year celebrations involve. This message can be a source of inspiration and positive enthusiasm in welcoming the new year and promoting the values of togetherness and respect for culture.

Expressive Speech Acts

Expressive speech acts are a type of speech act that expresses the speaker’s psychological condition related to a condition or situation in his speech. Its function describes the speaker’s feelings or emotional condition and his psychological attitude towards the conditions implied in the speech, such as conveying thanks, congratulations, apologies and condolences. The expressive speech act in President Jokowi’s Instagram caption can be seen in the following quote.

Visual Elements Linguistic Elements

[1] Ada banyak bahasa di dunia yang telah hilang atau terancam punah karena kehabisan penutur. Bersyukurlah Anda yang masih dapat berbicara dalam bahasa ibu dan bahasa daerah. Selain bahasa Indonesia, bahasa apa yang Anda gunakan sehari-hari? (IG210223)

[1] There are many languages in the world that have been lost or are threatened with extinction because they have run out of speakers. Be grateful that you can still speak your mother tongue and regional languages. Apart from Indonesian, what language do you use every day? (IG210223)

Figure 3. Commemoration of World Mother Language Day

Linguistic Elements

In the caption, President Jokowi expressed his gratitude and appreciation for the ability to speak his mother tongue and regional languages while acknowledging the loss and threat of extinction of many languages in the world. This speech act focuses more on expressing the author’s feelings, experiences, or subjective views, in this case, gratitude for the ability to communicate in specific languages. The caption reflects awareness of global problems related to the sustainability of the world’s languages. The statement “There are many languages in the world that have been lost or are threatened with extinction because they are running out of speakers” indicates that many local or regional languages are at risk of extinction because they are losing speakers fluent in that language. Furthermore, President Jokowi expressed his gratitude by saying, “Be grateful that you can still speak your mother tongue and regional languages.” This expression underlines the importance of preserving mother tongue and regional languages as part of cultural heritage and identity. At the end of the caption, President Jokowi invited us to appreciate linguistic diversity with the statement, “Apart from Indonesian, what language do you use every day?” The statement invites readers to reflect on the languages used in everyday life, encouraging awareness of linguistic diversity in society. The caption contains an expressive type of illocutionary speech act, meaning that President Jokowi expresses feelings of gratitude and appreciation for language while conveying awareness of the world’s vulnerability and extinction of languages.

Visual Elements

Layout

World Mother Language Day in 2023 falls on February 21. President Jokowi also enlivened the commemoration, which he expressed through uploads on his Instagram account. The upload is presented through illustration work showing various objects. (Figure 5) A, a woman saying “Danke” means thank you in German. B, a man wearing typical Indian clothes while saying धन्यवाद which means thank you in Hindi. C, shows a man saying thank you in Korean. D, is a woman from Thailand who says thank you in Thai. E, a woman, said the word “Asante”, which means an expression of gratitude from an African country. F, is a man who says “Thank you” in English. G, is a woman who says “Minta rela” which means thank you in the Kapuas Hulu language (West Kalimantan). H, a woman who said “Tampi Asih”, which means thank you, in Sasak language. I, President Jokowi, said “Matur nuwun” in Javanese, which means thank you. J, a woman with typical Balinese make-up said “Matur Suksma” which means thank you. K, a man said “Mauliate”, which means thank you in the Batak language. L, a woman said “Makapulu sama” in Minahasa (Sulut), which means thank you. M, a woman said thank you “Waniam” in Tobati (Papua). N, a person wearing a Totopong (head tie) while saying thank you using a Sundanese accent. O, a woman said the word “Kurre Sumanga” which means an expression of thanks in Toraja. P, a woman said the words “Terimo Kasih” which means thanks in Minang. Q, a man said “Epang Gawang”, which means thank you in Sikka language (Flores NTT).

Composition

The interaction between elements A, B, C, D, E, and F illustrates the worldwide diversity of cultures and languages in conveying gratitude. Each element shows individuals representing different cultures and languages, but at the same time, they all share the same message: an expression of gratitude. This reflects the richness of multiculturalism and the ability of humans to respect each other and communicate across cultural boundaries. Thus, the interaction of these elements illustrates the beauty and diversity of the world. Then, the interaction between the elements G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, and Q creates a picture of cultural and linguistic diversity in Indonesia. Each element features individuals representing different cultures and languages in Indonesia, from West Kalimantan to Papua. Even though they differ in the language used, they all convey the same message: an expression of gratitude. It reflects the cultural diversity and unity in valuing gratitude across the country. The interaction of these elements illustrates Indonesia’s cultural richness and linguistic diversity.

The uploaded visual depicts an impressive representation of the world’s cultural and linguistic diversity, reflected in a series of image elements that show various ways of expressing gratitude. Starting from a woman saying “Danke” in German, a man in typical Indian clothing saying धन्यवाद in Hindi, and a woman from Thailand using Thai. From Africa, a woman pronounces “Asante”. English is represented by a man who says “Thank you”, while the regional language of Kapuas Hulu (West Kalimantan) is voiced by a woman with the words “Minta rela”. Apart from that, the element of thanks in Sasak, Javanese, Balinese, Batak, Minahasa, Tobati (Papua) and Toraja languages all provide a special touch of local culture and language. In fact, President Jokowi also contributed Javanese with “Matur nuwun.” This overall picture shows the richness of language and cultural diversity. Through these various expressions, we are reminded of the importance of preserving and appreciating the richness of linguistic diversity amidst the threat of losing the world’s mother tongue.

Social Context

The collaboration between captions and visual elements in depicting the social context of the World Mother Language Day commemoration successfully highlights cultural and linguistic diversity worldwide. (1) The importance of cultural and linguistic richness. Captions highlight the loss and threat of extinction of many of the world’s languages, while visual elements showcase languages and cultures from different parts of the world. This shows the importance of maintaining and valuing cultural and linguistic riches as an important part of human heritage. (2) Representation of the world’s linguistic riches. Visual elements display various languages from various countries and cultures, ranging from German, Hindi, Thai, and African to regional languages in Indonesia such as Kapuas Hulu, Sasak, Javanese, Balinese, Batak, Minahasa, Tobati, and Toraja. This reflects the world’s linguistic diversity and the importance of valuing each language as part of one’s cultural identity. (3) Unity in expressing gratitude. Even though they differ in language, each element conveys the same message, expressing gratitude. This reflects unity in appreciating gratitude, even though they come from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. (4) The role of leaders in promoting regional languages. The existence of President Jokowi, who donated the Javanese language with “Matur nuwun”, shows the important role of leaders in promoting and appreciating linguistic diversity in their country. Thus, the collaboration between captions and visual elements succeeded in depicting the social context of commemorating World Mother Language Day by highlighting cultural and linguistic diversity worldwide and the importance of preserving and appreciating the richness of linguistic diversity.

The visuals in the upload discuss elements related to the caption, which emphasizes the diversity of languages in the world and the importance of preserving them. Each element provides concrete examples of saying thank you in different languages and cultures, creating a picture of linguistic and cultural diversity. These elements depict clothing, accents and traditions from a wide variety of cultures, highlighting similarities in expressions of gratitude while maintaining the uniqueness of each culture. Overall, these elements support each other to convey a message about linguistic and cultural harmony in the world. By involving these elements, the caption invites viewers to reflect on the diversity of languages in the world and appreciate the importance of preserving them. These elements enrich the message in the caption by providing concrete examples of linguistic diversity and illustrating the cultural heritage each language can represent. In other words, these elements work together to support the message in the caption, forming a narrative that reflects the diversity and beauty of languages in different regions and cultures worldwide.

Commissive Speech Acts

Commissive speech acts involve the speaker’s involvement in an action that will occur in the future. The speech is self-directed, where the speaker commits to an action that will be carried out in the future, such as promising, offering, and promising. The form of a commissive speech act in the caption of President Joko Widodo’s Instagram account can be seen in the following quote.

Visual Elements Linguistic Elements

[1] Dunia masih berselubung ketidakpastian, kompetisi antarbangsa semakin sengit di semua bidang, dan semua negara berjuang agar tak tertinggal. Sebagai bangsa besar, kita senantiasa berikhtiar untuk melalui tantangan itu dan berjalan maju seraya mengharapkan rahmat dari Allah SWT. (IG180223)

[1] The world is still uncertain, competition between nations is increasingly fierce in all fields, and all countries struggle to be included. As a great nation, we always strive to overcome these challenges and move forward while hoping for mercy from Allah SWT. (IG180223)

Figure 4. Isra Mi’raj commemoration

Linguistic Elements

The caption describes the world’s condition, which is still uncertain, with competition between nations becoming increasingly intense in various fields. In addition, it emphasizes the nation’s enthusiasm and efforts to face these challenges and continue to move forward, while asking for mercy from Allah SWT. The following is an explanation of each element in the caption. “The world is still shrouded in uncertainty” indicates that the world’s current state is still full of uncertainty, perhaps related to global events, security, or economic developments that cannot be predicted with certainty. “International competition is increasingly fierce in all fields” illustrates the increasing competition in various sectors, including economics, technology and security, between countries worldwide. “All countries strive not to be left behind” highlights the determination and commitment of each country not to be left behind in global competition, with various efforts made to increase competitiveness and progress. “As a great nation, we always strive to overcome these challenges and move forward” emphasized the spirit of struggle of the nation, which is recognized as a great nation, to face challenges and continue to move forward. “While hoping for mercy from Allah SWT” implies the belief that the nation’s success and progress depend on God’s grace and guidance. Overall, the captions reveal a picture of a complex world, its challenges, and the commitment of a great nation’s fighting spirit based on hope for God’s mercy. Thus, the caption contains a commissive speech act.

Visual Elements

Layout

The Isra’ Mi’raj commemoration refers to the event that Muslims believe was the night journey of the Prophet Muhammad SAW from Mecca to Jerusalem (Isra) and from Jerusalem to the sky (Mi’raj). Isra’ Mi’raj is generally commemorated as an event that depicts the greatness and glory of Allah, as well as an important moment in the life of the Prophet Muhammad as Allah’s messenger. All Muslims commemorate Isra’ Mi’raj with various activities, including President Jokowi. President Jokowi also enlivened the commemoration of Isra’ Miraj which was expressed through uploads on his Instagram account. The upload is presented through illustration work showing various objects. (Figure 4). A, shows a group of people carrying torches around the village. B, depicts residents marching joyfully, bringing drums and torches. C, shows an orange cat watching the parade from the roof of a resident’s house. D, shows the beauty of the mosque surrounded by torchlight. E, displays the night sky with stars depicting a beautiful night atmosphere.

Composition

The focal point of the visual upload is element B, which depicts residents marching happily, carrying drums and torches and D, showing the mosque’s beauty surrounded by torchlight. The torch relay can be one of the routine traditions on the eve of Isra’ Miraj. The torch relay aims to preserve culture and traditions so that future generations can understand the meaning of the Isra Mi’raj commemoration and ensure that this heritage remains sustainable. The torch relay often symbolizes festivity and joy in various celebrations. The sparkling torchlight can create an exciting and stunning visual atmosphere. The parade held at night depicts the events of Isra Miraj, namely the journey of the Prophet Muhammad SAW from Mecca to Medina. Element D shows the beauty of the mosque surrounded by torchlight. This element is more likely to represent the Isra Miraj commemoration because the image of a mosque surrounded by torchlight is related to the Isra Miraj event, which was the night journey of the Prophet Muhammad SAW from the Grand Mosque to the Aqsa Mosque and his spiritual journey to the sky. The light of the torch and the image of the mosque’s beauty can create a spiritual and religious atmosphere per the commemoration of Isra Miraj. The use of yellow in torchlight has a specific meaning in a work. Yellow, classified as a warm colour, carries the meaning of radiant, brightest and brilliant, making it the focus of attention that is easily recognized by the eye (Rustan, 2019). In addition, yellow is recognized as an effective colour in dividing attention well (Monica & Luzar, 2011).

Social Context

The collaboration between captions and visual elements in describing the Isra Mi’raj commemoration’s social context really illustrates the celebration’s rich culture and spirituality. (1) The importance of traditions and cultural heritage. The caption highlights the importance of preserving tradition and culture, and the visual elements depict the torch relay as one of the routine traditions on the eve of Isra Mi’raj. This shows a commitment to understanding and maintaining the meaning of the Isra Mi’raj commemoration so that it remains relevant for future generations. (2) Spiritual and religious symbolism. The visual element with the image of a mosque surrounded by torchlight creates a spiritual and religious atmosphere through the commemoration of Isra Mi’raj. The sparkling light of the torches and images of the mosque’s beauty created a mesmerizing atmosphere and strengthened the spiritual meaning of the event. (3) Expression of excitement and joy. The torch relay, as depicted in the visual elements, is often used to express festivity and joy in various celebrations. This shows how Isra Mi’raj is celebrated with joy and high enthusiasm. (4) Symbolic meaning of colours. Yellow in torchlight has a deep meaning in this context. The yellow colour creates a focus of attention that is easily recognized and reflects the meaning of radiance and brilliance by the spiritual and religious meaning of the Isra Mi’raj commemoration. Thus, the collaboration between captions and visual elements succeeded in depicting the social context of the Isra Mi’raj commemoration by emphasizing the importance of tradition, spiritual meaning and expressions of festivity in the celebration.

The caption describes the condition of the world which is still filled with uncertainty, with competition between nations becoming increasingly intense in various fields. In addition, it emphasizes the nation’s enthusiasm and efforts to face these challenges and continue to move forward, while asking for mercy from Allah SWT. Element B, which depicts residents marching joyfully, carrying drums and torches, can be more thoroughly reviewed as a representation of the community’s spirit of togetherness and joy in facing challenges and uncertainty expressed in the caption. This parade creates the image of a united and enthusiastic community, together overcoming difficult times with joy and fighting spirit. It is important to remember that this element creates a positive and optimistic image, emphasizing collaboration and mutual support in the face of change and increasingly fierce international competition. The joy that radiates from the parade with drums and torches can also be interpreted as an expression of the desire to keep moving forward, overcome challenges, and realize shared hopes. Taken together, these elements provide a strong and profound visual dimension to the caption, presenting a bright and uplifting picture of facing the reality of a changing world by relying on the power of unity, joy, and faith in God.

Declarative Speech Acts

Declarative speech acts are speech acts that link speech to facts in the real world, such as promoting an employee’s position, inaugurating, convicting, punishing, inaugurating and dismissing. The goal is to describe changes in the state of a relationship. The results of data analysis regarding declarative speech acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram captions can be found in the following quote.

Visual Elements Linguistic Elements

[1] Dua tahun dalam masa pandemi, dua kali pula saya hanya bisa menghadiri perayaan Hari Pers Nasional secara daring. Hari ini, 9 Februari 2023, saya datang ke Medan untuk bersama- sama insan pers tanah air memperingati HPN. Pers Merdeka, Demokrasi Bermartabat. (IG090223)

[1] Two years into the pandemic, I could only attend National Press Day celebrations online twice. Today, February 9 2023, I came to Medan to join members of the Indonesian press to commemorate HPN. Free Press, Dignified Democracy. (IG090223)

Figure 5. Commemoration of National Press Day

Linguistic Elements

The caption is included in a declarative speech act because the speaker states clearly and firmly a situation or event that is or will occur. The speaker said that on February 9 2023, he came to Medan to join members of the Indonesian press to commemorate National Press Day. This statement reflects the facts or circumstances that were occurring at the time of the conversation. The statement was conveyed powerfully, leaving no room for additional interpretation. The speaker describes the actions he took that day. The speaker does not invite the reader to take a specific action. Instead, he stated that he was present in Medan to commemorate National Press Day with members of the Indonesian press. Thus, the caption can be categorised as a declarative speech act because the speaker firmly and directly states a situation or event that is taking place at that time.

The caption describes President Joko Widodo’s personal experience during the two years of the pandemic, primarily related to the celebration of National Press Day (HPN). The following is an explanation of each element in the caption. “Two years during the pandemic” shows that over the last two years, President Joko Widodo has experienced and lived daily in a global pandemic, which has brought significant changes in various aspects of life. “Twice I was only able to attend National Press Day celebrations online,” emphasizing that during the pandemic, National Press Day celebrations could only be attended online (online/virtual) due to the physical and social restrictions implemented to prevent the spread of the virus. “Today, February 9 2023, I came to Medan to join the Indonesian press to commemorate HPN”, indicating that on that date, President Jokowi had the opportunity to come physically to Medan to attend the celebration of National Press Day, proving that there was a change or return to physical activities after the pandemic. “Free Press, Dignified Democracy” conveys a message of support for an independent press and is committed to the principles of dignified democracy, emphasizing the important role of the media in supporting democracy and providing correct and quality information. Overall, the caption reflects the journey and experiences of President Jokowi in facing changing conditions over time and underlining the important role of the press in society.

Visual Elements

Layout

The commemoration of National Press Day in 2023 is different from previous years. President Jokowi celebrated National Press Day (HPN) through illustration works featuring various objects (Figure 5). A, shows two reporters covering an orange cat on an umbrella. B, depicts a reporter doing a live broadcast with an elementary school student holding an abacus. C, shows journalists are covering the press conference for the “Fort Doesn’t Love Cheap” event. D, shows President Jokowi taking a photo together with reporters and journalists. E, shows three people reading newspapers and a newspaper seller. F, shows a food vlogger who is doing culinary coverage. G, shows couple being interviewed by journalists. H, depicts a fruit seller amidst the hustle and bustle of various press activities. This creates a different and festive picture in commemorating National Press Day 2023.

Composition

Various elements of this visual illustrate the diversity of press activities related to National Press Day (HPN). If the elements are ordered, the author can formulate from elements C, D, B, H, G, F, E, and ending with A. The order of the elements in the illustration can have a specific significance depending on the message or story the artist wants to convey. In the context of commemorating National Press Day, this sequence can provide a structure or narrative that helps audiences understand the various aspects of the press activities being celebrated. In the illustration in element C, journalists are covering a press conference for the “Benteng Tak Kasih Murah” event, explicitly highlighting the activities of journalists in protecting an event or incident relevant to the HPN commemoration. Through this activity, the spirit and important role of the media and press in providing information to society. Next, element D shows President Jokowi taking a group photo with reporters and reporters, reflecting the diversity of press activities, especially regarding the relationship between state leaders and news reporters. This group photo shows positive interactions between President Jokowi, journalists and reporters, creating harmonious communication and information delivery relationships. This element reflects the importance of collaboration between the government and the media in commemorating National Press Day. Element B, depicts a reporter doing a live broadcast with elementary school students holding an abacus. This element also reflects journalistic activities in broadcasting directly. Involving elementary school students in keeping the abacus can create an educational atmosphere and show the role of journalists in conveying information to various levels of society, including children. This activity is a positive effort to educate and involve the younger generation in journalism.

Then, element H depicts a fruit seller amidst the hustle and bustle of various press activities. This element also creates a picture of the various press activities that occur in society. The presence of a fruit seller shows that press activities are not only limited to coverage of official events but also cover daily life and crowds in society. This reflects the role of the media in engaging with various aspects of everyday life and creating relevant information for society. Element G shows a couple being interviewed by a journalist, which reflects the journalist’s activities in conducting interviews with the public or related parties. The interview process with lovers can create diverse coverage and reflect various aspects of social life. This shows the role of journalists in documenting and conveying stories from various levels of society in commemoration of National Press Day. The F element, which depicts a food vlogger doing culinary coverage, also reflects the diversity of press activities, including developing digital content trends such as vlogging. The existence of food vloggers shows how the media and press follow technological developments and people’s preferences for entertainment information. This indicates that National Press Day commemorations include various forms of journalism and content, including culinary coverage by vloggers. Next, element E shows three people reading newspapers and a newspaper seller. This element also reflects the atmosphere of National Press Day because it shows the activity of reading newspapers, which is one way for people to get information from print media. The presence of newspaper sellers indicates the role of information distribution by newspaper sellers in spreading news to the public. Element A shows two reporters covering an orange cat on an umbrella. This element can also represent National Press Day because it offers journalistic activities and coverage by journalists. Covering various events, including those that may seem trivial, such as the incident with the orange cat, reflects the role of journalists in covering multiple aspects of life and events in society.

The author tries to create a logical flow based on various press activities and reflects the diversity of media roles in commemorating National Press Day. The importance of sequence can depend on how the elements interact and combine to create a comprehensive picture. The ordering of elements in an illustration can help convey the message more clearly and effectively. Good sequencing can form a logical narrative, make illustrations easier to understand, and direct the viewer’s eyes to follow the desired storyline.

Social Context

The collaboration between captions and visual elements in describing the social context of the commemoration of National Press Day was very successful in conveying a message about the diverse roles of the media and press in society. The following are several ways this collaboration was successful, starting from (1) The importance of press activities in society. The caption highlights the importance of celebrating National Press Day as a moment to appreciate and celebrate the contribution of the media and press in society. Visual elements depict various press activities, such as press conferences, interviews with the public, culinary coverage, and newspaper distribution. This underlines the importance of diversity in press activities and how the media interacts with society. (2) Collaborative role between government and media. Through elements showing President Jokowi taking photos with journalists, the collaboration between the government and the media in celebrating National Press Day is depicted. This reflects the harmonious relationship between the government and the press in conveying information to the public. (3) Educational and educational support. The element showing reporters broadcasting live with elementary school students reflects the important role of media in education and learning. Involving the younger generation in press activities shows a commitment to increasing media literacy and making them part of the information process. (4) Involvement with everyday life. Elements featuring fruit vendors and newspaper readers reflect the media’s involvement with people’s daily lives. This shows that press activities are not limited to official events but cover various aspects of everyday life relevant to society. (5) Creativity in conveying information. Elements featuring food vloggers and culinary coverage illustrate media adaptation to technological developments and people’s preferences. This shows that the media continues to evolve and follow trends to convey information in a way that is interesting and relevant to the audience. Thus, the collaboration between captions and visual elements created a comprehensive picture of the role of the media and press in society and the importance of celebrating National Press Day as a moment to appreciate their contribution.

The caption describes President Joko Widodo’s personal experience during the two years of the pandemic, especially regarding the celebration of National Press Day (HPN). President Jokowi has faced significant changes in the past two years due to the global pandemic, with HPN celebrations being held online twice. However, on February 9 2023, the President came to Medan to celebrate HPN physically with members of the Indonesian press, reflecting the change or return to physical activities after the pandemic. The caption also conveys a message of support for an independent press and commitment to the principles of dignified democracy. At the 2023 HPN commemoration, President Jokowi expressed his joy through illustrations uploaded to his Instagram account that visualized various aspects of press activities. Illustrations include coverage of various press activities, such as press conferences, live broadcasts, interviews with sources, and culinary coverage, creating a festive picture commemorating National Press Day. The post states an assertive speech act to report an event that visualizes the atmosphere when celebrating National Press Day. This can be seen from the composition of the uploads, which contain various activities related to the press, such as reading newspapers, doing live broadcasts, and interviewing different sources. This creates a diverse and festive picture in commemorating National Press Day 2023.

Illocutionary Speech Act Strategy in President Jokowi’s Instagram Account

Direct Speech Act Strategy

A direct speech act strategy is an approach that uses words or sentences that clearly state the intent and purpose of the speech. The direct application of speech act strategies in the captions of President Joko Widodo’s Instagram account can be seen through the following quote.

[1] Mari menyongsong harapan, tantangan, dan peluang yang baru. Tetap bersama melangkahi ambang tahun 2023 menuju Indonesia yang maju (IG010123)

[1] Let’s welcome new hopes, challenges and opportunities. Stay together, crossing the threshold of 2023 towards a developed Indonesia (IG010123)

The caption contains a direct speech act strategy, which uses words or sentences that explicitly state the aim and purpose of the speech, known as “direct communication” or “firm expression”. In this strategy, the speaker conveys the message clearly and without ambiguity so the listener can easily understand the goal or meaning. This approach is often used to avoid confusion and ensure that messages are conveyed appropriately. Examples include using emphatic statements, direct instructions, or clear explanations to convey the intent or purpose of the communication. In this context, President Joko Widodo expressed his invitation for a positive spirit and optimism in welcoming the new year, namely 2023, and invited everyone to face the future together with full hope, ready to overcome challenges and take advantage of opportunities that arise. His speech emphasized the importance of remaining united and supporting each other when crossing the threshold of the new year, reflecting the spirit of togetherness in facing the journey towards 2023. Thus, the speech act strategy in this speech can be categorized as a direct speech act strategy.

[2] Masa berganti, tahun berlalu, dan tantangan boleh berubah, tetapi satu yang harus selalu hadir yaitu harapan bahwa esok akan lebih bahagia, sejahtera, dan semakin maju. (IG220123)

[2] Times change, years pass, and challenges may change, but one thing that must always be present is the hope that tomorrow will be happier, more prosperous, and more advanced. (IG220123)

The caption contains a direct speech act strategy. In using this strategy, the speaker deliberately conveys the message with words or sentences that are clear and without ambiguity. The aim is so that the speech partner can easily understand the aim and purpose of the speech. This approach is generally used to avoid confusion and ensure the message is conveyed appropriately. This strategy involves firm statements, direct instructions, or clear explanations to communicate the intent or purpose of communication clearly and effectively. In this context, President Joko Widodo expressed his invitation to remain optimistic and have a positive outlook in facing the changes and challenges of life in the Chinese New Year. By emphasizing the potential for future improvement, the caption can inspire the audience to keep trying and believe in the possibility of positive change.

[3] Dua tahun dalam masa pandemi, dua kali pula saya hanya bisa menghadiri perayaan Hari Pers Nasional secara daring. Hari ini, 9 Februari 2023, saya datang ke Medan untuk bersama-sama insan pers tanah air memperingati HPN. Pers Merdeka, Demokrasi Bermartabat. (IG090223)

[3] Two years into the pandemic, I could only attend National Press Day celebrations online twice. Today, February 9 2023, I came to Medan to join members of the Indonesian press to commemorate HPN. Free Press, Dignified Democracy. (IG090223)

The caption contains a direct speech act strategy, which uses words or sentences that explicitly state the aim and purpose of the speech. This strategy involves using clear and firm language when communicating. In this context, the caption describes President Joko Widodo’s personal experience during the two years of the pandemic, especially regarding the celebration of National Press Day, reflecting a journey full of challenges, changes, and ultimately, optimism for the future, in line with the spirit of togetherness and support for the press. Who is independent? Choosing words appropriate to the situation, paying attention to context, and having a positive attitude can strengthen effective communication in direct speech act strategies.

Indirect Speech Act Strategy

An indirect strategy is an approach that uses words or sentences that implicitly state the intent and purpose of the speech. The use of indirect speech act strategies in the captions of President Joko Widodo’s Instagram account can be seen through the following quote.

[1] Dunia masih berselubung ketidakpastian, kompetisi antarbangsa semakin sengit di semua bidang, dan semua negara berjuang agar tak tertinggal. Sebagai bangsa besar, kita senantiasa berikhtiar untuk melalui tantangan itu dan berjalan maju seraya mengharapkan rahmat dari Allah SWT. (IG180223)

[1] The world is still uncertain, competition between nations is increasingly fierce in all fields, and all countries struggle to be included. As a great nation, we always strive to overcome these challenges and move forward while hoping for mercy from Allah SWT. (IG180223)

The caption contains an indirect speech act strategy, which uses words or sentences that implicitly state the aim and purpose of the speech. In this context, President Joko Widodo revealed several facts relating to the illustration of the current world situation, which continues to be characterized by uncertainty, with competition between nations becoming increasingly deep in various sectors. Nevertheless, President Jokowi is working with high enthusiasm to face this challenge. The Indonesian nation must continue to move forward, unite and strive to overcome differences, hoping to achieve progress in various fields. To meet this uncertainty, President Jokowi and the community are committed and wish to receive grace from Allah SWT as a source of strength and guidance. The spirit to continue trying and survive amidst difficult conditions is the foundation for the journey of nations, making togetherness and prayer important elements in navigating this current global uncertainty. The final aim of the caption is to commemorate Isra Mi’raj with a commitment to “always make efforts to overcome these challenges and move forward while hoping for mercy from Allah SWT”. However, President Joko Widodo packaged it in a caption that presented some information implicitly at the beginning and then put the aim or purpose of the speech at the end of the caption. Thus, the speech act strategy in the caption is included in the indirect speech act strategy.

[2] Ada banyak bahasa di dunia yang telah hilang atau terancam punah karena kehabisan penutur. Bersyukurlah Anda yang masih dapat berbicara dalam bahasa ibu dan bahasa daerah. Selain bahasa Indonesia, bahasa apa yang Anda gunakan sehari-hari? (IG210223)

[2] There are many languages in the world that have been lost or are threatened with extinction because they have run out of speakers. Be grateful that you can still speak your mother tongue and regional languages. Apart from Indonesian, what language do you use every day? (IG210223)

The caption contains an indirect speech act strategy, which uses words or sentences that implicitly state the aim and purpose of the speech. In this context, President Joko Widodo revealed several facts that many languages worldwide are experiencing loss or are threatened with extinction due to a lack of speakers. This can be caused by various factors such as globalization, urbanization, or the lack of young people who pass on the language. Then President Jokowi expressed his gratitude for still having the ability to use his mother tongue and regional languages. This reflects respect for the language heritage and cultural identity that remains. Emphasizing regional languages other than Indonesian highlights efforts to preserve and appreciate cultural diversity in Indonesia. The caption reflects President Jokowi’s appreciation for the value of regional languages as an expression of local and national identity. Overall, the caption conveys an expressive statement involving gratitude, awareness of threats to linguistic diversity, and the urgency of preserving language as an integral part of cultural heritage. The final aim of the caption is to commemorate World Mother Language Day. However, President Joko Widodo packaged his message in a subtitle by presenting some information implicitly at the beginning and then placing the aim or purpose of his speech at the end of the caption. Therefore, the speech act strategy used in the caption can be categorized as an indirect speech act strategy.

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of this research data analysis, it was concluded that the forms of illocutionary speech acts in President Joko Widodo’s Instagram captions from January to February 2023 included directive speech acts, expressive speech acts, commissive speech acts, and declarative speech acts. This form of speech act is used for specific functions. The function of speech acts in President Jokowi’s Instagram captions consists of the function of inviting, ordering or requesting, expecting, conveying gratitude and appreciation, declaring, and inaugurating. The speech act strategies used in uploading President Jokowi’s Instagram account consist of direct and indirect strategies.

Apart from the linguistic elements contained in President Joko Widodo’s Instagram captions, the images in his uploads can also be used to clarify the intent, purpose and function of the speech acts conveyed. Multimodal pragmatic analysis includes linguistics as reflected in the caption, visuals as reflected in the layout of image elements, composition which contains collaboration between elements in the image, as well as the social context which gives rise to interpretations of meaning between linguistic elements in the caption and visual elements in the uploaded image. Collaborative modes in the form of linguistics and visuals in President Jokowi’s uploads work together to create a richer message.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author would like to thank the Education Fund Management Institute (LPDP/Indonesian Education Endowment Fund), which has funded the author’s studies at Sebelas Maret University. The author also thanks the Advisors, Prof. Dr. Kundharu Saddhono, M. Hum, and Dr. Atikah Anindyarini, M. Hum, who have accompanied and guided the writer in completing this article.

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