Moderating Effect of Work-Life Balance in the Relationship between Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Public Secondary School Teachers

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Moderating Effect of Work-Life Balance in the Relationship between Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Public Secondary School Teachers

  • Johmar V. Dagondon
  • 936-955
  • May 23, 2024
  • Education

Moderating Effect of Work-Life Balance in the Relationship between Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Public Secondary School Teachers

Johmar V. Dagondon

Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1104067

Received: 02 April 2024; Revised: 17 April 2024; Accepted: 22 April 2024; Published: 23 May 2024

ABSTRACT

Organizations engage their teachers to be more motivated while maintaining an excellent work-life balance. The goal of this study was to determine the moderating effect of work-life balance on the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment among public secondary school teachers in Gingoog City. A correlational-causal research design was used to determine the moderating effect of work-life balance on motivation and organizational commitment. Stratified random sampling was utilized with a total population size of 564 public school teachers where a sample size of 186 was drawn. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze data using average means and standard deviations, ANOVA, Pearson R coefficient, and multiple regression.

Results revealed that the motivation of teachers was found to be significant in the relationship between organizational commitment and work-life balance. Organizational commitment also showed a strong link between motivation and work-life balance. Work-life balance is linked to organizational commitment and motivation. However, work-life balance was not statistically significant in the interaction with the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment. The study concludes that the greater the organization’s support for the employee’s work-life balance, the more committed the employee is to the organization. Herzberg’s Two Factor Content Theory thus proves the factors that motivate individuals by identifying and satisfying individual needs, desires, and goals such as compensation, achievement, personal growth, promotion, and job autonomy.

Keywords: Work-life Balance, Motivation, Organizational Commitment, Moderation, Public Teachers

INTRODUCTION

Work-life balance is challenging in today’s erratic fast-paced and seamless realm. Work-life balance entails establishing and maintaining encouraging and healthy work environments that allow employees to manage work and personal duties and strengthening employee commitment to the organization is necessary. Keeping a positive work-life balance is beneficial not only to one’s health and well-being, but it may increase productivity and, eventually, performance. Work-life balance may affect the employees’ level of organizational commitment and consequently the degree of motivation as a person.  Organizational commitment is a critical consideration in identifying the level of loyalty of an employee to the company. Ultimately, organizational commitment is imperative in any organization to achieve the desired results.

Given their learning environment and workload, the researcher investigated the teachers’ work-life balance, motivation, and organizational commitment of the public secondary schools in Gingoog City. This is in response to the experience of the researcher as he teaches students. As observed by the researcher the bulk of tasks and responsibilities demotivate teachers to perform their tasks which decreases the commitment of the teachers in the organization but along with motivation and organizational commitment, work-life balance such as family, friends, and health pushes them to work and perform the tasks. Thus, it urges him to conduct the study. As global outbreak of COVID-19 led to an unprecedented interruption in human existence across all sectors which affected the academic community. The pandemic’s impact on teachers’ lives, including the effects on their social, emotional, psychological, and personal aspects as a result of the shift from physical classes to online lectures. Teachers redo the curriculum that can be easily taught online because much of it depends on teachers being present and guiding students inside the classroom. The shift from the traditional delivery of classes to a blended learning method posed significant challenges for all teachers (Pokhrel & Chhetri, 2021). The lack of knowledge about online teaching technologies is one of the challenges and limitations encountered by teachers during the pandemic (Heshan & Wanniarachchi, 2022).

Thus this research looked into the moderating effect of work-life balance on the motivation and organizational commitment of public school teachers in Gingoog City given their learning environment and workload.  The significant findings of this study served as the bedrock for the development of programs as interventions to improve and sustain teachers’ motivation, organizational commitment, and work-life balance within the organization.

METHODOLOGY

To ascertain the moderating effect of work-life balance on motivation and organizational commitment, a correlational-causal research design was adopted. There are 564 public secondary school teachers from 10 different districts made up the entire population based on the record in the Department of Education, Division of Gingoog City, with a sample size of 186 was chosen using stratified random sampling. This sector of respondents were chosen given their learning environment and workload that might affect the motivation, organizational commitments as well as the work-life balance of the respondents. ANOVA, Pearson R coefficient, multiple regression, average means and standard deviations, and descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.

These respondents were the main source of information utilized to assess the moderating effect of work-life balance in the relationship between organizational commitment and motivation among teachers in public secondary schools.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Assessment of Motivation to Work

Teacher motivation is derived from individuals’ intrinsic values to select and sustain teaching, in addition to the intensity of teacher motivation, which is demonstrated by the energy involved in teaching as determined by a variety of contextual factors. Because motivation has a direct influence on organizational commitment, it is everyone’s responsibility.

Compensation. Table 1 shows the teacher respondents have a high level of motivation in terms of the sub-dimension “compensation” (M=2.95, SD=.59).  Instructors get all the privileges that come with working for the government in the Philippines as government workers. DEPED teachers additionally receive additional financial incentives and advantages specific to their line of employment (“Philippine DEPED Teachers Benefits and Incentives 2022,” 2022). It was found that teachers are highly motivated in the context of having fringe benefits and rewards (Trestiza Comighud & Arevalo, 2020).

Table 1. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Motivation in terms of Compensation

Items Mean SD Interpretation
My salary is adequate concerning the nature of my work as a teacher. 3.01 0.84 High Level of Motivation
I have sufficient compensation and benefits which are at par with other organizations. 2.99 0.71 High Level of Motivation
I enjoy financial incentives such as fringe benefits and bonuses. 3.26 0.55 Very High Level of Motivation
I am fully covered with health care insurance including hazard pay 2.74 0.90 High Level of Motivation
The salary increases at DepEd are satisfactory 2.73 0.75 High Level of Motivation
Overall 2.95 0.59 High Level of Motivation

Legend:           1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

                        2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

Achievement. Table 2 presents the teacher respondents have a high level of motivation in terms of the sub-dimension “achievement” (M=3.28, SD=.43). The respondent teachers are “inspired when DepEd can achieve its vision” (M=3.48, SD=.55). “I love collaborating and accomplishing big things as part of the team as it drives me every day. Happy to achieve our tasks” the respondent said. DepEd Order 2, S. The guidelines explain mechanisms, criteria, and processes for performance target setting, monitoring, evaluation, and development planning. 2015 -Department of Education (DepEd) Guidelines on the Establishment and Implementation of the Results-Based Performance Management System (RPMS), the guidelines explain frameworks, criteria, and processes for performance target setting, monitoring, evaluation, and development planning. It was suggested that in addition to salary when assigning teaching assignments and tasks to their teachers, school administrators should constantly monitor their teachers’ job satisfaction (Molano, 2020).

Table 2. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Motivation in terms of Achievement

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I am inspired when DepEd can achieve its vision. 3.48 0.55 Very High Level of Motivation
I feel contented, fulfilled, and satisfied with my job. 3.34 0.63 Very High Level of Motivation
I enjoy high prestige and social standing in my work. 3.13 0.63 High Level of Motivation
I am working for a stable and secure future through my profession. 3.28 0.54 Very High Level of Motivation
I feel I am living up to my potential and capabilities with my DepEd family 3.18 0.57 High Level of Motivation
Overall 3.28 0.43 Very High Level of Motivation

Personal Growth. The teacher respondents have a very high level of motivation (M=3.29, SD=.41) as shown in Table 3. Respondent’s teachers believed that “Attending seminars, workshops, and training activities provide opportunities to learn new things” (M=3.36, SD=.58). “We are happy to learn new things because it drives us every day to grow” respondent said. INSET, or In-Service Training for Teachers, is a professional development activity that the Department of Education (DepEd) plans and organizes twice a year. Each school district in the archipelago provided this training in the months of May and October of each school year (Tupas & Noderama, 2020).

Table 3. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Work-Life Balance in terms of Personal Growth

Items Mean SD Interp.
I am given chances to exercise leadership in the DepEd and make necessary contributions as part of it. 3.18 0.62 High Level of Motivation
There is a great opportunity to learn at work 3.31 0.52 Very High Level of Motivation
There are opportunities to learn new things through attending seminars, workshops, and training activities 3.36 0.58 Very High Level of Motivation
I participate in work-related activities to enhance my skills and abilities. 3.30 0.57 Very High Level of Motivation
I know what I need to do to get started toward reaching my goals both personally and in my career 3.32 0.48 Very High Level of Motivation
Overall 3.29 0.41 Very High Level of Motivation

Promotion. According to Table 4, respondent teachers believe they have a high level of motivation for promotion (M=3.14, SD=.45). In particular, respondent teachers observed that “the organization allows an employee to apply for promotion/higher positions” (M=3.20, SD=.53) and that “they have a better career path once promoted” (M=3.18, SD=.60). Gaining promotion is difficult at the moment. Before one is promoted, there are several things to take into account. Additionally, there is fierce rivalry right now, especially because so many people want to advance (Leyne, 2019). Many school officials and teachers believe and practice that getting a job or a promotion requires the recommendation of someone influential. In some cases, even those who are not qualified have been appointed to lead a school division office (Ocampo & Lucasan, 2019).

Table 4. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Motivation in Terms of Promotion

Items Mean SD Interpretation
There are opportunities for promotion to higher positions through career progressions and prospects. 3.16 0.63 High Level of Motivation
I have a   better career path once promoted 3.18 0.60 High Level of Motivation
The organization allows an employee to apply for promotion/higher positions 3.20 0.53 High Level of Motivation
There are prospects for career advancements through study leave benefits, scholarship grants, and graduate degrees obtained 3.08 0.63 High Level of Motivation
I am motivated by the chances of promotion in my workplace 3.09 0.67 High Level of Motivation
Overall 3.14 0.45 High Level of Motivation

Job Autonomy. In Table 5, the teacher respondents believed they have a high level of motivation (M=3.22, SD=.60). Most of the respondents observed that the school “promotes trust and confidence by letting them do what they want to the tasks given” (M=3.27, SD=.61) and that “For better performance management, the organization values each member’s contributions” (M=3.27, SD=.59). Some principals work to increase their members’ autonomy and commitment (Bouchamma et al., 2014). The tasks completed at school are projects that not only unite but also involve the students.

Table 5. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Motivation in Terms of Job Autonomy

Items Mean SD Interpretation
Promotes trust and confidence in the workplace by letting you do what you want to the tasks given. 3.27 0.59 Very High Level of Motivation
The organization values the contributions of each member for better performance management. 3.27 0.61 Very High Level of Motivation
From the beginning until the end, I do the task independently 3.17 2.28 High Level of Motivation
I have the opportunity what I do best every day with less supervision 3.13 0.61 High Level of Motivation
I am empowered to perform duties and responsibilities 3.25 0.61 High Level of Motivation
Overall 3.22 0.60 High Level of Motivation

In table 6, it shows the overall mean distribution of teacher-respondents in terms of their motivation. The teacher respondents believed they have a high level of motivation (M=3.18, SD=.60). Work motivation enables a person to improve his performance and willingness to complete a task. Any organization must understand and create a healthy work environment to encourage productive and enthusiastic behaviors (Kumar, 2017). The impact of motivation on teachers’ day-to-day performance cannot be overstated, especially when it comes to being rewarded for a job well done and being happy at work.

Table 6. Overall Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents In terms of Their Motivation

Indicators Mean SD Interpretation
1.1 Compensation 2.95 0.59 High level of Motivation
1.2 Achievement 3.28 0.43 Very High Level of Motivation
1.3 Personal Growth 3.29 0.41 Very High Level of Motivation
1.4 Promotion 3.14 0.45 High Level of Motivation
1.5 Job Autonomy 3.22 0.60 High Level of Motivation
Overall 3.18 0.50 High Level of Motivation

Assessment of Organizational Commitment

The organization must engage its teachers for them to be more motivated, and the teachers must look for something that will motivate them. As a result, motivation and organizational commitment will be evident in how teachers perform in their respective jobs at the station.

Affective Commitment. Table 7 shows the teacher respondents believed they have a high level of commitment (M=2.61, SD=.60). It is further solidified by the statement of a respondent that “I consider this career as my purpose of existence”. However, three of the indicators for affective organizational commitment have a low level of commitment. In particular, the teacher respondents believed that “they do not feel a strong sense of belonging to the organization” (M=2.08, SD=.74). The urge to belong, also known as belongingness, refers to a person’s emotional desire to associate with and be accepted by other members of a group. To be accepted by coworkers, to be a part of an athletic team, or to be a member of a religious organization are a few examples of this (Cherry, 2021).

Table 7. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Organizational Commitment in terms of Affective

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career in the DepEd 3.22 0.67 High Level of Commitment
I feel as if the organization’s problems are my own 2.90 0.69 High Level of Commitment
I do not feel like “part of my family” at this organization 2.15 0.72 Low Level of Commitment
I do not feel “emotional” to this organization 2.22 0.78 Low Level of Commitment
This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me 3.11 0.53 High Level of Commitment
I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to this organization 2.08 0.74 Low Level of Commitment
Overall 2.61 0.41 High Level of Commitment

Legend: 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

            2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

Continuance Commitment. Table 8, respondents believed that they had a high level of organizational commitment in terms of continued commitment. (M=3.02, SD=.47). All six indicators of ongoing commitment are rated as having a high level of commitment. In particular, respondent teachers believed that “One of the major reasons they continue to work for the organization is that leaving would require considerable personal sacrifice” (M=3.15, SD=.57).  There is a culture that expects too much of teachers, and as a result, they embrace the personal sacrifice of burn-out. Unfortunately, teachers will give everything they have, especially if it is expected of them. This cannot be sustained. This is what causes exhaustion and burnout. This level of sacrifice was expected of them (Stuchbery, 2016). However, a teacher is defined by their commitment and sacrifice. Even in the most trying circumstances, teachers will continue to put the needs of the students first because they are teachers, who are held in such high regard (Cutler, 2015).

Table 8. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Organizational Commitment in terms of Continuance

Items Mean SD Interpretation
It would be very hard for me to leave my job at this organization right now even if I wanted to 3.13 0.66 High Level of Commitment
Too much of my life would be disrupted if I left my organization 2.89 0.70 High Level of Commitment
Right now, staying with my job at this organization is a matter of necessary as much as desire 3.07 0.64 High Level of Commitment
I believe I have too few options to consider leaving this organization 2.92 0.63 High Level of Commitment
One of the few negative consequences of leaving my job at this organization would be a scarcity of available alternatives elsewhere 2.94 0.67 High Level of Commitment
One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that leaving would require considerable personal sacrifice 3.15 0.57 High Level of Commitment
Overall 3.02 0.47 High Level of Commitment

Legend: 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

            2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

Normative Commitment. In Table 9, respondent teachers believed that, in general, they have a high level of organizational commitment in terms of normative commitment (M=2.92, SD=.42). There are two indicators in which the respondents believed they have a very high level of normative commitment: first is that “they believed that the organization deserves their loyalty” (M=3.30, SD=.65); and that they “owe a great deal to the organization” (M=3.26, SD=.66). When respondents were asked if they have plans to leave in the organization, they responded that “No plans for now since the job sustain the means of living of the family”, “Organization need our commitment to succeed” added.

Without loyalty, there is little sense of teamwork, dedication, or trust. Employers place a high value on loyal workers. Loyal workers help their organizations as well as themselves. Because of the “binding effect” of loyalty, loyal workers tend to have more solid relationships with others, which is crucial for collaboration and the pursuit of common organizational objectives (Berry et al., 2021). Additionally, remaining devoted to your employer can boost your output, lessen stress at work, and present you with new prospects. Your organization may recognize your trustworthiness by giving you things like promotions or exclusive job opportunities when you show your dedication to it.

Table 9. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Organizational Commitment in terms of Normative

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I do not feel any obligation to remain with my organization 2.25 0.74 Low Level of Commitment
Even if it were to my advantage, I do not feel it would be right to leave 2.74 0.73 High Level of Commitment
I would feel guilty if I left this organization now 2.87 0.70 High Level of Commitment
This organization deserves my loyalty 3.30 0.65 Very High Level of Commitment
I would not leave my organization right now because of my sense of obligation to it 3.10 0.59 High Level of Commitment
I owe a great deal to this organization 3.26 0.66 Very High Level of Commitment
Overall 2.92 0.42 High Level of Commitment

Legend: 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

             2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

In table 10, it shows the overall mean distribution of teacher-respondents in terms of their organizational commitment. The teacher respondents believed they have a high level of commitment to the organization (M=2.85, SD=.43). According to Habib (2020), Organizations must improve commitment because it is linked to productivity. Because teachers are valuable resources to educational institutions, management must invest significant resources in assessing their working environment, both mental and physical, to maximize service delivery quality.

School leaders should work with teachers in decision-making and share responsibilities with them to ensure that they feel a sense of belonging or family in the school, and the government should provide various professional development and mentor programs to increase their commitment level (Tadesse, 2019).

Table 10. Overall Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents in Terms of Their Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment Indicators Mean SD Interpretation
Affective Commitment 2.61 0.41 High Level of Commitment
Continuance Commitment 3.02 0.47 High Level of Commitment
Normative Commitment 2.92 0.42 High Level of Commitment
Overall 2.85 0.43 High Level of Commitment

Assessments of Teachers’ Work-life Balance

Work. Referring to Table 11, respondent teachers generally believed that they have a somewhat balanced work-life in terms of work.  (M=3.08, SD=.91).  All four indicators for work-life balance in terms of work are rated as somewhat balanced. As respondents said that “Too much workload/policies demoralizes us teachers, they must remove all the crap like useless reporting, non-teaching tasks”. On a positive note, one indicator has a rating of highly balanced, and this is the item “I have significant support from my superior in ensuring that I have a healthy work-life balance” (M=3.26, SD=.76). Employers, who are committed to fostering work-life balance for their employees can save money, reduce absenteeism, and benefit from a more dedicated and effective team (Sanfilippo, 2022).

Table 11. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Work-Life Balance in Terms of Work

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I have significant support from my superior in ensuring that I have a healthy work-life balance 3.26 0.76 Excellently Balanced
My organization allows me to work from home when required 3.00 0.72 Somewhat Balanced
My organization is often concerned about the welfare of its employee 3.13 0.72 Somewhat Balanced
My organization implements a policy for work-life balance 3.19 0.74 Somewhat Balanced
My organization allows flexible hours/time 2.80 0.91 Somewhat Balanced
Overall 3.08 0.60 Somewhat Balanced

Legend: 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

            2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

Health. Table 12 revealed that teacher respondents believed they have somewhat work-life balance (M=2.98, SD=.47). Respondents said “The organization must create programs to take care of employees’ health like stress management seminars and alike”. All four indicators for work-life balance in terms of health are rated as somewhat balanced. On the other hand, one indicator has a rating of highly balanced, and this is the item “My organization implements health programs” (M=3.26, SD=.76). Employers now have a financial stake in their employees’ health because their role in employee healthcare has shifted from provider to sponsor/payer via health insurance premiums (Holden, 2021).

Table 12. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Work-Life Balance in terms of health

Items Mean SD Interpretation
My organization implements health programs 3.27 0.77 Excellently Balanced
I feel tired or depressed because of my work/tasks 2.83 0.73 Somewhat Balanced
My organization/assigned area has health facilities 3.05 0.76 Somewhat Balanced
My organization allot time for counseling services 2.70 0.85 Somewhat Balanced
I sacrifice sleep to spend time with my work/tasks 3.04 0.73 Somewhat Balanced
Overall 2.98 0.47 Somewhat Balanced

Family. In Table 13, respondent teachers generally believed that they have a somewhat balanced work-life in terms of family.  (M=3.04, SD=.48).  All four indicators for work-life balance in terms of family are rated with somewhat balanced work-life. The item “I provided quality time with my family” has a rating of highly balanced (M=3.26, SD=.67). Respondents said that “The organization must create programs to lessen employees’ health like semi-annual activities with respective families even inside the campus”. Junior high school teachers find it challenging to experience high levels of job or family satisfaction when conflicts between work and family are present. Teachers’ enthusiasm for teaching will be impacted by how happy they are in their professional and personal lives (Gu & Wang, 2021).

Table 13. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Work-Life Balance in Terms of Family

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I provide quality time with my family 3.26 0.67 Excellently Balanced
My family gatherings/occasions are not affected by work 2.98 0.68 Somewhat Balanced
I deal with urgent family issues without hassles or reprisals 3.11 0.60 Somewhat Balanced
My organization supports family programs 2.89 0.74 Somewhat Balanced
I always come home from work on time to look after family roles 2.97 0.77 Somewhat Balanced
Overall 3.04 0.48 Somewhat Balanced

Legend: 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (D); 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D);

              2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A); 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)

Friends. Table 14 showed that respondent teachers generally believed that they have a somewhat balanced work-life in terms of friends.  (M=2.80, SD=.58).  All four indicators for work-life balance in terms of work are rated as somewhat balanced. On a positive note, one indicator has a rating of highly balanced, and this is the item “I always have a healthy relationship with friends while working” (M=3.29, SD=.71). A work best friend can make working hours more pleasurable and purposeful (Kaado, 2022).

Table 14. Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents on Their Work-Life Balance in terms of Friends

Items Mean SD Interpretation
I can provide time for my friends even if I am working 2.66 0.80 Somewhat Balanced
I always have a healthy relationship with friends while working 3.29 0.71 Excellently Balanced
My organization allows me to file leave for friend gatherings/social 2.55 0.88 Somewhat Balanced
My work was not been an issue to my friends (limited time) 2.71 0.94 Somewhat Balanced
Due to the nature of my job, I still always have time to talk to my friends 2.77 0.75 Somewhat Balanced
Overall 2.80 0.58 Somewhat Balanced

Referring to Table 15, the respondent teachers generally believed that they have a somewhat balanced work-life (M=2.98, SD=.53).  According to the findings of the study conducted by Javier and Rosal (2021), keeping a positive work-life balance is essential not only for personal health and relationships, but it can also boost employee productivity and, finally, performance. Revealed also that the majority of public school teachers in Higher Education Institutions have an unbalanced work-life balance. Work-life balance is crucial in academia because it helps teachers become more effective and efficient at their jobs. This has also been discovered that having so many deadlines is a prevalent trigger influencing the level of work-life balance of teachers.

Table 15. Overall Mean Distribution of Teacher-Respondents in Terms of Their Work-life Balance

Items Mean SD Interpretation
Work 3.08 0.60 Somewhat Balanced
Health 2.98 0.47 Somewhat Balanced
Family 3.04 0.48 Somewhat Balanced
Friends 2.80 0.58 Somewhat Balanced
Overall 2.98 0.53 Somewhat Balanced

A significant relationship between motivation and organizational commitment.

Table 16 revealed a statistically significant relationship between motivation and organizational commitment (r=0.497, p=.000). In particular, organizational commitment in terms of affective has a weak correlation with motivation (r=0.306, p=.000). This is in contrast to the finding of Berg (2011) in his paper exploring relationships between motivation and commitment. His research found a link between affective commitment to the organization and intrinsic motivation, which is mainly mediated by work engagement (Berg, 2011). It is worthy to mention though, that the motivation considered was intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is defined as actions motivated by internal rewards. The desire to engage in a behavior arises from within due to the inherent satisfaction of the activity rather than the desire for a reward or specific outcome (Kendra, 2022). Autonomy, purpose, and mastery are the three main components of intrinsic motivation.

Table 16. Correlation Coefficients and Significance of Relationship between Motivation and Organizational Commitment

 

 

ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT
Affective Continuance Normative Overall
MOTIVATION Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value interpretation
Compensation .240** .001 S .299** .000 S .352** .000 S .376** .000 S
Achievement .307** .000 S .410** .000 S .467** .000 S .500** .000 S
Growth .169* .021 S .203** .005 S .232** .001 S .255** .000 S
Promotion .239** .001 S .266** .000 S .408** .000 S .383** .000 S
Job autonomy .183* .012 S .273** .000 S .316** .000 S .327** .000 S
Overall .306** .000 S .393** .000 S .479** .000 S .497** .000 S

Legend: Very Weak- 0.0- 0.20; Weak-0.21- 0.40; Moderate-0.41-0. 60; Strong- 0.61-0. 80; Very         Strong-0.81-1. 00 * *Significant at 0.01 level, * Significant at 0.05 level (NS=Not Significant, S=Significant)

Significant relationship between motivation and work-life balance.

Table 17 revealed a statistically significant relationship between motivation and work-life balance (r=0.275, p=.000). Work-life balance in terms of friends, on the other hand, is not significantly related to the overall construct of motivation (r-=-0.022, p=.765). All of the other aspects of work-life balance are inextricably linked to the overall construct of motivation. Work, in particular, has a weak correlation with motivation (r=0.379, p=.000) as a sub-dimension of work-life balance. In other words, if the organization’s support for maintaining work-life balance is strong, so is the motivation of the teacher respondents. Project deadlines, long-term growth, and even day-to-day goals all rely on strong leadership that inspires motivation. Understanding the importance of team member motivation and how to foster it is a necessary tool in every leader’s toolbox (Diamon, 2022).

Table 17. Correlation Coefficients and Significance of Relationship between Motivation and Work-Life Balance

  Work-Life Balance
Work Health Family Friends Overall
MOTIVATION Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation
Compensation .248** .001 S .212** .004 S .121 .100 NS -.073 .321 NS .159* .030 S
Achievement .309** .000 S .160* .029 S .160* .029 S -.105 .152 NS .166* .023 S
Growth .317** .000 S .233** .001 S .310** .000 S .109 .139 NS .307** .000 S
Promotion .307** .000 S .297** .000 S .267** .000 S .073 .324 NS .297** .000 S
Job autonomy .245** .001 S .110 .134 NS .107 .147 NS -.049 .509 NS .133 .070 NS
Overall .379** .000 S .267** .000 S .246** .001 S -.022 .765 NS .275** .000 S

Legend: Very Weak- 0.0- 0.20; Weak-0.21- 0.40; Moderate-0.41-0. 60; Strong- 0.61-0. 80; Very Strong-0.81-1. 00 * *Significant at 0.01 level, * Significant at 0.05 level (NS=Not Significant, S=Significant)

Significant relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment.

Table 18 revealed a statistically significant relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment (r=0.239, p=.001). Work-life balance in terms of friends, on the other hand, is not significantly related to the overall construct of organizational commitment (r-=0.008, p=.917). All of the other aspects of work-life balance are inextricably linked to the overall construct of organizational commitment.

Work, in particular, has a weak correlation with organizational commitment (r=0.315, p=.000) as a sub-dimension of work-life balance. That is, the more supportive the organization is of the employee’s work-life balance, the more committed the employee is to the organization. People who feel that their employer organizations are supporting them more are more likely to feel obligated to them (i.e., normative commitment) and to reciprocate by staying for extended periods (i.e. continuance commitment) (Eisenberger et al., 2002). However, those who experience greater support from their employer organization are more likely to give back to it in exchange for a sense of identification and loyalty (i.e. affective commitment) (Kurtessis et al., 2017). To equalize the employer-employee relationship, the employee is given a good working environment with the expectation that feelings of support and care will lead to the employee’s commitment to the organization (Valentine et al., 2002).

Table 18. Correlation Coefficients and Significance of Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Organizational Commitment

 

 

ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT
Affective Continuance Normative Overall
WORK-LIFE BALANCE Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation Pearson r P-value Interpretation
Work .213** .003 S .178* .015 S .365** .000 S .315** .000 S
Health .142 .053 NS .156* .033 S .257** .000 S .233** .001 S
Family .209** .004 S -.020 .785 NS .304** .000 S .198** .007 S
Friends .116 .116 NS -.150* .041 NS .073 .321 NS .008 .917 NS
Overall .218** .003 S .050 .495 NS .317** .000 S .239** .001 S

Legend: Very Weak- 0.0- 0.20; Weak-0.21- 0.40; Moderate-0.41-0. 60; Strong- 0.61-0. 80; Very Strong-0.81-1. 00 **Significant at 0.01 level, * Significant at 0.05 level (NS=Not Significant, S=Significant)

Moderation Analysis

As shown in Table 19, work-life balance had a moderating impact on the connection between motivation and organizational commitment. Work-life balance was found to have a moderating effect on the interaction between motivation and organizational commitment (b= 0.046, t = 0.364, p =.716). As a result, we do not find enough evidence to support hypothesis #4, which states that work-life balance has no moderating effect on the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment in this research. If the moderator variable is substantial, the independent and dependent variables can be strengthened or weakened. Thus, work-life balance has no amplifying effect (because b is positive) in the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment in this study.

Work-life balance has an interaction with motivation and organizational commitment. Work-life balance, in other words, moderates the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment, but it is not statistically significant. A non-significant result does not imply that there is no effect on the population; rather, it indicates that the dataset lacks sufficient data to conclude the existence of an effect on the population (Myszkowski, 2016).

Table 19. Moderating Effect Analysis Result

CONSEQUENT (COMMITMENT (Y)
Antecedent Coeff. SE t p
Constant 1.608 1.160 0.811 .167
Motivation (X) 0.302 0.372 -0.133 .419
Work-life Balance (W) -0.053 0.402 0.364 .895
Motivation: Work-life Balance (XxW) 0.046 0.128 1.386 .716
Model 1: R2= 0.259, F=21.15, p<.001

Figure 1 depicts the results of a simple slope analysis performed to gain a better understanding of the moderating effects. The two lines in Figure 1 depict the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment for higher work-life balance (i.e., the mean value of WLB plus one standard deviation unit) and lower work-life balance (i.e., the mean value of WLB minus one standard deviation unit) levels of the moderator variable WLB. There is no interaction or moderating effect if these two lines are parallel (Suresha, 2021).

Simple Slope Analysis

Figure 1. Simple Slope Analysis

As can be seen from the two lines’ positive slopes, motivation and organizational commitment have a positive relationship. Therefore, higher organizational commitment is correlated with higher levels of motivation. The influence of motivation on organizational commitment is larger at high levels of the moderator WLB due to the positive moderating effect, but it is smaller at lower levels of the moderator WLB.

A moderator variable influences the strength, direction, or existence of a relationship between variables. Work-life balance has been used as a moderator variable in studies of human resource practice and intention to stay (Chang et al., 2019), role salience and growth intentions (Neneh, 2021), and others. There hasn’t been a study that looks at work-life balance as a moderator in the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment, so this one was created.

Work-life balance has no amplifying effect on the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment, according to the findings. In other words, no interaction exists between motivation and work-life balance to influence organizational commitment.

CONCLUSION

The work-life balance had a moderating impact on the connection between motivation and organizational commitment. Work-life balance was found to have a moderating effect on the interaction between motivation and organizational commitment (b= 0.046, t = 0.364, p =.716). As a result, we do not find enough evidence to support the hypothesis, which states that work-life balance has no moderating effect on the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment in this research. If the moderator variable is substantial, the independent and dependent variables can be strengthened or weakened. As a result, work-life balance has no amplifying effect (because b is positive) in this study’s relationship between motivation and organizational commitment.

The following policy recommendations are made based on the study’s findings, conclusions, and significance:

The Government already provided or extended assistance to Public Basic Education Institutions in the implementation of a work-life balance program for employees but the support shall be amplified to increase teachers’ motivation and organizational commitment, which will result in better performance and increased institutional performance. To increase their level of commitment, the government shall provide various professional development and mentor programs.

Public Basic Education Institutions shall implement and add more programs that would positively and significantly affect the work-life balance, motivation, and organizational commitment of employees to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of teachers. Allow the best people to work in the school, promotion of staff must be based on teachers’ meritorious achievement and performance. Management shall implement the Management by Objective (MBO) approach to ensure that every employee can get involved and contribute meaningfully to the organization’s growth. The working environment and wellbeing of the staff shall be sufficiently improved by management although they implemented programs in line with work-life balance but not sufficient. To promote intrinsic motivation, incentives such as medical care, housing allowances, and hazard pay for individuals deployed in the hinterland shall be sufficiently given higher than the amount that was mentioned in the Joint Circular of the Department of Budget and Management and Department of Education No. 01, 2021. To reward hard work, management shall promote fairness between effort put into the workplace and promotion. To prevent unhappiness, management should effectively create and implement training and development programs that help teachers grow and improve on the job. To prevent dissatisfaction and boost performance while also providing employees with a sense of belonging, management should efficiently implement and indiscriminately carry out employee growth and advancement through training and development.  The school leader shall involve teachers in decision-making and assign them responsibilities enough so they feel a sense of belonging or family in the school. Because the general concept of empowerment is set off by leaders of an organization, school principals must be the primary mediators to practice empowerment at the school level. Because experienced teachers can mentor and guide new teachers in a variety of manners, the faculty bears a significant responsibility to overcome this phenomenon and make use of experienced teachers’ knowledge, skills, and experience.

Public Basic School Teachers shall be inspired to participate in motivational, commitment-building, and work-life balance activities to contribute to institutional development that significantly contributes to the learner’s transformation into a better version of themselves. In that way students would be more engaged and motivated to study harder in a supportive learning environment, as teachers are motivated and committed to performing their jobs, resulting in a high passing rate.

The researcher should continue to conduct research on motivation, organizational commitment, and work-life balance, all of which are essential for the development of teachers, particularly in terms of their teaching and administrative duties in their respective stations. This might represent a crucial point for studies of a similar nature in various teaching situations, which may help us better comprehend the idea of teacher motivation in the context of different national and cultural contexts.

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