Modular Distance Learning Modality: Its Effect on Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School

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Modular Distance Learning Modality: Its Effect on Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School

  • Jocelyn E. Petilo, MM
  • 143-155
  • Apr 27, 2024
  • Education

Modular Distance Learning Modality: Its Effect on Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School

Jocelyn E. Petilo, MM, Consuelo R. Saenz, EdD

Department of Education, Mantagbac Elementary School, Philippines

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1104011

Received: 10 March 2024;  Accepted: 21 March 2024; Published: 27 April 2024

ABSTRACT

This study primarily focused on determining the effects of modular distance learning in Grade II pupils of Mantagbac Elementary School, Daet North District, Camarines Norte for the school year 2022 – 2023. The study used the descriptive comparative method of research with 30 Grade II pupils as respondents. The pupils were under Full Refresher based on the CRLA pre-test. The researcher utilized the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA), The CRLA materials and results of the pre and post tests were analysed to identify the least mastered reading and comprehension skills of the respondents. T-test was used to determine the significant difference in Grade II pupil’s pre-test and post-test scores.

The findings of the study were summarized as follows: 1) The grade II pupils with the age of seven has a frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent. Males make up more than 50 percent of the respondents with a frequency of 17 or 56.7 percent, while the females have a frequency of 13 or 43.3 percent. Furthermore, most of respondents have three to four siblings, with a frequency of 12 or 40 percent, and laborers made up the most of the parents’ employment with a frequency of 15 or 50 percent. Additionally, in terms of their family’s monthly income the highest frequency was no monthly income, 3,000–4,000, and 5,000–6,000, with a frequency of seven or 23.3 percent. Respondents who received assistance from their parents had the highest frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent and those who received assistance from their relatives had the lowest frequency of two or 6.6 percent. In terms of reading proficiency level, all the respondents in CRLA pre-test were in full refresher level, whereas the results of the post-test showed that pupils’ reading level were grade-ready. 2) The results of the CRLA pre-test in reading words showed that majority of the pupils (63.3 percent) correctly identified five to six words whereas in the CRLA post-test, majority of the pupils (90 percent) were able to read nine to ten. However, in terms of reading sentences, the CRLA pre-test showed that none of the pupils were able to read a sentence while in the CRLA post-test, 16 or 53.33 percent were able to read out one to two sentences. 3) The mean score of the pupils in the pre-test is 9.27 with standard deviation of 1.26 while the mean score for the post test is 17.90 with a standard deviation of 1.12.  This means that there is an increase of 8.63 in the average scores of the pupils in the post test. In addition, the standard deviation of the results has a significant decrease of 0.14. The computed value is -26.998 with p-value>0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post test results of Grade II pupils. Thus, the null hypothesis will be rejected. 4) The least mastered reading and comprehension skills in the CRLA pre-test is sentence reading with a frequency of zero or 0 percent while the post-test result showed sentence reading is the least mastered skill with the frequency of six or 20 percent. 5) An intervention plan was proposed to improve the reading and comprehension skills of the grade II pupils.

Keywords: Modular Distance Learning (MDL), Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA), reading comprehension skills, full refresher

INTRODUCTION

The most essential outcome of formal education is the production of learners who can read and comprehend the materials being read. One of the primary purposes of the educational system is to help students become proficient readers. Reading comprehension has become a focus of research in the field of language acquisition and instruction due to its importance. However, it should be highlighted that reading comprehension was not an easy process, making it difficult for teachers to teach and pupils to acquire.

It is in this context that the researcher pursued a study.This study can provide data on the effect of modular distance learning modality to the reading and comprehension skills of Grade II pupils.

Specifically, this study described the profile of the respondents, reading and comprehension skills, least mastered reading and comprehension skills per CRLA test results and intervention proposed to improve the reading and comprehension skills

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents a thorough discussion of the research methodology.

Method of Research

The descriptive comparative method of research was used in this study. Descriptive comparative is used to determine outcomes and compare them in two or more groups that persist in a situation. A descriptive – comparative research design is intended to describe the differences among groups in a population without manipulating the independent variable.

The variables described in the study were the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, number of siblings, and employment of parent, estimated monthly income of family, person providing assistance to the pupil and reading proficiency level. However, the variables being compared were the reading and comprehension skills based on CRLA pre-test and post-test and the significant difference of CRLA pre and post-test.

Description of the Respondents

The respondents in this study were thirty (30) Grade II pupils who participated in the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) Pre-Test and fell into the Full Refresher group, making up thirty (30) out of the 121 total population of Grade II pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School. These thirty pupils obtained scores on the Full Refresher that ranged from 0 to 14.

Data Gathering Procedure

In order to properly prepare and maximize the time and effort spent on refining the content, the researcher followed a step-by-step approach for collecting data. With the agreement of the head of the Graduate School and other relevant personnel, a letter of request was written to the Schools Division Superintendent and the School Head in order to obtain authorization to conduct the study. Another letter of request was sent to the parents of the respondents requesting to attend the orientation.

The Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) pre – test was conducted August, 2022 to determine the reading and comprehension skills of the Grade II pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School. The conduct of the pre – test was done individually for five to ten minutes and allowing the pupil to read orally what is on the reading materials. The results were tallied in the CRLA scoresheet and these results showed that out of 121 pupils who took the pre – test, thirty (30) were under Full Refresher Profile and will undergo modular distance learning modality to improve their reading and comprehension level.

The modular distance learning modality was conducted within four (4) months from August to November, 2022.  To ensure adequate communication of the actions to be carried out during the modular distance learning, parents and pupils were given an orientation. It was discussed that printed reading materials, activity sheets, board / word games and modules appropriate to the grade level of the child were distributed and retrieved every Monday and home visitation was conducted on Saturdays. The printing of modules, reading materials, activity sheets and other materials was done by the researcher and such materials were provided to the 30 Grade II pupils.

Home visitation was a part of the modular distance learning modality, and required extra time, patience, and dedication of the researcher but it was an opportunity for parents and the researcher to meet simply to talk and collaborate for the benefit of the child. One on one tutoring was applied to give more time and follow up to the pupil but some pupils were neigh bours so they were combined together. The monitoring sheet was used to determine the child’s progress: if the child can recognize a letter, a syllable, a consonant – vowel – consonant word, a phrase and a sentence.

The thirty (30) Grade 2 pupils took the post – test four (4) months after the modular distance learning was implemented. Post – test was done individually for five (5) to ten (10) minutes and pupils were asked to read orally what is on the given task. Last but not the least, the pre and post – test results of the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) were reviewed, added together, and tabulated. These were presented, examined, and analyzed using the right statistical methods.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Various statistical tools were used to analyze the data that were collected. The percentages used to describe each respondent’s age, gender, number of siblings, family’s monthly income, parent’s job status, person helping the student, and reading level comprised the descriptive data.

The t-test, which was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in Grade II pupils’ pre-test and post-test scores. A t-test is a statistical test that is used to compare the means of two groups. It is often used in hypothesis testing to determine whether a process or treatment actually has an effect on the population of interest, or whether two groups are different from one another.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

This part presents the results of the data analysis in response to the problems covered by the study.

Profile of the Respondents

The profile of the respondents provided a better perspective of the demographic attributes of the respondents and elaboration concerning the tables showing the age on Table 1, sex on Table 2, number of siblings on Table 3, employment of parents on Table 4, estimated monthly income of family on Table 5, person providing assistance to the pupil on Table 6 and Reading Proficiency Level on Table 7.

Age. Table 1 shows the age profile of grade II pupils. The age of the respondents, which ranges from 7 to 10, is listed in column 1; frequency is given column 2, and in column 3 is the percentage.

Table 1. Age Profile of Grade II Pupils

Age Frequency Percentage (%)
7 16 53.3
8 8 26.7
9 4 13.3
10 2 6.7
Total 30 100

It can be viewed from the data that more than 50 percent of the respondents were 7 years old and has the highest frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent and 10 years old as the lowest with a frequency of 2 or 6.7 percent.

This further indicates that more than fifty (50) percent of the respondents, as indicated by the table, were 7 years old. This was because a 7-year-old must be enrolled in Grade II, a 6-year-old in Grade I, and a 5-year-old in kindergarten by the Department of Education’s age guidelines. However, lowest frequency may be due to the Balik-Aral, Retained, or Failed grades from the previous school year.

Sex. Table 2 shows the sex profile of the grade II pupils. Sex is indicated in column 1, frequency is shown in column 2, and percentage is listed in column 3.

Table 2. Sex Profile of Grade II Pupils

Sex Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 17 56.7
Female 13 43.3
Total 30 100

The findings indicate that 17 out of 30 or 56.7 percent are male while 13 or 43.3 percent are females.

This further implies that the grade II respondents of Mantagbac Elementary School are mostly male than female. This is due to the desire and eagerness of the respondents to attend to school every day and be able to finish second grade.

Number of Siblings. Table 3 shows the number of siblings’ profile of grade II pupils. Column 1 includes the number of siblings, from none to more than ten (10), while columns 2 and 3 list frequency and percentage, respectively.

Table 3. Number of Siblings Profile of Grade II Pupils

Number of Siblings Frequency Percentage (%)
           None 1  3.3
1-2 7 23.3
3-4 12 40.0
5-6 5 16.7
7-8 3 10.0
9-10 1 3.3
Above 10 1 3.3
          Total 30 100

The frequency of having three (3) to four (4) siblings, which is 12 or 40 percent was the highest. This was followed by a frequency of 7 or 23.3 percent for those with one (1) to two (2) siblings and a frequency of 5 or 16.7 percent for those with five to six siblings. The lowest frequency was 1 or 3.3 percent for the respondents with no siblings, nine (9) to ten (10) siblings, and more than ten (10) siblings.

The results further show that pupils in the second grade often had between three (3) and four (4) siblings. This implies that modern parents actively plan their families, believing that having few kids is both ideal and realistic.

The lowest result, however, suggests that having no siblings and having nine (9) to ten (10) or more than ten (10) siblings may be the result of unwanted births and parents who were unaware of the drawbacks of having many children.

Employment of Parent. Table 4 shows the profile as to employment of parents of the grade II pupils.  Column 1 gives a general overview of the classification of parent employment, while columns 2 and 3 give the frequency and percentage breakdowns.

Table 4. Profile as to Employment of Parents of the Grade II Pupils

Employment Frequency Percentage (%)
None 7 23.3
Laborer 15 50.0
Job Order/Contractual 5 16.7
Regular/Permanent 3 10.0
Total 30 100

The table shows that, when it comes to parent work, laborer has the largest frequency of 15 or 50 percent while regular/permanent has the lowest frequency of 3 or 10 percent.

This further means that 50 percent of the parent’s respondents work as laborers that may be a mechanic, luggage boy, carpenter, tricycle driver, helper, or construction worker. Conversely, 10 percent of the respondent’s parents hold regular or permanent employment that may include office clerks, overseas Filipino workers, and members of local government agencies.

Estimated Monthly Income. Table 5 shows the estimated monthly income of the respondents. The table includes the monthly income in column 1, which ranges from having no monthly income to having an income beyond Php10,000, the frequency in column 2, and the percentage in column 3.

Table 5. Profile as to Estimated Monthly Income of the Respondents

Monthly Income (Php) Frequency Percentage (%)
None 7 23.3
1,000-2,000 2   6.6
3,000-4,000 7 23.3
5,000-6,000 7 23.3
7,000-8,000 1   3.3
9,000-10,000 3                  10.0
Above 10,000 3                  10.0
     Total 30 100

Families with incomes between 3,000 to 4,000, 5,000 to 6,000, and families with no monthly income had the highest frequency of seven or 23.3 percent, respectively, and 7,000 to 8,000 had the lowest frequency of one or 3.3 percent. The findings validated the previous findings that 50 percent of the respondents have parents that are employed as laborers.

Furthermore, parents who were working as laborers might be making between 350 and 400 pesos per day as construction workers, helpers, baggage boys, carpenters, tricycle drivers, and mechanics; however, parents who had no monthly income were not working because they were caring for younger children, and some were living with their relatives as extended family.

Person Providing Assistance to the Pupil. Table 6 shows the profile as to person providing assistance to the pupils. The person who’s helping the pupil is listed in Column 1, the frequency is in Column 2, and the percentage is stated in Column 3.

Table 6. Profile as to Person Providing Assistance to the Pupils

Person Providing Assistance Frequency Percentage (%)
Parents 16 53.3
Siblings 7 23.3
Relatives 2 6.6
Grandparents 5 16.7
           Total 30 100

Based on the data, respondents who received assistance from their parents had the highest frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent and those who received assistance from their relatives had the lowest frequency of two or 6.6 percent.

The results suggest that parents helping the pupils are stay-at-home parents and do not work to care for their kids.  However, the pupils who received assistance from their relatives reside with their uncle, aunt, cousins and other relatives.

Reading Proficiency Level. Table 7 shows the Profile of the Grade II pupils along the Reading Proficiency Level. Column 1 specifies the reading proficiency level, such as grade ready, moderate refresher, light refresher, and full refresher; columns 2 and 3 provide the frequency and percentage of pre-tests; and columns 4 and 5 list the frequency and percentage of post-tests.

Table 7. Profile of the Grade II pupils along the Reading Proficiency Level

Reading Proficiency

Level

Pre – test Post – test
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
Full Refresher 30 100.0 0 0.0
Moderate Refresher 0 0.0 0 0.0
Light Refresher 0 0.0 0 0.0
Grade Ready 0 0.0 30 100
Total 30 100 30 100

This shows that all of the pupils in CRLA pre-test were in the full refresher, whereas the results of the post-test showed that all pupils’ reading level were grade-ready.

This further means that all of the pupils who took the pre-test only received word scores between three and six, which falls under the category of a full refresher and that they have trouble reading letters and words.  However, post-test results showed that all of the pupils were grade-level ready, and that they could already identify and recognize letter names, letter sounds, words, and phrases.

Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils Based on the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment Pre-test and Post-test

Tables 8 and 9 present the reading words and reading sentences of Grade 2 pupils. Reading Words. Table 8 shows the Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils as to Reading Words in the CRLA Pre-test and Post-test. It contains the number of words ranging from 1 to 10 in column 1. The frequency and percentage of the pre-test in columns 2 and 3 and post-test frequency and percentage in columns 4 and 5.

Table 8. Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils as to Reading Words in the CRLA Pre-test and Post-test

Number of Words Pre Test Post Test
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
1-2 0 0.0 0 0.0
3-4 11 36.7 0 0.0
5-6 19 63.3 0 0.0
7-8 0 0 3 10.0
9-10 0 0 27 90.0
Total 30 100 30 100.0

The results showed that in the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) pre-test, majority of the pupils (63.3 percent) correctly identified five to six words and eleven pupils or 36.7 percent properly identified three to four whereas in the CRLA post-test, majority of the pupils were able to read nine to ten and three (3) or 10 percent for seven to eight words.

This further shows that in the CRLA pre-test result pupils who understand five (5) to six (6) words may only be able to read words with one to two syllables or can only recall a small number of words. On the other hand, pupils who correctly identified three (3) to four (4) words may have guessed or failed to recognize some of the beginning letter names and sounds.

Reading Sentences. Table 9 shows the reading and comprehension skills as to reading sentences. It presents the number of sentences in column 1, the frequency and percentage of the pre-test in columns 2 and 3, and the frequency and percentage of the post-test in columns 4 and 5.

Table 9. Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils as to Reading Sentences in the CRLA Pre-test and Post-test

Number of Sentences Pre Test Post Test
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
1 – 2 0 0.0 16 53.33
3 – 4 0 0.0 14 46.67
Total 0 0.0 30 100.0

The findings showed that in the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) pre-test, none of the pupils were able to read a sentence while the CRLA post-test shows that sixteen (16) out of 30 or 53.33 percent were able to read out 1 to 2 sentences and fourteen (14) or 46.67 percent read clearly 3 to 4 sentences

This suggests that the poor pre-test performance in reading sentences maybe due to the pupil’s inability to comprehend the words used to construct the sentence in the reading materials. However, post-test results revealed that pupils could read the sentences because they recognized some of the words in them.

Significant Difference Between the CRLA Pre-Test and Post-Test Results

Table 10 shows the test for significant difference between the pre-test and post results of the Grade II pupils which was computed using t-Test for dependent means.  Based on the table, it can be observed that the mean score of the pupils in the pre-test is 9.27 with standard deviation of 1.26 while the mean score for the post test is 17.90 with a standard deviation of 1.12.  This means that there is an increase of 8.63 in the average scores of the pupils in the post test. In addition, the standard deviation of the results has a significant decrease of 0.14. Hence, the spread of the score from the mean has decreased which is a good indicator that the pupils has manifested an improvement in terms of their reading comprehension skills.

Table 10. Test for Significant Difference between the CRLA Pre-Test and Post-Test Results

t-Test Pre test Post Test
Computed Value p-value Mean SD Mean SD
-26.998* 0.000 9.27 1.26 17.90 1.12

*Significant at 0.05 level

The table shows that the computed value is -26.998 with p-value>0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post test results of Grade II pupils. Thus, the null hypothesis will be rejected.

The result can be further interpreted in terms of the Modular Distance Learning employed by the pupils to improve their reading comprehension skills. Hence, this can be interpreted as evidence that the Modular Distance Learning has improved the reading and comprehension skills of the pupils.

Least Mastered Reading and Comprehension Skills per CRLA Test Results

Table 11 shows the least mastered reading and comprehension skills per Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) results among the grade II pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School. The reading and comprehension skills are shown in Column 1 as word recognition and sentence reading. Columns 2 and 3 contain pre-test frequency and percentage, and columns 4 and 5 provide post-test frequency and percentage.

Table 11. Least Mastered Reading and Comprehension Skills Per CRLA Test Results

Reading and comprehension skills Pre Test Post Test
Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
Word Recognition 30 100.0 24 80.0
Sentence Reading 0 0.0 6 20.0
Total 30 100.0 30 100

The table shows that least mastered skill in the CRLA pre-test was sentence reading with a frequency of zero or 0 percent while the least mastered skill in the CRLA post-test was also sentence reading with a frequency of six or 20 percent. However, 24 pupils or 80 percent are still in word recognition.

This suggests that sentence reading is the identified least comprehension skill in both CRLA pre-test and post-test. Though sentence reading was the least mastered reading and comprehension skill, it can be inferred that six (6) pupils were able to demonstrate sentence reading mastery during the post-test.

PROPOSED PLAN OF ACTION

The proposed intervention plan to improve the reading and comprehension skills of Grade II pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School was shown on Table 12. The objective can be found in column 1, the activity is listed in column 2, the time frame is given in column 3, the person involved are included in column 4, and the expected outcome is listed in column 5.

The proposed intervention plan has three objectives based on the results of the study namely: to increase the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils as to reading words; to increase the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils as to reading sentences; and to improve the least mastered reading and comprehension skill per CRLA result which is the sentence reading.

In order to realize the first objective, the following activities are proposed: Mix n’ Match” (saying the name and sound of 2 small cards with same letter names), “Connect me Right” (forming words using 2 to 3 cards with printed syllable), and “Search Me” (activity sheet – word hunt activity; searching words in the scrambled letters). The implementation of these activities will be on August to September, 2023 by the teacher – researcher with the target pupils and their parents. When these activities are done, the expected outcome is 100 percent of the pupils were able to read words in the CRLA post-test.

To attain the second objective, the proposed activities are: build it to win it” (make a sentence out of the cards with printed words) and “reader of the week” (award given to the pupil who improved in reading for the week). The implementation of these activities will be on September to November, 2023. The expected outcome is 90 percent of the pupils were able to read sentences correctly. For the third objective to be achieved, distribution and retrieval of modules, printed reading materials, activity sheets, word games, board games, and flash cards every Monday and home visitation every Saturday will be done by the teacher – researcher which will be on August to November, 2023. The expected outcome in this objective is improved sentence reading.

The activity games such as: “Mix n’ match”, “Search me” and “Connect me Right”  on the first objective which is to increase the reading and comprehension skills as to reading words would help result to 100 percent of the pupils’ were able to read words. However, at least 90% of the pupils are expected to progress in reading sentences when given exercises like “Build it to win it” and “Reader of the Week” for the second objective, which is to improve reading and comprehension skills as it pertains to reading sentences. On the other hand, for the third objective which is to improve the least mastered reading and comprehension skills per CRLA result which is the sentence reading, more than 50 percent of the pupils are expected to improve in sentence reading through conducting home visitation for follow up, distribution and retrieval of printed materials, activity sheets and others.

Table 12. Proposed Intervention Plan to Improve the Reading and Comprehension Skills of Grade II Pupils in Mantagbac Elementary School

Objective Activity Time Frame Persons Involved Expected Outcome
To increase  the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils as to:

a. reading words

“Mix n’ match”

(saying the name and sound of 2 small cards with same letter names)

“Connect me Right”

(forming words using 2 to 3 cards with printed syllable)

“Search me”

(activity sheet – word hunt activity; searching words in the scrambled letters)

August to September, 2023 Teacher – researcher, parents, pupil 100 percent of the pupils were able to read words
To enhance the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils as to:

a. reading sentences

“Build it to Win it”

(make a sentence out of the cards with printed words)

“Reader of the Week”

(award given to the pupil who improved in reading for the week)

September to November, 2023 Teacher – researcher, parents, pupil 90 percent of the pupils were able to read sentences correctly
To improve the least mastered  reading and comprehension skills per CRLA result which is the sentence reading * Distribution and retrieval of modules, printed reading materials, activity sheets, word games, board games, and flash cards to target pupils

* Home visitation every Saturday specifically for:

a. one on one tutoring

b. reading time

c. monitoring the reading progress (through monitoring sheet)

August to November, 2023 Teacher – researcher, parents, pupil More than 50 percent of the pupils improved in sentence reading.

FINDINGS

The findings of the study were summarized as follows:

  1. The Grade II pupils with the age of 7 has a frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent. Males make up more than fifty percent (50%) of the respondents with afrequency of 17 or 56.7 percent, while the females have a frequency of 13 or 43.3 percent. Furthermore, most of the respondents have three to four siblings, with a frequency of 12 or 40.00 percent, and laborers made up the most of the parents’ employment with a frequency of 15 or 50.0 percent. Additionally, in terms of their family’s monthly income the three groups with the highest frequency were no monthly income, 3,000–4,000, and 5,000–6,000, with a frequency of 7 or 23.3 percent. Respondents who received assistance from their parents had the highest frequency of 16 or 53.3 percent and those who received assistance from their relatives had the lowest frequency of 2 or 6.6 percent. On the other hand, in terms of reading proficiency level, all the respondents in CRLA pre-test were in full refresher level, whereas the results of the post-test showed that pupils’ reading level were grade-ready.
  2. The results of the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) pre-test in reading words showed that majority of the pupils (63.3 percent) correctly identified five to six words and eleven (11) pupils or 36.7 percent properly identified three to four whereas in the CRLA post-test, majority of the pupils (90 percent) were able to read nine (9) to ten (10) and three (3) or 10 percent for seven (7) to eight (8) words. However, in terms of reading sentences, the CRLA pre-test showed that none of the pupils were able to read a sentence while in the CRLA post-test, sixteen (16) or 53.33 percent were able to read out 1 to 2 sentences and fourteen (14) or 46.67 percent read clearly 3 to 4 sentences.
  3. The mean score of the pupils in the pre-test is 9.27 with standard deviation of 1.26 while the mean score for the post test is 17.90 with a standard deviation of 1.12. This means that there was an increase of 8.63 in the average scores of the pupils in the post test. In addition, the standard deviation of the results has a significant decrease of 0.14. The result was further supported by the result of the t-test for dependent means. The computed value was -26.998 with p-value>0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post test results of Grade II pupils. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected.
  4. The least mastered reading and comprehension skills in the CRLA pre-test was sentence reading with a frequency of zero (0) or 0 percent while the post-test result showed sentence reading was the least mastered skill with the frequency of 6 or 20 percent.
  5. An intervention plan was proposed to improve the reading and comprehension skills of the grade II pupils.

CONCLUSIONS

After the thorough analysis of the findings, the researcher has drawn the following conclusions:

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. Majority of the grade II respondents were 7 years old, males make up more than females, and most of the respondents have three (3) to four (4) siblings. Laborers made up the most of the parents’ employment with monthly income ranging from 3,000 to 6,000. Respondents who received assistance from their parents had the highest frequency and those who received assistance from their relatives had the lowest frequency. All the respondents in CRLA pre-test were in full refresher level, whereas the results of the post-test showed that pupils’ reading proficiency level were grade-ready.
  2. Based on the Comprehensive Rapid Literacy Assessment (CRLA) pre-test, the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils in terms of reading words was the reading of three to six words; while in terms of reading sentences, the pupils can hardly read a sentence. Moreover, based on the CRLA post-test, the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils in terms of reading words, improved as majority of them were able to read seven to ten words. In terms of reading sentence, the pupils were able to read one to four sentences.
  3. There is a significant difference between the pre-test and post test results of Grade II pupils. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected hence the Modular Distance Learning Modality has improved the reading and comprehension skills of the grade II pupils.
  4. The least mastered reading and comprehension skills in the CRLA pre-test and post-test results was sentence reading.
  5. Based on the results of the study, an intervention plan was proposed to improve the reading and comprehension skills of grade II pupils of Mantagbac Elementary School.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings and conclusions, the following are highly recommended:

  1. If a child is on a second grade and has not yet learned to read words and sentences, teachers may incorporate a daily story time, children’s songs and nursery rhymes routine into their schedule in order to instil the importance of reading that the pupils appreciate as they learn to read on their own. Teachers may provide activities like games that encourage the pupils to listen, identify and manipulate the sounds in words. There are many skills children use when playing board games — from reading the directions to building vocabulary through games.
  2. Teachers may foster good collaboration with parents in implementing Home Reading as part of Modular Distance Learning. Guiding the pupils in improving their reading comprehension skills through Printed Modular Distance Learning is very challenging for both parents and teachers. Communication between parents and teachers are necessary for students’ progress in reading comprehension.
  3. Teachers may rule out problems at more basic levels of reading, such as phonological awareness, vocabulary words and decoding. Reading comprehension is likely to be difficult if a pupil has trouble processing words in isolation. If a problem exists with phonological awareness or decoding, teachers may target these skills before focusing on comprehension.
  4. School administrators may allocate budgets subject to the school MOOE or Local funds for printing of reading materials like activity sheets, short stories and board games and other reading materials.
  5. A school memorandum may be issued by the School Head addressed to the grades I to III teachers on the implementation of Modular Distance Learning using printed materials like activity sheets, modules, reading materials appropriate to the grade level and conduct home visitation for follow – up of the pupils with least mastered reading and comprehension skills.
  6. If a pupil is not reading at the second grade level as measured by a post-test given at the end of first grade, a teacher may find instructional materials at a lower grade level.
  7. Teachers may consider implementing the proposed intervention planactivities targeting the enhancement of identified least mastered reading and comprehension skills of pupils, regardless of the grade level since reading and comprehension skills are basic skills for elementary pupils.

REFERENCE

  1. Abude Angilene. J. (2022). The Effectiveness of Modular Distance Learning Modality to the Academic Performance of Students: A Literature Review https://inlightpublisher.com/article/10 The Effectiveness of Modular Distance Learning Modality to the Academic Performance of Students A Literature Review
  2. Anzaldo Geraldine D. (2021). Modular Distance Learning in the New Normal Educ ation Amidst Covid-19 https://www.ijscia.com/wp-content/ uploads /2021 /05/Volume2-Issue3-May-Jun-No.79-263-266.pdf
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