Students’ Awareness of Identifying and Preventing Plots and Tricks of Hostile Forces in “Peaceful Evolution” Strategy in Vietnam

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Students’ Awareness of Identifying and Preventing Plots and Tricks of Hostile Forces in “Peaceful Evolution” Strategy in Vietnam

  • Vo Thanh Tung
  • Bui Hoang Tan
  • 376-384
  • Feb 21, 2024
  • Education

Students’ Awareness of Identifying and Preventing Plots and Tricks of Hostile Forces in “Peaceful Evolution” Strategy in Vietnam

Vo Thanh Tung1, Bui Hoang Tan2*

1Hau Giang Provincal Political School, Vietnam

2Can Thơ University, Vietnam

*Corresponding Author


Received: 06 January 2024; Revised: 16 January 2024; Accepted: 20 January 2024; Published: 21 February 2024


In the current context of globalization and deep international integration, hostile forces continue to adjust their strategy of “peaceful evolution” in many aspects with increasing sophistication. So, correctly identifying and exposing the new face of this strategy has strategic orientation in the fight against “peaceful evolution” in Vietnam today. With the historical – logical research method, the synthesis – analysis research method applied in the article contributes to the general identification and analysis of plots and tricks of the “peaceful evolution” strategy ” of hostile forces in Vietnam. The research results have contributed to proposing practical solutions to raise awareness for students in identifying and fighting against plots and strategic tricks of “peaceful evolution” by political parties are attacking the current education environment.

Keywords: peaceful developments, hostile forces, students, colleges – universities


In the context of globalization and international integration becoming the trend of the times, hostile forces have increased their sabotage of the Communist Party of Vietnam’s ideological foundation with the goal of denying the Party’s leadership role and with the abolition of socialism in Vietnam. Accordingly, peaceful evolution is one of the key non-military strategies that hostile forces have been using with complex methods in many fields and many different social subjects, including Vietnamese students. So, the work of preventing and combating the peaceful evolution strategy of hostile forces is the current top urgent task of the entire Party, the entire people, and the entire army in order to firmly protect the ideological foundation of the Party and the independence of Vietnam. According to Documents of the Communist Party of Vietnam (2021): “The guiding ideology of the entire Party, people and army is to be steadfast and apply and creatively develop Marxism-Leninism, the ideology of Ho Chi Minh” [1], this is an issue “of principle, vital to our regime, a solid foundation of our Party, not allowing anyone to tilt or waver”[1].

Based on the practical requirements and specific tasks of the situation, Party has been carrying out the work of fighting to protect the Party’s ideological foundation, refuting wrong and hostile views through many directives. Typical thematic directives and resolutions include:

Resolution No. 01-NQ/TW on “Theoretical work in the current period” (March 1992) affirmed: “Developing theoretical thinking is not only the work of those who directly do theoretical work, but the work of the Party and all those who are passionate about the cause of building a strong and prosperous Vietnam. To develop theoretical thinking, it is necessary to build a team of theoretical workers with high professional capacity and enthusiasm, and at the same time create a connection between theoretical work and practical activities, between social and science and natural sciences, science and technology”[11].

Based on research and practical summary of more than 20 years of implementing Resolution No. 01-NQ/TW, the Politburo continued to issue Resolution No. 37-NQ/TW, dated October 9, 2014 “On Public Theoretical work and research orientation to 2030” has affirmed: “Theoretical thinking continues to develop; focus on summarizing practice, researching and creatively applying Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh’s ideology; Supplementing and developing the Platform for building the country during the transition period to socialism (2011) and the 2013 Constitution”[13].

Resolution of the 4th Central Committee, term XI: “Some urgent issues on Party building today”, dated January 16, 2012 of the Politburo clearly affirmed:“Besides the results achieved, the Party building work still has many limitations and weaknesses. There are even weaknesses and shortcomings that have lasted for many terms and are slowly being overcome, reducing people’s trust in the Party; If not corrected, it will be a challenge to the Party’s leadership and the survival of the regime. The following urgent issues have emerged: A large number of cadres and party members, including party members holding leadership and management positions, including some senior cadres, have degraded their morale, ethics, and lifestyles with different manifestations of fading ideals, falling into selfish individualism, opportunism, pragmatism, chasing after fame, fortune, status, partial, corrupt, wasteful, arbitrary, unprincipled…”[12].

Resolution of the 4th Central Committee, term XII of the Politburo, issued on October 30, 2016 on “Strengthening Party building and rectification; prevent and repel the deterioration of political ideology, ethics, lifestyle, manifestations of self-evolution and self-transformation internally” has pointed out the objective and subjective causes leading to deterioration in political ideology, ethics, and lifestyle:“Hostile and reactionary forces promote the implementation of the strategy of “peaceful evolution”, taking advantage of the issues of “democracy”, “human rights”, ethnicity, religion and other weaknesses and loopholes. Let our guard down to distort and distort the situation; promotes a lifestyle of enjoyment, pragmatism, selfishness, and individualism; At the same time, in collusion with opportunistic and politically dissatisfied elements, they are actively working to sabotage the revolution, becoming more sophisticated and dangerous” [14].

Directive No. 05-CT/TW, dated May 15, 2016 of the Politburo on “Continuing to promote studying and following Ho Chi Minh’s moral example”, according to which the Politburo requested: “The entire Party, people, and army continue to promote studying and following Ho Chi Minh’s ideology, ethics, and style; create a strong change in awareness and action in the Party, the political system and the people, making studying and following Ho Chi Minh’s ideology, ethics and style a regular, voluntary work of the Party. Party committees, party organizations, authorities, the Vietnam Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations at all levels, of each locality, agency and unit, first of all of the heads, of officials, Party members, civil servants, public employees, union members, members” [15].

Resolution No. 35-NQ/TW, dated October 22, 2018 of the Politburo on “Strengthening the protection of the Party’s ideological foundation, fighting against wrong and hostile views in the new situation”, in which Resolution 35 has contributed to identifying hostile forces in attacking the Party’s current ideological foundation: “Hostile forces, including those who research theory and practice in other countries in the ideological struggle between socialism and capitalism… are the extremist forces of Vietnamese people abroad who are always Enticing and combining with opposition and discontent in the country to create organizations such as Viet Tan, Vietnam Phuc Quoc, Viet Trieu… are a number of officials and party members (some party members have held positions in the past middle and high-level positions in our country’s apparatus and political system) deterioration in political ideology, “self-evolution”, “self-transformation”…” [16].

Therefore, raising students’ awareness of “peaceful evolution” strategic plots and tricks is an urgent research issue that has both scientific significance and practical value to contribute to protecting and firmly strengthen the socialist Fatherland of Vietnam in the current period.


The historical method applied in this research is based on documents and documents of the Communist Party of Vietnam to present an overview of identifying plots and tricks of the strategy peaceful have been taking place in Vietnam.

The logical method is applied in the research article to generalize and reflect the process of identifying the nature of the strategy of peaceful evolution and activities to raise students’ awareness of this issue in all basic systems and relationships. From that generalization, we can come to a correct understanding of the nature of phenomena and historical events in order to draw conclusions with scientific value.


Overview of the “peaceful evolution” strategy

The concept of “peaceful evolution” is defined by the Vietnam Military Encyclopedia (2004) as “the basic strategy of hostile forces to overthrow the political and social regimes of progressive countries, first of all socialist countries from within, mainly through non-military measures”[7]. The term “Peaceful evolution” currently has many different names such as “peaceful transformation”, “peaceful change”, “peaceful competition”, “beyond peace”, “liberation policy”, “victory without war”, “war without guns”, “unarmed methods”, etc,.

In general, “peaceful evolution” is a strategy to fight against the ideology and political institutions of imperialism and hostile forces, constantly being adjusted and supplemented to develop into a comprehensive strategy many different measures, of which non-armed measures are the main ones, measures to sabotage and eventually overthrow the political regime in socialist countries by self-evolution and self-transformation into the society of socialist countries, forcing that society to follow their plan.

The main content of the Strategy for Peaceful Evolution is that imperialism and hostile forces will use all economic, political, ideological, cultural, social, foreign affairs, security tricks and many other tricks another stage to sabotage and weaken socialist countries from within. From inciting existing conflicts in society to creating opposing political forces under the guise of freedom, democracy, human rights, religious and national freedom, encouraging privatization and pluralism politics along with class ambiguity and struggle between classes in society.

In particular, imperialism and hostile forces attach great importance to encouraging the bourgeois lifestyle and fading the goals and ideals of socialist countries among a portion of today’s Vietnamese youth. Imperialism and hostile forces have also thoroughly exploited and taken advantage of the difficulties and mistakes of the Party and State of Vietnam in the process of operating and managing all fields of social life in order to create put pressure on public opinion, gradually transformed and since then changed the political regime according to the trajectory of capitalism. Accordingly, the strategy of peaceful evolution in Vietnam today has been developing quite diversely, penetrating deep into the people’s strata, mainly having a strong impact on Vietnam’s young youth force such as students.

Identify manifestations of “peaceful evolution” strategic plots and tricks in Vietnam

Capitalism and hostile forces always see Vietnam as a key point of sabotage in the strategy of “peaceful evolution”. Before 1975, capitalism, led by US imperialism, used heavy military attacks on Vietnam, bringing great suffering and loss to the Vietnamese people, but with the spirit of the Vietnamese people: “I would rather sacrifice everything than lose my country, refuse to be slaves” [8], they failed miserably and withdrew their troops to the country. When the military attack failed, they switched to the strategy of “peaceful evolution” with a policy of economic embargo and diplomatic isolation to make it difficult to manage the country and eliminate the socialist regime in Vietnam as well as denying the leadership role of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

Currently, hostile forces are promoting an increasingly sophisticated and drastic strategy of “peaceful evolution”, especially taking advantage of the Internet and social networks to spread wrong views and spread distorted rumors Party guidelines and State laws of Vietnam, slander, fabricate, and defame the image of senior leaders to divide the great national unity bloc and reduce people’s trust in the Party and State.

According to Duong, N. B., (2015) [3], the plots of hostile forces in this strategy can be summarized as follows:

First, distort and deny Marxism-Leninism and replace it with bourgeois ideology.

Second, plotting to implement “political pluralism” and “multiple opposition parties” in socialist countries.

Third, causing internal conflicts, breaking social consensus and, when the opportunity arises, inciting and conducting political riots.

Fourth, weakening and diverting the development of the economy, moving toward domination, manipulation, and economic control in socialist countries.

Fifth, transform culture, ethics, and socialist lifestyle according to Western values.

Sixth, carry out a “depoliticization” plot to “neutralize” the military in socialist countries.

In Vietnam, hostile forces attach special importance to destroying ideology, seeing this as the focus and shortest path to the erosion of people’s trust in the Party and the socialist regime. Hostile forces constantly seek to accelerate the process of “self-evolution” and “self-transformation” within the government, making ambiguous and confusing arguments between positive and negative aspects, between socialist and capitalist ideology to the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Vietnamese people. Encouraging deviant views and democratic social trends of the American and Western style in order to waver and doubt the younger generation, especially students, about “Vietnamese society” and dream of an other societies are promoted as better[10].

During Vietnam’s current period of national development and international integration, hostile forces’ sabotage activities are carried out using extremely dangerous tricks:

Sabotage in the political and ideological fields: hostile forces use many tools and means to spread false information, causing confusion in public opinion, causing a crisis of trust, ideology and value standards within the Party organization, party members, Vietnamese youth and students, thereby forming opposing ideological trends hostile to the Party and State of Vietnam. According to Le Thi Chien (2021): “According to statistics from the Ministry of Public Security, currently abroad there are more than 50 radio and television stations with Vietnamese programs, 429 newspapers and magazines, over 40 publishers conducting propaganda against the Party and State of Vietnam. Every year, more than 3000 ideologically destructive psychological warfare documents are brought into Vietnam through many different routes” [2]. In there:

– They publish left-wing newspapers and magazines such as “Freedom of Speech”, the magazine “Fatherland” or fully exploit the internet to create websites such as “Democratic Party”, “Democratic Youth Gathering”, “Free Journalists Club” as a propaganda tool to destroy the ideological foundation of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

– They make arguments that lack scientific and practical basis when comparing socio-economic regimes and policies between Vietnam and Western countries, especially the issue of freedom and democracy. According to Ha Linh (2020): “With a market economy, it is no longer socialism”; “socialism is not the goal for humanity to reach”; “capitalism is eternal”; The Communist Party of Vietnam and the “conservative” Vietnamese people maintain that the path to socialism is “against the rules” and “not suitable for the new era” [6]. From distorted arguments like the above, they aim to sway ideology, create a premise for “self-evolution”, “self-transformation”, changing the views, thoughts, ethics, and lifestyle of the Vietnamese people, especially the younger generation such as students.

– They also distort the theoretical foundation of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh’s ideology along with the Party’s guidelines and policies, the Goverment’s legal policies and regulations in each locality, specifically: “Marxism was born more than 150 years ago, the historical context has now changed, so the Communist Party of Vietnam cannot keep holding on to “that outdated doctrine” as its ideological foundation, guideline for your actions”[6]. On that basis, they misrepresented that: “A party with “outdated and outdated” ideas and theories cannot have a basis to lead the country’s development when objective reality has changed”[6]. They blatantly demand the abolition of Article 4 of the Vietnamese Constitution, which is an extremely wrong and dangerous viewpoint aimed at inciting conflicts and divisions within party members and state officials.

Sabotage in the cultural field: hostile forces constantly propagate a lifestyle of enjoyment and pragmatism among the people, especially those with “power and money” and the younger generation such as students, in order to fading and degrading the traditional moral values of the Vietnamese people. They carry out the act of propagandizing depraved and harmful cultural products such as “fast living”, “virtual living”, “cohabitation” in order to absorb fake moral values and pragmatic lifestyles in society, especially today’s youth. In addition, hostile forces also instigate culture, according to Pham Thanh Ha (2019): “Inciting writers and artists to demand freedom of creation”, “freedom to publish” literary works, protesting The Party’s leadership and State management in the field of culture and arts, inciting and ordering articles to post on social networks and personal blogs with nonsense content, fabricated propaganda and incitement act against the country” [4]. Some of their typical activities include: “Popular politics” drafted by Pham Doan Trang since November 2016; The memoir “Life behind bars” was drafted by Pham Thanh Nghien in 2012, etc. The content of the book is propaganda against Vietnam’s detention policy; slanderously accuse Vietnam of violating human rights; promote and encourage the “democratic fighting spirit of prisoners of conscience”, especially women in Vietnam and the development of the so-called independent civil society movement” [9].

Resisting sabotage in the fields of ethnicity, religion, and belief: Vietnam is a country of 54 ethnic groups living together, experiencing the painful years of national history, united and united in their struggle and sacrificed for the cause of protecting national independence as well as in the process of building and protecting the Viet Nam today. However, hostile forces have taken advantage of the subjective and objective conditions as well as the level of knowledge of the peoples to distort, defame and slander the Party’s policy on freedom of religion and belief. They have made distorted allegations as follows:

“Socialism does not accept religion, abolishes religion”; “Vietnam’s laws on religion and belief are just a formality, in fact they are the basis for suppressing and suffocating religion”[11].

“The Vietnamese government continues to restrict organized activities of many religions, even taking action to suppress religious believers” [11].

“Vietnam suppresses religion”, “violates people’s right to freedom of religion”; requires religions to operate freely, without being placed under Goverment management” [11].

Sabotage in the field of national security and defense: hostile forces use all tricks to transform the people’s armed forces with cunning propaganda:

“The army and police belong only to the nation and people, and do not need to be under the leadership of any party or political force” [5] in order to demand “depoliticization” Vietnam’s army and police today.

– They also make many vague, headline-grabbing statements, stirring up cases that have been dealt with and resolved long ago to divide the internal solidarity of the military and police forces, denying leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam towards the armed forces.

“When our Goverment tries to realize the process of modernizing the military, purchasing new weapons and equipment for the army, they think that we are caught up in an arms race” [5].

Although the above manifestations are not entirely new plots and tricks in the “peaceful evolution” strategy of hostile forces, they are basically the most characteristic and prominent signs demonstrating the nature of Its sophistication, cunning, danger, and sinister nature are increasingly increasing and diversifying in Vietnamese society today. Therefore, Vietnamese society, especially the generation of potential young intellectuals like students, need to always be vigilant, correctly and sufficiently identify, calmly consider and analyze to expose the true nature and find solutions measures to prevent and combat peaceful evolution strategies: “Absolutely do not be vague or lose vigilance, leading to passivity and confusion in this “no bombs” but difficult and fierce battle” [18].

Orientation of some proposals to contribute to the prevention of the “peaceful evolution” strategy in Vietnam today

Build for students a foundation of bravery to confront the enemy, a strong political ideological stance and always trust in the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam

Currently, at colleges and universities, students are the key intellectual force with large numbers and different ages, so political ideologies and attitudes have great differences, especially among to current political issues. So, leaders need to properly distribute well-implemented solution packages and regularly carry out propaganda work to help officials, regions and students constantly improve vigilance, thereby creating resistance previously, the wrong information and views of the royal forces. In addition, leaders regularly direct and orient propaganda and education work so that students are clearly aware of the Party’s leadership role and mission, and the political model that Vietnam has been steadfast in. is national independence associated with socialism, building a socialist rule of law state of the People, by the People, for the People. On that basis, creating political courage for students, consolidating and maintaining an ideological stance is the key to creating the strength to “strengthen the protection of the Party’s ideological foundation, fight against the Party’s wrong and hostile views in the new situation” [17].

Students must be exemplary in enhancing their study of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s ideology, knowledge of national defense and security, and the Party’s guidelines and policies, and the Goverment’s legal policies

This is an extremely important task to help each student be imbued with the theoretical foundation of Marxism – Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s ideology, knowledge of national defense – security and the policies and guidelines of the Party and laws of the Goverment. Raising awareness of political theory for students will contribute to widely propagating national pride and young intellectuals’ belief in the leadership of the Party and Goverment in universities in Vietnam. On that basis, students are aware of their responsibilities in maintaining political security, social order and safety, and national defense and security of the country. From that practice, it will help students raise the spirit of vigilance against the way hostile forces entice and incite to carry out strategic plots of “peaceful evolution” to sabotage the Vietnamese revolution and be ready to sacrificed for the independence of the Vietnamese people.

The coordination between Party organizations in universities and local authorities in opening training classes to foster knowledge, skills, identification and prevention of plots and strategic tricks of “peaceful evolution” of hostile forces

In the current situation, we need innovation in approaching goals and resolutely exposing the distorted claims of hostile forces, while focusing on creating “immunity, improving students’ resistance to bad and harmful information”. Therefore, each student needs to be supported with knowledge and skills to do a good job of identifying and fighting against the strategy of “peaceful evolution”, especially when students speak through speech and writing or on forums, on social networks, it is necessary to clearly demonstrate political bravery and not be allowed to speak in a skeptical manner or be confused with the flow of bad information. To perform this task well, students must constantly research, study, hone their awareness, political courage, confront wrong and misleading ideas, and not let themselves be “self-evolved” , “self-transformation”. Therefore, Party committees at all levels need to always coordinate effectively with relevant parties such as the Youth Union, Student Affairs Department, Political Affairs Department and local authorities to promote the “nuclear” role at the grassroots level to provide official, positive information, to become a shining example, contributing to building and developing students’ trust in the Party’s policies. This is an important “youth stronghold” that makes hostile forces There is no longer “space” to distort and destroy the foundation and theory of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

Universities need to strongly and effectively promote the role of communication work in schools to fight against the “peaceful evolution” strategy

Universities need to promote the role of communication work to create a positive flow of information, contributing to strengthening ideological and political solidarity and consensus within the university. Leaders need to resolutely fight and criticize wrong and hostile views, and at the same time strengthen socialist awareness education for students to clearly understand Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s thought, and economic, political, and social situation of the country, fighting against individualism, pragmatism, etc., thereby orienting public opinion correctly for students to defeat the plots and tricks of the strategy of “peaceful evolution” from hostile forces before they attack students’ thoughts.

Universities need to build a team that understands the role of media and mass communication. At the same time, build a truly quality school website in both form and content, because the website is the “face” of the school on the Internet platform, a place to introduce outstanding activities and achievements in the field’s training and scientific research. In particular, universities need to make the most of Internet communication channels such as You Tube, Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, etc., to promote major university events and demonstrate students’ understanding of major events, current social issues. These things have contributed to isolating the space for ideological and political attacks by hostile forces on students. In addition, each officer and lecturer themselves are also a communication channel by speaking well about the school, especially in crowded places, in addition to imparting professional knowledge, let students, including foreign students, know more about the historical and cultural traditions of the Vietnamese. If this work is done well, it will have a great and effective impact on protecting the Party’s ideological and theoretical foundation in the educational environment.


Basically, the hostile forces’ “peaceful evolution” strategic plots and tricks have not changed in their essence. The research content has generalized the concepts of the “peaceful evolution” strategy, while also specifically analyzing the plots and tricks of this strategy being used by hostile forces in Vietnam. However, with the development of the times, this strategy is constantly changing in both content and sophisticated methods to strongly impact students, which will contribute to negative changes in perception politics of Vietnamese students. Therefore, from the research results, some practical solutions have been proposed in raising awareness for students to deal with the strategy of “peaceful evolution” in the new situation: leaders of universities and relevant departments need to coordinate closely and effectively with local authorities, political organizations and the whole society in training and ideological education for students. At the same time, universities need to develop appropriate policies to motivate students to study and train young intellectuals. In addition, each student must always strive to study and practice to become a good citizen, contribute their talents to the country, regularly uphold the spirit of revolutionary vigilance, discover and contribute fighting, preventing, and completely defeating all plots and tricks of the enemy in the “peaceful evolution” strategy. The efforts of each student not only contribute to building a healthy learning environment but also contribute to maintaining political stability for Vietnam.


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