Technological Impact on Tertiary Level Students’ Writing Skills in the Post-COVID Era

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Technological Impact on Tertiary Level Students’ Writing Skills in the Post-COVID Era

  • Zarin Saba
  • Dr. Sukanto Roy
  • 41-52
  • Feb 28, 2024
  • Education

Technological Impact on Tertiary Level Students’ Writing Skills in the Post-COVID Era

Zarin Saba1, Dr. Sukanto Roy2

1MA in English, Department of English & Modern Languages, North South University

2Assistant Professor, Department of English & Modern Languages, North South University

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1102005

Received: 22 December 2023; Revised 02 January 2024; Accepted: 05 January 2024; Published: 28 February 2024

ABSTRACT

The incorporation of technology with writing has become the fundamental solution in developing writing skills in the crisis of the COVID-19 era. This research aims to examine and describe how technology impacts the writing process. Based on technology after the post-COVID situation, this study focuses on positive and negative concepts of writing skills employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Information was gathered via observational surveys, interviews, and peer-reviewed journal articles. The outcome shows that the use of various technology-based apps, the development of strategy, and a variety of online evaluation methods contributed to the impact of technology on writing skills. According to the findings, incorporating technology with writing can enhance critical and creative thinking, as well as foster a positive outlook. This research recommends that using the right technology for writing skills can maximize the positive outcomes.

Keywords: Post COVID, Technology, Writing skills, Tertiary students.

TECHNOLOGICAL IMPACT ON TERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILLS IN THE POST-COVID ERA

In this paper, the approaching topic is, “Technological Impact on Tertiary Level Students’ Writing Skills in the Post-COVID Era” The central theme of this topic is to focus on tertiary level students’ writing skills by using technology in the Post-Covid era. This topic will focus on the writing challenges and technological effects on tertiary-level students as we all know that technology has become a significant factor in the 21st century. Whether the COVID pandemic affected writing skills or not will be the main concern. Technology creates a kind of dependency on general or formal writing in them. They started thinking that technology-based writing is more acceptable and correct because, for revision, they can use online apps. In this research, there will be a discussion of both the advantages and disadvantages of technological impact to look at how technology has changed writing skills after the pandemic and compare them with previous writing methods. At this point, the research claim is that to improve writing skills, tertiary-level students should use technology positively.

According to the Bangladeshi education authority, they estimated the overall public and private university students’ learning writing ability. The most common theory of tertiary level students is to write a text carefully and find out the summary of the writing author. However, in this writing, tertiary-level learners are always afraid of writing to make their writing more advanced. Ultimately this system is only applicable sometimes. Students from fresher to second or fourth semester first of all their preparation relatively less than senior level preparation. Writing an article critically or thinking critically is an essential step for university students. Sometimes these role activities are very less to mess up, and their reading ability decreases.

Intensive writing and extensive writing should have been taught in classroom activities. Our education system on writing could be better. In that case, technology increases writing more abruptly. Sometimes it is assumed that different writing technical apps such as Google Classroom, Google doc, MS Word, Grammarly, Wartune, and Quilboad represent good feedback for writing. Presently those are all free access while writing originality checks. That is what students understand about the quality of paper or writing. Using those apps is also recommended for technological impact on writing. Their writing concept is changing; typing instead of handwriting, creating writing more digitalized, is the core concept in this research. This research generated the utmost effectiveness of the post-COVID situation before using the technological-based writing system.

Research Question

From the research perspective, one question is included to investigate:

  1. What are the impacts of technology on tertiary-level students’ writing skills in the post-COVID era?

LITERATURE REVIEW

The significant contribution of language is writing skills. Many scholars’ research supported writing skills based on different purposes. Writing is a challenging task for every tertiary student because it expresses our thoughts, and what we are going to write is to discipline our language from academic to professional. After reviewing peer-reviewed journal articles in the second language context, some technological impact-based writing skills in the post-COVID era were gone through. Writing skills are the latest skill in foreign language-based competency. From this perspective, the COVID era made this academic and technological system more complex. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, a continuation of education cannot be imagined without technology. Technology was the only way the students connected with their teachers. The technology builds that trust in their minds through which teaching and learning both can be possible outside the classroom. Also, they can take help by looking at others’ scholarly writings and using them in their own writing style to improve simple writing into something extraordinary (Febriani & Anasruddin, 2020).  Sometimes it is easier to submit assignments, question papers, and teacher responses and immerse in the necessary role of technology-based language skills. Researchers have shown that sudden changes in the academic curriculum are mere challenges for all students and teachers. All are quite familiar with another technology system, hybrid or online mood. The International Communication Technology ICT and our new online format assessment combinedly upgraded the writing system. Research shows that technology has a lot of positive impacts on students’ writing skills. With its help, they can get rapid feedback from their teachers, which was not possible in the previous Pre-COVID era (Zou et al., 2021). The productive skill of language is writing, where challenges and ideas are expressed through technology. This technology system bound us to similar stages requiring productive teaching (Gonzalez-Torres et al., 2022). On the one hand, writing is the most vital role to our tertiary level students. All advanced writing has some marginal equipment to represent the influential study on their academic life such as the Internet, Google machine, laptop, computer devices, online zooming, and meeting class systems like this. This research shows both positive and negative aspects of technology. Because of the pandemic, students have become dependent on technology, and their own thinking capabilities have decreased. They lose the opportunity to study and discuss with their classmates and friends in a group. Nevertheless, the positive thing is that their studying is not interrupted while normal schooling is completely stopped (Merga et al., 2021). Teaching language is a strategic process of teaching that represents the mixed ability to read, write, speak, listen, and grammar that is accompanied by the learner’s diversity of performance challenges in this 21st century. Virtual teaching, writing, and reading represented a mixed ability to all student’s equal attention. For instance, using Facebook notes, chatting Google doc, and notes, all are created feedback-based writing to their other peers (Altohami et al., 2022). On the other hand, the impact of technology focused on social learning, cultural learning, and language interaction for the purpose of technological language learning.  The explosion of technology and rapid development in this Post-COVID-19 situation is supported diversely, such as social networking and wiki writing (Shih, 2011). The outcome of writing skills generally preserves spelling, vocabulary, word choice, and good grammar, which all are now technology-based influences (Little et al., 2018). Several aspects must be regarded as key components of writing in academic writing. As a result, learning at home is the sole choice when lecturers, teachers, and students are involved (LFH). Due to LFH, online education is necessary. Even though most teachers and students are unfamiliar with it, online learning is required. Students receive learning materials suited to their individual needs through an asynchronous learning activity called online learning, which is carried out via an electronic computer device (Nappu et al., 2022). Nowadays, technology demands an advanced education system; also, it is improvising knowledge about the pandemic. Particularly during the Coronavirus, technology increased on the one hand; an increasingly new system of class conduction is based on Facebook, Zoom, Google Meet, Ding Talk, etc. Providing an exam system and writing system differently (Tran & Nguyen, 2021). Online writing is collaborating with modern technology. In this modern technology, demanded writing should be acceptable if the writing is quality-based. Brainstorming, outlining, note-taking, planning for ideas, monitoring, and revising are all attached to academic and professional writing. It helps to understand the short technique for developing wiring as well as composing the writing draft consumes the role of online activities (Linh et al., 2021). On the one hand, auto-correction, free grammar check, and free sentence-making are all now in one hand. Students, especially tertiary learners, are gradually getting more features on their academic assignments, presentation, research paper, and so on (Ismael, Saeed, Ibrahim, et al., 2022). For pupils, writing is a fundamental ability, not an optional one. The effects of standard-based writing teaching, the impact of technology on instruction, and the efficacy of methods for enhancing students’ writing all contribute to this. Bangladeshi universities are unable to invest much in expanding their technology infrastructure, unlike those in Singapore, Japan, South Korea, or developed Western nations. Does that imply that technology cannot be used to teach English in American higher education institutions? However, social media technology can help with English language teaching and learning, making education more engaging, exciting, and spectacular (Alam, 2018). Scholarly perspective the teacher is compelled to deliver instruction via an online platform in these circumstances. observing how rapidly face-to-face learning, which was previously the dominant form of education in Indonesia, abruptly transitioned to online learning. Teachers must therefore adjust to the evaluation procedure, learning medium, and online learning system (Malvado et al., 2022). For technology, sometimes learners get the anxiety of online writing. During the pandemic situation of using technology has been raised, and students took it positively, on the other hand, negatively. During the online exam, the internet connection was interrupted, echo also a big issue; the time-based submission portal closed the system, and their current phobia of online writing hampers all. Even writing tools are sometimes unsupported for correction (Wijirahayu & Kamilah, 2021). Metacognitive awareness and multidimensional strategies have been found in research to be effective ways to deal with online teaching. The management of behavioral issues (such as self-regulation, transformation, and maintenance), cognitive difficulties (such as learning competency), and emotional difficulties (such as engagement and motivation) is a focus of these techniques (Almusharraf & Khahro, 2020).

Impacts of technology on tertiary-level students’ writing skills in the Post-COVID era

Our day-to-day activities are improved by technology. As a result, our skills and knowledge are becoming further digitalized. For this reason, students take advantage of technology. Foundational technological abilities were being included that are useful for academic work in this study. This relates to the foundational work of our academic writing and how utilizing technology is benefited by it. As every academic student should know, writing is a crucial component. Students in tertiary education need to have strong writing abilities. In this situation, the technology currently offers digitalized writing tools because they need to be more capable and advanced in improving their writing at this stage to make them more professional (Nappu et al., 2022). Writing tools are generally used to produce well-written sentences, robust vocabulary, free grammatical checks, and other things. It has previously been mentioned in this research’s core database that tertiary-level students view those topics favorably. These numbers demonstrate that tertiary students are aware of it. They supported technology-based writing applications. Digitalized writing tools like Grammarly, WordTune, Thirx, Ginger, and QuillBot are available. At the tertiary level, those apps are extremely popular nowadays (Tran & Nguyen, 2021). Students in academic institutions prefer Grammarly and Quillbot when using such apps. Advanced structure frequently aids pupils with fundamental writing structure. They swiftly develop discipline in their language and writing. The effects of technology, namely those systems that students at private universities are accustomed to, on the development of tertiary-level writing skills in Bangladesh. There are currently more than 109 private universities in Bangladesh. Currently, ten universities are top-ranked for their educational systems overall. Private universities can be found at www.ugc-universities.gov.bd private universities.

In contrast, Bangladesh has 53 public universities. Education at public and private universities is currently in competition with one another. In Bangladesh, private universities now rank less well than public ones. Private university students choose education based on technology, where most of the courses, tests or assignments, and research work are done online. Because of this, students are addicted to writing online. As a result of their familiarity with Google Classroom, students prefer to write their academic papers on Google Docs. In such a setting, students use technological tools and rely on new, sophisticated writing approaches to raise their writing standards and consider these tools as a way to control their work’s language, sentence structure, syntax, spelling, vocabulary, punctuation, fragment sentences, and tone of voice. In Bangladesh, tertiary students use QuillBot or Grammarly applications because they are simple to use and provide writing assistance. Today’s world has seen the gradual development of many apps. New writing technologies were developed by the software industry as a whole to make writing easier to use and to occupy students’ attention during assignments. In this 21st century Post-COVID situation, technology is improving; besides technology, learners are fully dependent on it. Ten interview sessions represented the positive flow of technology-based writing. Currently, writing has been changed by different apps (Alwaheebi & Al-Qahtani, 2022). Tertiary learners depend on keyboard typing system writing and are getting used to it. Depending on the digital technology in today’s Post-COVID situation, learners use their personal devices and prefer those mentioned apps for improving their writing.

However, the administration of Bangladeshi universities should allow students to use technology-based writing tools to identify their errors in technical writing quickly. Every private and public university should permit access to students’ technological writing systems so that they can use those applications and resources to further their education. Furthermore, the significance of online writing aids has grown significantly in response to real-world circumstances and the COVID-19 pandemic, as students are now actively engaging on digital platforms. Consequently, they require a resource that can assist them in articulating their intricate thoughts and concepts effectively for their intended audience or society at large (Alwaheebi & Al-Qahtani, 2022).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research was conducted using a mixed method. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. As part of this research project, reading articles in peer-reviewed journal publications for writing abilities at the tertiary level for the Bangladeshi context is helpful. Reading through some academic researchers’ study papers is necessary to comprehend the data on the topic-based issue, which was gathered from library sources.  The entire procedure for gathering data for this study data collection process for this research article is conducted online based. An online survey questionnaire was created using a Google form regarding the subject, in which 50 to 60 students participated. Students took the survey completely voluntarily.  This result provided the core data for this paper. To fully understand the perspectives of the teacher’s perceptions, ten interviews were conducted with them. All the data were kept in a strictly maintained, password-provided Laptop.

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Quantitative Data

Technology-based academic and professional online writing systems are supported by students completely. The online writing system in this modern technology involves both positive and negative aspects. In professional online writing, the system is good for consuming time. However, in academic writing, tertiary-level students always need to correct their undergraduate situation, which is non-creative thinking in the writing system. Initially, they need their actual advanced writing quality. They depend on casual writing in an offline way.  At this point, notice the system of online writing support where overall, 88% of students’ role is to depend on writing software to increase their writing system. That is why online writing is essential nowadays. On the other hand, online education systems for students and how they prefer it. In this point of view, students supported the short-term process answer, and this answer provides an overall reflection on the question about the student’s support of their online education. On the other hand, students’ positivity for writing is more time-consuming, and 50 % of students agreed that it is better than offline. For preferring online education to some extent, students use it for short-term processes for implementing their assignments, project reports, and essay paper make. Creating PDF and MS Word files represents a way of completing tasks better than offline processes. Students’ perception of the technology is positive. Receiving some positive role in students’ writing tools and the use of second language acquisition is now more developed. On one hand, students supported education depending on technology because students agreed with the essential role of technology. Sometimes wrong use of digital tools destroys the young generation, for instance, auto-correct tools, paraphrasing tools, and grammar tools consume hand-to-hand learning. In addition, parents do not support technology at this time but they also engage with their children through technology. Presently technology is a common source in all sectors. Every sector needs technological support. At this point, technological education is essential for all students nowadays. Offline and online study is not an option for learning education. However, both sides have partially connected to the education sector, and that is why the pandemic situation is one of our examples of an online study system. In the post-COVID era institution, parents and students gradually engaged with technology in numerous ways. How technology supports us as well as the post-COVID situation from the student’s perspective overlooked because of its auspicious role in writing tools. However, few students partially accepted technology positively because they are not infinite in using technology. Based on this result, to some extent parents do not support technology in our student’s current status; those who are used to technology get advantages on it. Overall 90% of people in the current situation positively receive technology to use in the right place. In this Post-COVID situation, people depend on technology completely.  Online teaching and writing create a different approach to new teaching methods because most tertiary-level students face challenges in using technology, especially for writing from the switching to typing mood.

The result of using online writing tools students and teachers both partially argue that technology-based writing is more correct and time manageable; by taking help from scholarly sources, students can improve their writing which is beneficial at all rather than its systematic support system. Students firmly believe that technology helps them to improve their writing. The local area students also positively think that the COVID situation completely changed our mood of education as well as learning. They prefer technology support as a digital learner. Presently teachers and students use the Google Classroom portal, where study and task-based learning is approached. In Bangladesh, many private universities have been using this system besides blending learning too. For instance, North South University (NSU) authority provided both Google Classroom and CANVAS systems for students. Faculty provided assignment exams through this portal method. During COVID time, during the hybrid mood of the class, university students and faculty depended on it. Students supported the blended learning method. Nowadays, it is common for technology-based education on writing as well as classroom study. Most university students supported it. Students get privileged to the previous writing method, which we recall as physical or offline writing. They combine neutral writing technology. Different apps like Quil Boat, Grammarly, Word Tune, Google Docs, and MS Word online versions are all online-based writing software. All the writing apps tertiary-level students attach and create a short-term process to complete a digital version of writing. Presently technology-based writing is an essential role for students. Bangladesh has been improving in technology. In this post-COVID situation online teaching face-to-face replacement. It identified the online teaching percentage in this aspect of face-to-face teaching; both things are partially supported to some point, for instance, today’s global changing generation, parents’ generation, teacher and student’s interaction, classroom activities, digital version of AL system, etc. In Bangladesh, online teaching is increasing day by day. Public and private university students gradually depend on technology. During the last two years of experience in online teaching and learning in Bangladesh, students have changed their learning methods to abide by this online approach. Now it has many more features for students dealing with offline study. Presently post COVID study’s vital focus point is writing about challenges faced during the pandemic situation. Overall this question is to persuade us of the negative impact of technology based on writing, as mentioned above, the perception of learning impact focused on technological problems like time management, poor networking connection, and hard-to-use technology. These all completely endeavored the lower aspect of using technology during this pandemic. However, the post-COVID situation is technically grownup and more advanced.

Qualitative Data

For qualitative data collection, this research attempts tertiary-level teachers’ offline and online interviews. This interview session helped this research work to learn more about using technology in writing skills. In 2023, ten teachers were interviewed with five questions. Regarding those research questions, all the teachers were tertiary-level, one teacher was a TESOL major, the second teacher was a Literature major both are from North South University, and the third teacher was an Eastern University English lecturer, the fourth teacher from Islamic University, and the other six teachers were from six different Universities. They well accepted all those questions and appreciated researching this topic. The whole session was organized meaningfully with important discussions. This research interview approach with teachers was on post-COVID study based on technology that creates more effectiveness in cooperating with this paper positively. Regarding the first interviewee, a TESOL major who was a North South University teacher, the session was held on 13 /04/2023, approximately 6 minutes and 30 seconds. The first teacher agreed to use technology and technology-based writing apps to grab the idea of professional writing. In this session, importantly tertiary teachers prefer mostly digital apps for the Bangladeshi context because it is easier to provide information. On the other hand, also mentioned that they can take the help of Technology during the time of teaching, but he wants his students to write without the help of technology because writing is a productive skill, and practicing more creates more opportunities.  This is how the first teacher mentioned his opinion on supporting technology-based writing on post-COVID perceptions. The second interviewee was a teacher of Literature major who was a North South University teacher. It was held on 12/04/2023, approximately 4 minutes and 12 seconds. In this session, she talked about some new ideas for using AI that are suitable for writing, and it is an automatic saving system. Unique features of this AI technology, and this technology also show the advantages of writing new invention sentences which are appropriately stable for online moods. The second teacher also mentioned writing apps are more reliable for maintaining writing. From her perspective, it is presented that North South University’s online portal, CANVAS, is better than many other apps. In addition, she suggested using those apps to improve our writing positively as well. However, she prefers reading textbooks and samples that engage students with the main texts. This is how the second interview session positively or partially supported the post-COVID situation on using technology in writing skills. In the third interview, the teacher was an Eastern University lecturer, talking about the system of AI which is preferable for writing like ChatGPT. It was held on 29/04/2023, approximately 8 minutes and 25 seconds. The third interviewee’s opinion was similarly supported by the second interview session. Presently new technology helps students to write quickly and gradually they are getting in touch. In addition to this, this teacher mentioned that the use of technology during the post-pandemic writing system, besides the study system, has changed our lifestyle. People are gradually familiar with this sort of today’s post-COVID changing technology. However, this teacher suggests that students can take the help of technology during the time of typing but first they should use their brains and think about all the ideas that they are going to write. If they become completely dependent on technology, then they will start to lose their creativity. We can take technological help in typing, but the thinking process should happen inside our heads. There is no shortcut; otherwise, nothing will flourish. So, both the positive and negative impacts of technology were being perceived through this interview session. On the other hand, offline learning also creates practical views in writing. That was the authentic thing in today’s world. However, for the competitive today’s technology world is also a crucial part of thinking. Subsequently, in technical writing systems, Bangladeshi university authorities should be more conscious of technology, and teachers and students always need proper training on good quality writing, both the support of technology and non-technology. Otherwise, their writing will no longer be their creation. This is what Bangladeshi tertiary learners need to incorporate at all. The fourth interviewee from the Human Resource Management Department was an Islamic University Lecturer.  This tertiary Lecturer took technology very positively. Technology can not only access a wealth of information instantly but also enrich the quality and depth of writing. From her point of view, technology serves as an invaluable ally and can enhance both creativity and productivity in writing endeavors. The exposure to diverse writing resources has equipped students with versatile skills. Now, the COVID-19 pandemic circumstance has returned to normal, but these technology-based skills are beyond traditional academic settings and already prepared students for the demands of the professional world.

The fifth interviewee was a Lecturer of Literature at Sonargaon University. She prefers to use the latest technologies in writing to search for several digital sources. This teacher suggests Tertiary students participate in various workshops or sessions for counseling and improving the adaptability of students with virtual learning and writing. The sixth interviewee was a teacher of English who was an American International University Bangladesh Lecturer. This teacher gives a mixed type of opinion. With the help of using technology, accessibility of information in writing can be a boon. Exposure to diverse writing styles can enrich students’ writing skills. Still, the personal touch and tactile experience of traditional writing might need to be recovered in the digital realm. The ease of copy-pasting information might lead to a decline in students’ critical thinking and independent analysis. The seventh interviewee was an Assistant Professor of Varendra University, a Literature major teacher. This teacher’s opinion was similar to the first interviewee. Both of them agreed to use technology and technology-based writing apps. While areas of technology-based writing tools have increased, there is still room for improvement. Utilizing advanced writing tools, attending webinars, and regularly engaging in collaborative projects can collectively contribute to the holistic development of virtual writing capabilities for tertiary-level students.

The eighth interviewee was a teacher at Sonargaon University who was the Head of the Bangla Department of that university. This session was completely different from the previous ones because this teacher prefers something other than writing with the support of technology. His opinion was that while technology offers convenience and speed, it often destroys genuine creativity. A specific organic flow is lost when the computer screen takes the pen and paper role. As a result, when the situation returns to normal, students may struggle to articulate their thoughts coherently without the crutch of technology. This teacher mentioned that the students should engage in offline practices, which fosters a deeper understanding of language and composition rather than solely focusing on virtual tools. The ninth interviewee was an Assistant Professor of the English Department and a teacher at Teachers Training College. She partially supports technology as it creates both positive and negative impacts on students writing. She suggested using technology while practicing writing assignments and other academic writings. That is how the Tertiary students will be able to use their time and resources meticulously with the support of technology. Finally, the tenth interviewee was a Professor of the Math department at the National University. In this session, the teacher talked about the disadvantages of technology, which negatively impact tertiary students’ writing skills. Balancing traditional writing principles with the integration of technology allows for a comprehensive skill set that adapts to the evolving landscape of virtual communication.

RECOMMENDATION

Everything is good enough until it is complex enough. In order to improve this writing sector for analysis of advanced writing in technological apps in the future, it is important to recognize the role of employing writing technology in Bangladeshi students at the tertiary level. Nowadays, technology is getting better everywhere. Today’s students rely on technology to gather concepts, facts, and figures to evaluate their academic writing. In light of that, students now use several applications to assist them with their writing. Using technological impact on writing in the Post-COVID positively those systems of apps help students comprehend their writing. It decreases our writing time rather than increasing more thought. It is recommended in this aspect to use technology positively. However, in this world, changing technology in writing has been proposed as a strong point with a good impact on both sides. The result of this research proves that writing skills can be improved with the help of using technology. Absolutely, the COVID pandemic has highlighted how technology plays a crucial role in shaping and adapting to changes in our lives, enabling remote work, online education, and more. It has accelerated the adoption of digital solutions and emphasized their importance in modern society. Technology amplifies human insight and talent in various ways, such as by providing access to vast amounts of information through the internet, enabling advanced data analysis to uncover patterns and trends, facilitating remote collaboration and communication, and offering powerful tools for creative expression and problem-solving. It can enhance decision-making, streamline processes, and enable individuals to reach a wider audience, ultimately unlocking new levels of innovation and productivity. Utilizing technology can greatly enhance tertiary students’ writing skills. Online resources, grammar and spell checkers, writing apps, and collaborative platforms offer valuable tools for research, editing, and refining their writing. Additionally, participating in online writing communities, webinars, and workshops can provide opportunities to learn and receive feedback.

However, it’s important to maintain a balance between technology and traditional writing practices to ensure well-organized skill development. While technological innovation is essential for adapting to the evolving landscape, traditional methods have stood the test of time for a reason. Traditional education systems often follow a well-established curriculum that has been refined over the years. Traditional writing methods provide a strong foundation in grammar, syntax, and fundamental writing skills. Physically, writing with pen and paper can enhance memory retention and understanding. Traditional methods can foster a personal connection between the student and the material. The drawback is that conventional methods may not be as accessible, especially in a digital age where information is primarily shared online. Writing by hand may be time-consuming, and students might prefer quicker methods for note-taking and drafting. Digital writing tools make it easy to access, edit, and share documents from anywhere, fostering collaboration and convenience. Technology allows for integrating multimedia elements, making learning more dynamic and engaging. Online tools often provide immediate feedback, helping students to learn and improve quickly. The drawbacks are that technology can sometimes lead to distractions, pulling students away from the learning content. Relying too heavily on technology might hinder the development of basic writing skills if not used strategically. Anyway, it is essential to balance traditional and innovative methods. For instance, students can draft on paper and then use digital tools for editing and collaboration. Incorporating elements of both can create a well-rounded education system that addresses the diverse needs of students in the modern world. Integrating technology, project-based learning, and other innovative approaches can enhance the educational experience while preserving the strengths of traditional methods.

The experiment of this study gives us the idea to execute and analyze Bangladeshi teaching writing skills based on technology so that students can be trained in a step-by-step and combined language writing process. This study needs to create more awareness among Bangladeshi people, especially students to discover the effectiveness of using technology in writing skills.

CONCLUSION

To put it in a nutshell, our daily lives now depend on a large amount of technology. From academic to professional, all are part of this system. Looking back to the early modern period and till today’s modern period avail, the awareness of using technology and the recent COVID situation has changed the writing system. Above all, the scholar’s research showed that technology and students’ writing both are seeking support for their online writing system. It created the dependency of academic and professional writing impact on tertiary-level students for their technological writing challenges. During the pandemic situation, it was tough to enroll in online education. Presently in this post-COVID situation, technology enhances education abruptly. Writing is a skill that teaches writing and thinking. Based on technology, the development of writing positively impacts writing, and this paper partially supported the interview and survey data on writing technology. In this research, the discussion is completely supporting the claim. From the survey data collection, almost 90% of tertiary students supported this research. The interviewees are partially supported. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly changed our world as well as our attitude toward technology. Our personal opinion is that everyone should take advantage of technology but first prioritize creativity and imagination in terms of writing.

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  10.  Merga, M. K., Malpique, A., Mat Roni, S., Valcan, D., & Ledger, S. (2021). Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on writing instruction in Australia. Issues in Educational Research, 31(4), 1138–1155. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i21.15647
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APPENDIX A

Survey questionnaire questions

Question 1

What is your gender?

Question 2

What is your age?

Question 3

Where are you living now?

Question 4

What do you think about tertiary-level writing?

Question 5

Do you support online writing systems, both for academic and professional?

Question 6

How do you prefer online education?

Question 7

What do people think about technology?

Question 8

How do you support technology?

Question 9

What is the benefit of using technology in writing?

Question 10

Which writing system do you specifically support?

Question 11

How do you compare your pre-pandemic writing style with after pandemic writing style?

Question 12

Can online teaching fully replace face-to-face teaching?

Question 13

What challenges do you face related to writing during the pandemic?

Question 14

What is your good experience in the offline classroom?

APPENDIX B

Interview Questions

  1. Do you prefer writing with the support of technology?
  2. Do you think there will be a long-term impact on tertiary students’ writing because of technology when the situation will be back to normal?
  3. What tools have helped students improve their online writing skills during or after COVID?
  4. Do you think we are still unaware of using technology-based writing tools?
  5. What are your suggestions for developing virtual writing skills?
Author Information
Zarin Saba Sukanto Roy, Ph.D.
 https://orcid.org/0009-0007-6701-4246  https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4376-5911
MA in English, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh Assistant Professor, Department of English and Modern Languages, North South University, Bangladesh
Contact e-mail: zs.oishorjo26@gmail.com E-mail: sukanto.roy@northsouth.edu

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