The Relationship Between Kindergarten Teachers’ Performance Rating and Their Profile as Basis for Intervention Program

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The Relationship Between Kindergarten Teachers’ Performance Rating and Their Profile as Basis for Intervention Program

  • Mary Ann S. Gresula
  • Jaypee R. Lopres
  • Jesselle G. Acson
  • Catherine F. Apatan
  • Gleiza Marie P. Pilapil
  • Jennifer F. Hernandez
  • Mary Grace P. Urciada
  • Marie Lou T. Dongon
  • 461-484
  • Jun 6, 2024
  • Education

The Relationship Between Kindergarten Teachers’ Performance Rating and Their Profile as Basis for Intervention Program

Mary Ann S. Gresula1, Jaypee R. Lopres2, Jesselle G. Acson3, Catherine F. Apatan4,Gleiza Marie P. Pilapil5,Jennifer F. Hernandez6, Mary Grace P. Urciada7 & Marie Lou T. Dongon8

1Kindergarten Teacher, Chino Valley Unified School District 51, Arizona, USA

2Dean, College of Teacher Education, University of Cebu-Pardo and Talisay, Philippines

3Elementary Teacher, Gallup McKinley County Schools, New Mexico, USA

4Mathematics/Financial Literacy Teacher, Gallup McKinley County Schools, New Mexico, USA

5Mathematics and English Teacher, Tutored by Teachers, USA

6Science Teacher, Gallup McKinley County Schools, New Mexico, USA

7Mathematics Teacher, Gallup McKinley County Schools, New Mexico, USA

8Mathematics/Robotics/Automation Teacher, Gallup McKinley County Schools, New Mexico, USA

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1105031

Received: 21 April 2024; Revised: 05 May 2024; Accepted: 09 May 2024; Published: 06 June 2024

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the performance rating of 44 kindergarten teachers based on the IPCRF (Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form) results to identify which indicators got the lowest and highest ratings and to determine the existing factors affecting the teachers’ performance ratings. The research methods used during the conduct of this study were descriptive and inferential. A template was made based on the standard format of the Individual Performance Review and Commitment Form (IPCRF), which was used to gather data. A Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted to gather additional support for the study. The findings indicated that the teacher respondents, aged 38-43 years old, were Teacher I, most of them taught for 7-10 years with a bachelor’s degree, and most of them were trained for 5-14 days. Moreover, the teacher respondents got the highest rating in the Assessment and Reporting as Proportional Ratings and the lowest in the Plus Factor indicator. In relation to the factors affecting the performance of the teachers, only the length of service had a significant relationship, which meant that among all the respondents’ profiles, the length of service had influenced the teacher’s performance rating. There is no significant relationship between performance rating and the profile of Kindergarten Teachers. Therefore, the result of this study may help kindergarten teachers assess themselves and look for ways to improve their performance rating and, if possible, get an outstanding one. School administrators should provide technical assistance to kindergarten teachers to help them achieve higher ratings in all Key Result Areas (KRAs) on the Individual Performance and Review Form (IPCRF). Establishing avenues for sharing ideas, such as LAC and mentoring sessions, can offer equal opportunities for teachers to learn, develop their skills, and showcase their talents. Kindergarten teachers should be encouraged to innovate, targeting various KRAs, to benefit both their professional growth and the overall effectiveness of their teaching.

Keywords: Teachers’ performance rating, intervention program, Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF), qualitative research

INTRODUCTION

Kindergarten teachers are one of the very important factors when it comes to nurturing and educating the learners in School. They are the first people to introduce the learners to the world of education. Kindergarten is the pivotal stage of every child’s existence, for it is the place where they are exposed to the beauty and realities of life (Dixit, 2023). One of Bill Gates’ famous quotes about kindergarten learning is, “The first five years have everything to do with how the next 80 turn out.” Although excellent teachers are necessary for every grade level, it is especially necessary that kindergarten teachers are efficient and effective.

One of the fundamental rights of every child is the right to education. Every child has the right to realize his full potential, regardless of where he grows up. Molding the talent and skills of the learners is effective when it is exercised even at an early age, particularly at the kindergarten level. Kindergarten education was institutionalized as part of basic education in the Philippines and was implemented partially during the school year 2011-2012 (Brago, 2012). It was made mandatory and compulsory for entrance to Grade 1. Kindergartens are places where children develop their abilities, talents, and skills from their earliest age. For this reason, kindergarten teachers are very important (UNICEF, 2019).

Considering the emerging changes in the educational system today and with the diverse and advanced generation of learners, kindergarten teachers are challenged enough on how to develop themselves, enhance their teaching qualities, and update their teaching methodologies and strategies to cope with the demands of the system, to cater the needs of the learners and to reach an outstanding performance rating during performance evaluation. Having an outstanding rating in the evaluation is a great edge and can be used as additional evidence or support for promotion purposes. Moreover, Kim et al. (2019) highlighted that having a high capability in planning and implementing are qualities that kindergarten teachers are expected to possess to fulfill the needs of immersing in 21st-century learning skills.

The performance of every kindergarten teacher is important, for it affects the lives of every learner. In all education systems, the performance of kindergarten teachers is one of the handfuls of factors in determining school effectiveness and learning outcomes. Enhanced performance of kindergarten teachers in the learning process means that they have expertise in educating, teaching, and training, and the teachers develop themselves to adapt to the rapidly changing environment of education.

Thus, this study was necessary to determine the performance of the Kindergarten Teachers based on their IPCRF ratings. The knowledge gained from this study would offer a clear understanding of what indicators need to be focused on in the IPCRF (Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form) subject for intervention to help the Kindergarten Teachers enhance their performance and the quality of education they serve to the learners.

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to a popular quote by Elizabeth Warren, “A good education is a foundation of a good future.” It is through education that greener pastures will be within reach. The Department of Education in the Philippines aims to provide quality education to Filipino learners and provide a great avenue for them to become globally competent. The process has to start at an early age.

Pursuant to Republic Act No. 10157, or the “Kindergarten Education Act of 2012” and Republic Act No. 10533, or the K to 12 law on the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”, Kindergarten education provides equal opportunities for all children to accessible, mandatory and compulsory kindergarten education that effectively promotes physical, social, cognitive, and emotional skills stimulation and values formation offered to all five (5)-year old Filipino children to sufficiently prepare them for Grade One. DepEd Order No. 20 highlighted that “Kindergarten education is vital to the development of the Filipino child for it is the period when the young mind’s absorptive capacity is at its sharpest”.

In addition, Kindergarten was previously optional in the Philippines until advocates of the K-12 program argued that students who went to kindergarten were better prepared for primary education than those who did not (Icef Monitor, 2013).The implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program in all public elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines serves as the new teaching paradigm of DepEd on international, national, and local competitiveness, which has developed a framework that aims for the holistic development of the learners and opened the way to the mandated 21st Century Skills (K- 12 Basic Education Program, 2012). These skills are defined as follows:   Information, media, and technology skills, learning and innovation skills, communication skills, and life and career skills. Such skills, coupled with the curriculum support system and DepEd core values, are designed to prepare the K to 12 learners holistically and help address the needs of the nation by pursuing higher education, employment, entrepreneurship, or middle-level skills development (DepEd OrderNo. 21, 2019).

This is another milestone in the field of education, which is close to upgrading kindergarten teachers’ knowledge, skills, and competencies. Teachers’ qualities play a vital role in attaining good teaching performance, which serves as one of the important indicators of whether the goal of quality education is attained.

Based on the data presented by the Philippine Statistics Authority (2019) during the International Workshop on Data Disaggregation for the Sustainable Development Goalsfor Quality Education, aside from the Passing rate in the licensure exam, faculty qualification was considered in the list of Areas for Improvement towards Quality and Equality in Education. Republic Act No. 4670, also known as the Magna Carta for Public Schools, highlights the importance of teacher’s proper qualifications because advanced education depends on the abilities and qualifications of the teaching staff. Kindergarten teachers must possess the qualities and qualifications needed to meet the requirements of the department and deliver quality education to the pupils. In line with this, DepEd Order no. 47, s.2016, known as the Omnibus Policy on Kindergarten Education, presented the qualifications for kindergarten teachers, which stated that a Kindergarten teacher must have obtained degrees or its equivalent units related to kindergarten, must be proficient in Mother tongue, must attend Teacher Induction Program, must engage themselves in Continuous Professional Development Training/Programs and must be involved as well as learning facilitators in the community.

Considering the qualifications mentioned for kindergarten teachers, kindergarten will have an idea on what to accomplish and by following such, the goal of quality teaching and learning will be achieved. This is supported by the U.S. Secretary of Education, John B. King Jr. On the other hand, on October 12, 2016, during the release of the Notice of Final Rulemaking (NFR) for the Teacher Preparation Regulations, who said, “As an educator, I know that one of the strongest in-school influences on students is the teacher in front of the classroom.” Teachers are expected to perform better in and outside the classroom and, in fact, are considered to be someone who has knowledge of everything. Sufficient knowledge in carrying out the responsibility of a teacher is very necessary. Problems arise when teachers are not equipped or unwilling to carry out their responsibilities due to lack of knowledge. Hence, it will be difficult to achieve the teaching and learning objectives.

On September 30, 2020, in the Philippine News Agency, Senator Sherwin Gatchalian cited a Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report that stated teachers’ poor performance is due to poor teacher training, low quality of students enrolled in teacher training, and meager opportunities for professional development (Philippine News Agency, 2020).

Section 11 of the Kindergarten Education Act states that The DepEd shall continue to develop a set of standards for kindergarten teachers. The standards shall reflect the performance expected of kindergarten teachers within varied environments, which include classrooms, childcare settings, children’s homes, or any natural environment where individual child activities, parent-child activities, and small or large group instruction take place. To enable the public kindergarten teachers to meet the set of standards, continuing teacher training shall be provided by the DepEd in partnership with the Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) determined as Centers of Excellence (COE). Schools Division offices may initiate need-based pieces of training utilizing their core of trainers or in partnership with qualified service providers.

Article VII, section 3 of the Code of Ethics for Public School Teachers states that school officials shall encourage all teachers to attend and participate in conferences in training programs. To ensure that the enhanced basics education program meets the demands for quality education, Section 3 of the Republic Act No. 10533, in collaboration with relevant partners in government, academe, industry, and nongovernmental organizations, conducts teacher education and training programs such as In-service Training on Content and Pedagogy which enables teachers to be retrained to meet the content and performance standards of the new k to 12 curriculum; as well as training of new teachers to upgrade the skills to the content standards of the new curriculum.

It is also being stressed in the Code of Ethics for Public School Teachers, Article IV, Section 2, that every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparation for the career of teaching, and shall always at his best in the practice of his profession. Enhancing teacher’s skills and performance is considered a tool for improving the educational process.

In 2012, the CSC, a government agency in the Philippines with responsibility for the civil service, issued a memorandum Circular (MC) No. 06, series of 2012, which sets the guidelines for the implementation of the Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS) in all government agencies. The SPMS emphasizes the strategic alignment of the agency’s thrusts with the day-to-day operation of the units and individual personnel within the organization. It focuses on measures of performance vis-á-vis realized target, employee output, and collective performance of the group, Civil Service Commission. (CSC Memorandum Circular (MC) 06, s. 2012 (Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of Agency Strategic Performance Management System), 2012).

After three years, DepEd, a government agency in the Philippines responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education (Republic Act No. 9155, Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001), issued Order No. 2, s. 2015 — “Guidelines on the Establishment and Implementation of the Results-based Performance Management System (RPMS) in the Department of Education.”

The RPMS is an organization-wide process of ensuring that employees focus work efforts towards achieving the DepEd vision, mission, values, and strategic priorities. It is also a mechanism to manage, monitor, and measure performance and identify human resource and organizational development needs (Department of Education. DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015 (Guidelines on the Establishment and Implementation of the Results-Based Performance Management System (RPMS) in the Department of Education, 2015). The said performance management system is aligned with the Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS) of the Civil Service Commission Memorandum Circular No. 06, s. 2012 (CSC), to ensure efficient, timely, and quality performance among personnel. (Civil Service Commission, 2017).

To complement reform initiatives on teacher quality, in 2017, the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST) was developed and nationally validated. This was signed into policy by Department of Education (DepEd) Secretary Maria Leonor Briones through DepEd Order No. 42, s. 2017. (RPMS Manual for SY 2019-2020, Page 2). The PPST (Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers) articulates what constitutes teacher quality through well-defined domains, strands, and indicators that provide measures of professional learning, competent practice, and effective engagement across teachers’ career stages.

This PPST (Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers), which is aligned with the Results-based Performance Management System (RPMS), serves as a public statement of professional accountability that can help teachers reflect on and assess their own practices as they aspire for personal growth and professional development. The PPST is not part of the RPMS, the same way with the RPMS—it is not part of the PPST. It is a pre-existing system requirement from the Civil Service Commission (CSC).

To motivate higher performance and greater accountability in the teaching field, the Department of Education (DepEd) released the guidelines on granting of Performance Based Bonus (PBB) for its personnel, which is based on Executive Order No. 80, s. 2012 and was signed by President Benigno S. Aquino III. The DepEd evaluates and grants PBB to all employees who have worked hard and have performed well in accordance with their contribution to the achievement of the overall performance target of the department; these will serve as the basis for determining the amount of PBB to be received.

The teaching performance of kindergarten teachers is measured by their Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF). It is a general plan of task and serves as a guide to teachers to be written before the start of classes, implemented before the school year, and to be rated at the end of the school year.

It is composed of Key Result Areas (KRAs), which dwell on (1) Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, (2) Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, (3) Curriculum and Planning, (4) Assessment and Reporting, and (5) Plus factor. The Key Result Areas (KRAs) serve as the reason why an office and/or a job exists. In addition, to determine the score obtained, there are performance indicators that provide the exact quantification of objectives and serve as the assessment tool that gauges whether performance is positive or negative (D.O, No.2, s. 2015).

According to Canoma (2017), the objectives indicated are the duties and responsibilities that each teacher must do in service. This is a tool to check and balance if one is doing his duties diligently with quality, efficiency and on time.This also shows how the objectives were performed with ratings: 5-Outstanding, 4-Very Satisfactory, 3-Satisfactory, 2-Unsatisfactory, and 1-Poor Performance (RPMS Manual for SY 2019-2020, page 9). Each tool also presents in detail the various Means of Verification (MOV) that serve as proof of the attainment of specific objectives alongside performance indicators, from outstanding to poor performance, to help both Ratees and Raters in the assessment process (RPMS Manual for SY 2019-2020, page 8). Moreover, the performance indicators of the RPMS tools for Teachers operationalize the performance measure, namely quality, efficiency, and timeliness required by the D.O. No, 2, s. 2015. The (3) categories. There are some performances that may only be rated on quality and efficiency, while some on quality and timeliness and others on efficiency only (RPMS Manual for SY 2019-2020, page 11).

According to Doherty and Jacobs(2015) that when properly implemented, evaluation reforms can dramatically improve teacher quality, build trust with teachers, and contribute to improving a host of educational institutions, such as teacher preparation programs. Teacher’s Performance Evaluation is necessary with the expectation that the evaluation process itself will enhance teacher practice and improve effectiveness, and this, in turn, will lead to improved student learning and achievement.

On June 20-23, 2018, during the three-day Division Roll-out on the Results-Based Performance Management System of Jose Rizal Elementary School, The Schools Division Superintendent, Dr. Evangeline P. Ladines, addressed these to the teachers, “No better learning outcomes if there is no better teaching performance. You must integrate, interconnect, and interrelate RPMS with TIP and PPST. We must admit that during the first three years of implementation of RPMS, there were some gaps that needed to be addressed. You are all the chosen few. Therefore, you should be coupled with a greater sense of responsibility. Give your full and undivided attention to this endeavor.”

Recently, the Department of Education issued a memorandum no. 050, series of 2020, entitled DepEd Professional Development Priorities for Teachers and School Leaders for School Year 2020-2023. These priorities support the realization of the Department’s goal of continuous upskilling and reskilling of teachers and school leaders that will result in better learning outcomes. Professional Development (PD) Priorities shall allow flexibility for specific local needs, priorities, and emerging developments in teacher and school leader professional development.

Adjusting to the new system is never easy, especially with the twists that may come along the way because of some possible circumstances. Nevertheless, kindergarten teachers of the new millennium need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills and upgraded to cater to the needs of today’s learners.

REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

Kindergarten teachers are one of the most important beings in the lives of every kindergarten learner. More than the knowledge they impart to the learners, in many ways, kindergarten teachers make a difference in their perspective in life. As facilitators of learning, it is important to offer quality education to the learners and to do such, quality teaching is necessary as kindergarten teachers should be effective and efficient.

According to Licaylicay and Rivera (2015) pointed out that to be able to be a competitive educator, we, teachers, reflect from our knowledge, wisdom, understanding as well as the skill that we may be able to impart as we commit to accomplish the role of a teacher. Comighud (2020) added that teachers are the pillar of an educational system. The attainment and failure of educational activities depend highly on their performance. Teachers’ decisions and behaviors are likely to influence the well-being and prospects of a nation, including the lives of the country’s next generation.

Teachers at the forefront of the system should be endowed with excellent skills and a positive personality to help students develop their competencies (Rivera, 2020). Teachers’ commitment is a teacher’s psychological identification on school goals and values and willingness to become a member of an organization to work considerably harder more than an individual benefit, (Paragsa, 2014). The importance of the teacher’s attributes and roles in the teaching process cannot be overly emphasized. The teacher is an integral part of an instructional activity. Her skills in employing a variety of teaching methodologies are paramount if every classroom encounter is to result in creating beneficial interactions and positive responses (Agsalud,2016).

The duty of a kindergarten teacher does not only limit in things they used to in teaching because the generation of learners are changing from time to time. These certain changes are somehow new, and teacher’s needs to adapt to upgrade teaching strategies. Kindergarten teachers need to be always flexible and see to it that learning continues. Moreover, the guidance and support of good performance and competent teachers in the learning process are necessary for effective learning to take place. Given the heavy demands and expectations in terms of students’ development, teachers’ job performance, which is tied to students’ outcomes, is of crucial concern for a variety of stakeholders, including principals, parents, policymakers, and society at large (Alrajhi et al., 2017).

Stronge (2018) asserted that teachers bring a complexity of characteristics to the profession of teaching. These include the following characteristics: their beliefs and value systems, their aspirations for themselves and their students, their attitude and motivation for student success, and their content knowledge and teaching aptitude skills. He postulated that these characteristics are all rolled together to form a complete package necessary to be successful in the profession. Mu’in et al. (2018) emphasized that the task of the teacher is not related exclusively to teaching, which implies planning, implementation, and evaluation of educational and methodological work. Teachers are also responsible for their professional growth, for the development and improvement of their pedagogical skills, for mastering modern teaching methods that meet existing educational needs, and for developing information and communication technologies.

According to Samsujjaman (2017), he considered teachers as the most significant mediating personas in the execution of the teaching-learning process, and their education is a very significant aspect of any nation. Schools with strong teacher communities seem to have higher student achievement (Bryk et al., 2010; Horn & Kane, 2015). As knowing a subject is not enough to teach effectively, teachers need to be   knowledgeable about what to teach and how to teach it. Along with mastering the methods and techniques in the teaching profession, the ability to apply them successfully improves performance (Yoo, 2019). Teachers must have more knowledge and deeper command on complex skills (Goodwinet al., (2017).

The quality of teaching depends largely on the performance exhibited by teachers in the classroom, (Polizziet al., 2018). However, Burns et al. (2015) argued that if teacher quality is desired, there must be a commitment to sustaining resources for teacher development. Teacher performance is a key element in the success of school effectiveness and is very important. Thus, teachers must be evaluated with the purpose of determining the degree of success of an individual or job or task and to evaluate the factors affecting his/her success. Ideally, the findings from these evaluations are used to provide feedback to teachers and guide their professional development (Sawchuk, 2015).

Meaningful teacher evaluation involves an accurate appraisal of teaching effectiveness, strengths, and areas for development, followed by feedback, coaching, support, and opportunities for professional development. The high teachers’ performance and achievement will determine a nation’s civilization character in the future (Hajar, 2017). Researchers pay great attention to the issue of teachers’ training and their professional development. Doğan and Yurtseven (2018) emphasized that schools are a place of professional training and the formation of collective structures to stimulate the development of teachers. The foundation of lifelong learning and development first begins with teacher education programs and is fostered throughout an educator’s career (Burns et al., 2015).

A study by Fernández-Fernández et al. (2016) showed that participation in educational activities of a reflexive nature contributed to the professional development of the teacher. This activity requires great dedication and intensity from teachers but also leads to the perception of their professional effectiveness and control of the processes of teaching and learning.

Teachers are essential for the effective functioning of the education system and for improving the quality of learning. Hence, the attributes of highly effective teaching must be aimed to produce a common point of reference for effective practice in teaching and learning (Rasool, et al., 2017). As teachers are entrusted with tons of responsibilities in shaping and molding diverse learners of different backgrounds, they are also expected to do their part in filling all the gaps to cater to the needs of these learners. Somehow, it is a bit challenging, but with passion, dedication, and love to serve, it is going to be fulfilling in the end, and that is what it means to be a teacher.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to assess the Kindergarten Performance of Dumaguete City Division based on their ratings in the IPCRF. It also sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the Kindergarten Teachers in terms of:

  • Age;
  • Sex;
  • Position;
  • Number of Years in Teaching;
  • Highest Degree Obtained;
  • Number of Training Days Related to Profession?

2. What is the performance rating of Kindergarten Teachers in terms of;

  • Content Knowledge and Pedagogy;
  • Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners;
  • Curriculum and Planning;
  • Assessment and Reporting;
  • Plus Factor?

3. Is there a significant relationship between performance rating and the profile of Kindergarten Teachers?

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

FIGURE 1. Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework of the Study.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section presents the research design, environment, respondents, data-gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design. The research method being used in this study was descriptive correlational. Descriptive statistics merely describe what is present or shown in the data. Therefore, it enables one to present the data in a more meaningful way, which allows a simpler interpretation of data. The gathering of information about prevailing conditions or situations is for the purpose of description and interpretation. This type of research design is not simply amassing and tabulating facts but includes proper analyses, interpretation, comparisons, and identification of trends and relationships.Inferential Statistics makes inferences and predictions about extensive data by considering sample data from the original data. With Inferential Statistics, one is to reach conclusions that extend beyond the data. A template was made based on the standard format of IPCRF, and it was used to gather data. After the data were gathered, they were tallied, analyzed, interpreted, and validated to answer the existing problems in this study. Finally, a Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted as additional support to make the study solid and valid.

Research Environment. The Division of Dumaguete City was established as a separate Division from the Division of Negros Oriental in 1975, with 12 public elementary schools and two public secondary schools under its direct administration and supervision of Dr. Guillermo Marigomen, who served as the first Schools Division Superintendent.

The Division of Dumaguete City has improved greatly. With its growth, the demand for public schools has also increased. The Division of Dumaguete City, headed by Dr. Gregorio Cyrus R. Elejorde, the current School Division Superintendent, now consists of 18 Elementary Schools and 7 Secondary Schools.

The main focus of this study were the kindergarten teachers of the 18 Elementary Schools in Dumaguete City Division:Amador Dagudag Memorial Elem. School, Babajuba Elem. School, Balugo Elem. School, Batinguel Elem. School, Cadawinonan Elem. School, Calindagan Elem. School, Camanjac Elem. School, Candau-ay Elem. School, Cantil-e Elem. School, City Central Elem. School, Hermenegilda F. Gloria Mem’l Elem. School, Junob Elem. School, Magsaysay Memorial Elem. School, North City Elem. School, South City Elem. School, West City Elem. School, West City Exceptional Child Learning Center, West City Science Elem. School.

The Kindergarten Education (KE) Program aims for all five-year-old children to achieve the standards and competencies expected of them, considering their diverse backgrounds, prior knowledge and experiences, skills, attitudes, personal traits, and interests (DO no. 47 s. 2016). In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue.

Research Respondents. The respondents of this study were the 44 Kindergarten Teachers of the 18 elementary schools of Dumaguete City Division. These Kindergarten Teachers have different backgrounds in the field of Teaching and have different ratings in the IPCRF. The data below shows the distribution of respondents in this study.

Name of School of Teacher Respondents Total Number
Amador Dagudag Memorial Elem. School 1
Babajuba Elem. School 1
Balugo Elem. School 2
Batinguel Elem. School 4
Cadawinonan Elem. School 2
Calindagan Elem. School 1
Camanjac Elem. School 2
Candau-ay Elem. School 2
Cantil-e Elem. School 2
City Central Elem. School 4
Hermenegilda F. Gloria Mem’l Elem. School 1
Junob Elem. School 3
Magsaysay Memorial Elem. School 2
North City Elem. School 3
South City Elem. School 5
West City Elem. School 8
West City Exceptional Child Learning Center 0
West City Science Elem. School 1
Total 44

Data-Gathering Procedure. A permission letter was given to the office of Dumaguete City Division addressed to the Superintendent to ask permission to gather data for the study, specifically the IPCRF rating for SY: 2019-2020 of kindergarten teachers in the division of Dumaguete City. A template was made based on the standard IPCRF format for the gathering of data, and the data was gathered online. After the approval and the gathering of data, the gathered data were presented to the statistician and were tallied, analyzed, and interpreted according to the needed information.

The researcher then conducted a focused group discussion with some selected respondents as additional support for the study to make it valid and even stronger. The researcher prepared another permission letter addressed to the Division Superintendent to conduct a focused group discussion, and after the approval, the researcher asked permission from the school principals of the selected respondents to conduct the focused group discussion. The researcher asked for the contact information of the participants and informed them about the purpose of the study as well as the discussion. The focused group discussion was conducted virtually, and the result of the discussion was encoded and added as support for the study.

Statistical Treatment of Data                                                                                                                

Frequency and Percentage Distribution. The profile of the respondents was determined by using frequency and percentage distribution.

The Performance Rating of the respondents ranged from 1 to 5, and these were interpreted as follows:

Rating Range Adjectival Rating Equivalences
5 4.500 – 5.000 Outstanding
4 3.500 – 4.499 Very Satisfactory
3 2.500 – 3.499 Satisfactory
2 1.500 – 2.499 Unsatisfactory
1 1.000 – 1.499 Poor

Mean and Weighted Mean. The Weighted Mean was used to interpret the performance of the respondents.

Pearson R Correlation, Spearman Rho Correlation. Pearson’s R Correlation was used to determine the significant relationship between Performance Rating and ratio/interval variables such as Age, Number of Years in Teaching, and Number of Training Days Related to the Profession.

The result was interpreted as follows:

Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Interpretation
0.00 No association between the two variables
0.01–0.19 No or negligible association between the variables
0.20–0.39 Weak association between the variables
0.40–0.69 Medium association between the variables
0.70–1.00 Strong association between the variables

The Significance of the Relationship using Pearson’s R Correlation was ascertained by rejecting the null hypothesis that there was no relationship between two variables when the P-value was less than the Significance Level of 0.05. The p-value for Pearson’s correlation coefficient uses the t-distribution.

Spearman Rho Correlation. It was used to determine the relationship between performance ratings and ordinal variables such as the position of teachers and the highest degree earned. The Significance of the Relationship using Spearman Rho Correlation was ascertained by rejecting the null hypothesis that there was no relationship between two variables when the P-value was less than the Significance Level of 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

This section presents the findings of the study in terms of the profile of the kindergarten teachers, performance rating, and correlation between the performance rating and profile of the teacher respondents.

1. Profile of the Kindergarten Teachers

Table 1.1 Age of Respondents

Age Frequency Percentage Distribution (%)
20– 29 5 11.36
30 – 39 25 56.82
40 – 49 11 25.00
50 – 59 3 6.82
Total 44 100.00

The table above shows that 56.82 percent of the respondents were aged 30 – 39 years old, and 6.82 percent were 50 – 59 years old. This implies that the majority of the respondents are in their 30s, which supports the idea that most teachers in mid-career experience increases in motivation and commitment to teaching (Gu & Day, 2007).Mid-career teachers are defined as those with between five- and fifteen years of teaching experience (Booth et al., 2021). Mid-career teachers feel that they have already made a substantial commitment of time and energy to the profession and gained a significant amount of profession-specific knowledge (Borman & Dowling, 2008).

Table 1.2 Sex of Respondents

Sex Frequency  Percentage Distribution (%)
Male 0 0
Female 44 100.00
Total 44 100.00

The table above shows that out of the total teacher respondents, 44 or 100 percent were dominantly female. This implies that the female respondents are inclined to the teaching profession with the reason that female teachers are reported to be more supportive, expressive, and nurturing than males. (Rashidi&Naderi, 2012). Moreover, the perceptions of teaching as “women’s work” (Kelleher et al., 2011; Martino W. J., 2008) are very much evident in the feminization of teaching. This is especially true at the elementary level, where 65.73% of teachers are females as of 2017, according to World Bank data. The same is true in the Philippines, where 87.54% of teachers at the primary level are females, as of 2016 (World Bank Data,2019).

Table 1.3 Position of Respondents

Position Frequency  Percentage Distribution (%)
Teacher I 26  59.10
Teacher II 9  20.45
Teacher III 9 20.45
Total 44 100.00

On the other hand, LeQuire (2016) explained how the seeming dominance of women in the teaching profession is rooted in historical economic conditions and gender beliefs. LeQuire wrote that prior to the 1850s, most of the teaching positions were held by men, which changed dramatically in the 19th century due to industrialization, which directed men to the new paths of business and more money. These include trading in the stock market, working in railroads, and managing factories. This abundance of new opportunities for men left many of the teaching positions vacant which was later occupied by women who could be paid less.

The table shows that 59.10 percent were Teacher I and 20.45 percent were Teacher II and Teacher III. This means that most of the teacher respondents have not yet been promoted to higher positions, and this is due to difficulties in earning a higher position that might be due to the non-availability of training, seminars, workshops, and opportunities to pursue higher education. This statement is supported by one of the answers gathered during the interview, which says, “The reasons that hold me back from being promoted to a higher position are the preparation of the documents, especially the certificates, and at the same time I am not that confident enough because I’m not yet finished with my master’s degree, so I was not comfortable enough to pass and not confident that I could reach the ranking score.”

(Question #1, Participant 1)           

Table 1.4 Number of Years in Teaching

Number of Years Frequency Percentage Distribution (%)
3 –  6 11  25.00
7 – 10 18 40.90
11 – 14 14 31.80
15 – 18   1   2.30
Total 44                100.00

The table above shows that out of 44 or 100 percent teacher respondents, 18 or 40.90 percent of them taught for 7-10 years, while there was only 1 or 2.30 percent who taught for 15-18 years. This means that a number of the respondents have enough years of teaching experience. According to Fatma and Tugay (2015), teachers with a minimum of ten years of teaching experience are more effective in teaching and good in classroom management skills. Moreover, Putman (2012) demonstrated that the more years of teaching experience a teacher has, the higher the level of their self-efficacies to engage students and manage the classrooms.

Table 1.5 Highest Degree Obtained of Respondents

Highest Degree Obtained Frequency  Percentage Distribution (%)
Bachelor’s Degree 42 95.45
Master’s Degree 2 4.55
Total 44 100.00

Table 1.5 shows that of the 44 or 100 percent teacher respondents, 95.45 percent of them obtained a bachelor’s degree, while there was 2 or 4.55 percent of them obtained master’s degrees. This indicates that the majority of the respondents have no advanced study in their profession. Failure to pursue post-graduate studies could be due to low income received in the form of a salary that hardly meets their basic needs and those of their extended family members (Mtahabwa, 2010). This statement is supported by one of the answers gathered during the focused group discussion, which says, “The number one reason that hinders me from pursuing post-graduate studies is financial. Literally financial because I have four children, and I am the only one working for my family because my husband doesn’t have work. I was convinced to study, yet for now, it’s going to be hard because I have a baby to attend to, even right now. It is hard to cope with my work, and much more so if I study. Maybe sometime I will pursue it, but for now, not yet.”

(Question #3, Participant 8)

Table 1.6 Number of Training Days Related to the Profession of Respondents

Number of Training Days Frequency Percentage Distribution (%)
 5 – 14 34 77.27
15 – 24 1 2.27
25 – 34 2 4.54
35 – 44 6 13.64
45 – 54 1 2.27
Total 44 100.00

The above table presents the number of training days related to the respondents’ profession. It shows that out of 44 teacher respondents, 34 or 77.27 percent are trained for 5-14 days, and 1 or 2.27 percent of the total respondents are trained for 15-24 days and 45-54 days. This connotes that most of the respondents lack training. Training plays a vital role in providing teachers with new skills, knowledge, and learning (Cohen, 2017). According to Karim et al. (2019), training is highly effective for new and old employees if they are equipped with new skills, techniques, and pedagogies. Hence, teachers must be supported and nurtured in their professional development through seminars, workshops, and training activities (Pescuela, 2015).

2. Performance Rating of Kindergarten Teachers

Table 2.1 Content Knowledge and Pedagogy

Specific Objectives Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating
1. Applied knowledge of content within and across curriculum teaching areas 4.093 Very Satisfactory
2. Used a range of teaching strategies that enhance learner’s achievement in literacy and numeracy skills 4.307 Very Satisfactory
3. Applied a range of teaching strategies to develop critical and creative thinking, as well as other higher order thinking skills. 4.027 Very Satisfactory
Mean 4.142 Very Satisfactory

As exhibited in the table, the respondents were Very Satisfactory in Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, particularly using a range of teaching strategies that enhance learner’s achievement in literacy and numeracy skills. These were through the Weighted mean of 4.142 and Weighted Mean of 4.307, respectively.

Though still rated as Very Satisfactory, applied a range of teaching strategies to develop critical and creative thinking, as well as other higher-order thinking skills, got the lowest rating. This means that the respondents show knowledge of content and its integration within and across subject areas. They also facilitated using different teaching strategies that promote reading, writing and/or numeracy skills, develop critical and/or creative thinking, as well as other Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS),

The KRA 1, which is about Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, is easy to accomplish because the documents are present already, and this is supported by the answers during the interview, which says, The easiest for me to accomplish is KRA 1 because the MOVs are there.” (Question #4, Participant 10)

Moreover, another answer during the interview says,For me, the easiest KRA is the Content Knowledge and Pedagogy because the MOVs are practiced in the field of teaching, classroom observation, etc., Which you do as a teacher.” (Question #4, Participant 9)

Table 2.2 Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners

Specific Objectives Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating
4. Managed classroom structure to engage learners, individually or in groups, in meaningful exploration, discovery and hands-on activities within a range of physical learning environments. 4.293 Very Satisfactory
5. Managed learner behavior constructively by applying positive and non-violent discipline to ensure learning-focused environment. 4.307 Very Satisfactory
6. Used differentiated, developmentally appropriate learning experiences to address learners’ gender, needs, strengths, interests and experiences. 4.240 Very Satisfactory
Mean 4.280 Very Satisfactory

As presented in the table, the respondents were Very Satisfactory with the Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, specifically in managing learner behavior constructively by applying positive and non-violent discipline to ensure a learning-focused environment, as exposed by the Weighted Mean of 4.280 and a Weighted Mean of 4.307, respectively. Although using differentiated, developmentally appropriate learning experiences to address learners’ gender, needs, strengths, interests, and experiences was Very Satisfactory, it ranks the least as displayed by the Weighted Mean of 4.240.

This implies that the respondents used classroom management strategies that engage learners in activities/tasks, apply teacher management strategies of learner behavior that promote positive and non-violent discipline, and apply differentiated teaching strategies to address learner diversity.The finding conforms with the study of Cebrian (2006), as cited by Usop (2013), which revealed that the diversity of learners is the domain that emphasizes the idea that teachers can facilitate the learning process even with diverse learners. Moreover, classroom management has two distinct purposes: “It not only seeks to establish and sustain an orderly environment so students can engage in meaningful academic learning, but it also aims to enhance student social and moral growth” (Evertson and Weinstein, 2006). Teachers who can manage their classrooms effectively would ensure better educational outcomes.

This view is supported by Oliver and Reschly (2007), who suggested that teachers’ ability to organize and manage students’ behaviors would result in positive educational outcomes. A teacher with a poorly managed classroom will spend valuable instructional time maintaining discipline and order rather than teaching.

Table 2.3 Curriculum and Planning

Specific Objectives Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating
7. Planned, managed, and implemented developmentally sequenced teaching and learning processes to meet curriculum requirements and varied teaching contexts. 4.213 Very Satisfactory
8. Participated in collegial discussions that use teacher and learner feedback to enrich teaching practice. 4.227 Very Satisfactory
9. Selected, developed, organized, and used appropriate teaching and learning resources, including ICT, to address learning goals. 4.027 Very Satisfactory
Mean 4.156 Very Satisfactory

 The table above shows that the respondents were very Satisfied with curriculum and planning, specifically in participation in collegial discussions that use teacher and learner feedback to enrich teaching practice. These were proven by the Weighted Mean of 4.156 and Weighted Mean of 4.227, respectively.

This connotes that the respondents plan and implement developmentally sequenced teaching and learning process; frequently participate in LAC sessions/FGDs/meetings to discuss teacher/learner feedback to enrich instruction; develop and use varied teaching and learning resources, including ICT to address learning goals; and submitted 1 main MOV with 3 varied teaching and learning resources including ICT.

This is supported by Pellegrino (2011), who said that an effective teacher uses a variety of media in their lessons. Like it or not, in the 21st century, this generation of students was born in the digital age. Moreover, curriculum is all the planned learning that is offered and enacted by a school. The function or work of teachers is the art of teaching and the various instructional methods used in the learning and teaching process. Curriculum content and pedagogy are all elements of the teaching-learning process that work in convergence to help students understand the curricular goals and objectives and attain high standards of learning defined in the curriculum. These elements include the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter and the learning process, teaching-learning approaches and activities, instructional materials, and learning resources (Cebrian, 2009, as cited by Kadtong et al.,2017). On the other hand, planning must develop and utilize creative and appropriate instructional plans. Thus, the teacher shows proof of instructional planning, implements instruction as planned, and demonstrates the ability to cope with a varied teaching milieu.

Table 2.4 Assessment and Reporting

Specific Objectives Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating
10. Designed, selected, organized, and used diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment strategies consistent with curriculum requirements 4.907 Outstanding
11. Monitored and evaluated learner progress and achievement using learner attainment data. 4.453 Very Satisfactory
12. Communicated promptly and clearly the learners’ needs, progress, and achievement to key stakeholders, including parents/ guardians. 4.480 Very Satisfactory
Mean 4.613 Outstanding

The respondents were Outstanding in the Assessment and Reporting, preferably in the designed, selected, organized, and used diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment strategies consistent with curriculum requirements, as exhibited by the Weighted Mean of 4.613 and Weighted Mean of 4.907. They were Very Satisfactory, however, in monitored and evaluated learner progress and achievement using learner attainment data as well as communicated promptly and clearly the learners’ needs, progress and achievement to key stakeholders, including parents/ guardians.

This implies that the respondents designed, selected, organized, and used diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment strategies consistent with curriculum requirements and submitted a main MOV with 4 varied assessment strategies. However, they frequently monitored and evaluated learner progress and achievement using learner attainment data; frequently showed prompt and clear communication of the learners’ needs, progress, and achievement to key stakeholders, including parental guardians; and submitted MOV were distributed across 3 quarters.

This was supported by the study of Kadtong et al. (2017), which found that in assessment, teachers must develop and use a variety of appropriate assessment strategies to monitor and evaluate learning, identify teaching learning difficulties and possible causes, and take appropriate action to address them. While reporting, the teacher monitors regularly and provides feedback on learners’ understanding of content, keeps accurate records of grade/performance levels of learners, and communicates promptly and clearly to learners, parents, and superiors the learners’ progress.

Table 2.5 Plus Factor

Specific Objectives Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating
13. Performed various related works/activities that contribute to the teaching-learning process. 3.950 Very Satisfactory

The table above explains that the Plus Factor such as performing various related works/activities that contribute to the teaching-learning process. of respondents was Very Satisfactory as evidenced by the Weighted Mean of 3.950.

This indicates that the respondents frequently performed various related work/activities that contribute to the teaching learning process.

If a teacher is to do a good job, there is a need to keep abreast with the latest trends in his areas of specialty. To keep abreast of development in one’s area of concern, there are three things that may be done such as reading professional books and journals, attend professional or job-related conferences at least once or twice a year, and enroll in advance courses (Labadia, 2010).

Table 2.6 Summary of Rating

Key Result Areas Mean of Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating *Proportional Rating
1. Content Knowledge and Pedagogy 4.142 Very Satisfactory 0.932
2. Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners 4.280 Very Satisfactory 0.963
3. Curriculum and Planning 4.156 Very Satisfactory 0.935
4.Assessment and Reporting 4.613 Outstanding 1.038
5. Plus Factor 3.950 Very Satisfactory 0.395
Total Very Satisfactory 4.263

The Summary of Rating presents that the respondents performed Very Satisfactory in their functions as Teachers where they performed Excellent in Assessment with a Weighted Mean of 4.613 and 1.038 as Proportional Rating and least among the Very Satisfactory performances is the Plus Factor. These were proven by the rating of 4.263 and Proportional Ratings of 1.038 and 0.395 respectively.

Assessment is integral to teaching and learning activities in school and mediates the interaction between teachers and students in the classroom. Assessment has assisted teachers over the years to measure learners’ achievement through the internal administration of unannounced quizzes, periodic tests, and final examinations. Thus, assessments are usually viewed and taken as indicators of school achievement and success, more so than as tools to investigate the cause of success or failure during learning (Shepard, 2000).

3. Correlation Between Performance Rating and Profile of Kindergarten Teachers

Table 3.1 Pearson-R Correlation Between Performance Rating and Age of Teacher

Age of Teachers
Performance Rating Pearson Correlation -.097
P-Value .531
N 44

The table above presents that Performance Rating had negligible negative correlation with Age of Teachers as shown by the Correlation Coefficient of -0.097. Furthermore, there is no existing significant relationship between said variable as verified by the P-Value of 0.531. This means that Age of teachers has nothing to do with her performance rating or vice versa.

Table 3.2 Spearman’s Rho Correlation Between Performance Rating and Position of Teacher

Position of Teacher
Performance Rating Spearman’s Rho Correlation .117
P-Value .449
N 44

As presented above, Performance Rating had negligible correlation with Position of Teachers as demonstrated by the correlation coefficient of 0.117. This further explains the non-significant relationship between said variable as exhibited by the P-Value of 0.449. This indicates that Position of Teachers has no bearing with their Performance Rating and otherwise.

Table 3.3 Pearson- R Correlation Between Performance Rating and Number of Years in Teaching

Number of Years in Teaching
Performance Rating Pearson-R Correlation .295
P-Value .052
N 44

As exhibited above, Performance Rating had negligible negative correlation with Number of Years of Teaching as presented by the Correlation Coefficient of 0.295.

But there is no existing significant relationship between said variables as shown by the P-Value of 0.052. This implies that Length of Service has influenced on Performance Rating or the reverse. This was supported by the study ofKartini, Badariah, and Ahamad (2010) who found that teachers who had more years of teaching experience are more knowledgeable; Zafer and Aslihan (2012) said teachers with more years of teaching experience had different attitudes, good interactions, class control and in making decisions; more effective. (Onyekuru & Ibegbunam, 2013), states further that those teachers are more cautious in taking disciplinary decisions, higher self-efficacies and abilities to manage their students’ challenging behaviours and in control of their classes. In addition, (Aloka & Bojuwoye, 2013), posited that teachers are more effective in teaching and have classroom management skills (Fatma &Tugay, 2015) than teachers with less years of teaching experience.

Table 3.4 Spearman’s Rho Correlation Between Performance Rating and Highest Degree Earned

Highest Degree Earned
Performance Rating Spearman’s rho Correlation .156
P-Value .313
N 44

The table above presents that Performance Rating had negligible correlation with Highest Degree Earned shown by the Correlation Coefficient of .156. Moreover, there existed no significant relationship between said variables as exhibited by the P-Value of 0.313. This connotes that Highest Degree Earned has nothing to do with her performance rating or vice versa.

Table 3.5 Pearson- R Correlation Between Performance Rating and Number of Training Days Related to The Profession

Number of Training Days Related to the Profession
Performance Rating Pearson Correlation .126
P-Value .415
N 44

The table above shows that Performance Rating had a negligible correlation with the Number of Training Days Related to The Profession, as demonstrated by the Correlation Coefficient of -0.126. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between said variables, as demonstrated by the P-value of 0.415. This means that the number of Training Days Related to the Profession has nothing to do with her Performance Rating or vice versa.

CONCLUSION

The study provides a thorough understanding of kindergarten teachers’ profiles and performance and their correlation with various demographic and professional factors and performance ratings. The profile analysis indicates that a majority of kindergarten teachers are female, in their 30s, have a Bachelor’s degree, and possess 7-10 years of teaching experience. Most teachers hold the position of Teacher I and have limited professional training.

Moreover, the performance ratings across different areas were quite good, with exceptional performance observed in assessment and reporting. However, some areas required improvement, especially in the plus factor domain. The results indicate that while teachers are strong in content knowledge, pedagogy, learning environment, curriculum and planning, and assessment, there is still scope for enhancing their performance in other areas related to the teaching and learning process.

The correlation analysis revealed that only the teachers’ length of service showed a significant relationship with their performance, but there was no significant correlationbetween performance ratings and demographic/professional factors such as age, position, highest degree earned, and number of training days related to the profession. These findings suggest that factors such as age, position, and educational attainment do not significantly influence kindergarten teachers’ performance ratings. However, it is important to note that while these correlations were not statistically significant, they provide valuable insights into the nuanced relationship between teacher characteristics and performance ratings. Overall, these findings underscore the importance of continuous professional development and support for kindergarten teachers to optimize their performance and contribute to quality early childhood education.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from this study, the following recommendations are offered:

The Department of Education (DepEd) officials should conduct training and seminars that best suit the needs of the kindergarten teachers. Such pieces of training and seminars should be based on the weak points of the kindergarten teachers in the indicators found in the IPCRF result. Moreover, there should be ample scholarship opportunities for postgraduate studies where kindergarten teachers can support and encourage them to enroll for professional growth and development.

The School Heads must give technical assistance to the kindergarten teachers on the proper and effective waysto hit the KRAs (Key Result Areas) so that they can gain higher or outstanding ratings in all KRAs (Key Result Areas) in the IPCRF (Individual Performance and Review Form).

There should be an avenue for sharing of ideas, just like the conduct of LAC sessions and mentoring sessions where kindergarten teachers will be given equal opportunities to learn new things, develop their knowledge, showcase their hidden talents and skills, and most importantly, helping each other so that kindergarten teachers will gain more knowledge and clear understanding about the preparation of the KRAs (Key Result Areas) in the IPCRF and its implication to the learners.

Kindergarten teachers must be encouraged to develop different innovations that will be beneficial to all, targeting the different KRAs (Key Result Areas). Moreover, kindergarten teachers must work hard to implement the said innovation so that it will not only be beneficial to the kindergarten teachers who own it, but most importantly, to the learners who will make use of it.

Kindergarten teachers must be flexible enough to grab opportunities that will be handed to them and be involved in different activities, do the job diligently, honestly, and sincerely driven by the passion to teach and to touch lives, because doing so would not be difficult for them to be fruitful and successful in the field and it will be easier for them to achieve an outstanding rating in the IPCRF because documents that need to be attached there are already present and earned.

Future studies should focus on areas where improvement is needed, like improving the Plus Factor, and go deeper into comprehending the complex factors influencing kindergarten teachers’ performance. It may be insightful to look into the particular assessment components in which teachers succeed and figure out how to replicate this success in other important areas. Furthermore, examining the interactions among teacher attributes, professional development opportunities, and student outcomes may provide additional insight into how experience and training affect the efficacy of instruction. Through this kind of research, educators and policymakers can create focused interventions to support teacher development and improve the quality of education overall, as well as obtain a more thorough understanding of the dynamics within kindergarten classrooms.

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