Work-Related Stress and Teaching Performance of Public Elementary School Teachers of San Francisco Cluster IV

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Work-Related Stress and Teaching Performance of Public Elementary School Teachers of San Francisco Cluster IV

  • Ariel A. Gonzales
  • 43-94
  • May 28, 2024
  • Education

Work-Related Stress and Teaching Performance  of Public Elementary School Teachers of San Francisco Cluster IV

Ariel A. Gonzales

College Of Education, Caragastate University

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1105003

Received: 09 May 2024; Accepted: 17 May 2024; Published: 28 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers’ work-related stress and their teaching performance in Public Elementary Schools of San Francisco, Cluster IV in Agusan del Sur Division, Agusan del Sur, Caraga Region. The research used a researcher-made questionnaire to rate teachers’ work-related stress, including workload, assessments and evaluation, time management, classroom behavior, resources, the role of ambiguity, emotional demand, support, and work-life balance. Teachers’ teaching performance was assessed based on the rating of teachers in the Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF). The study employed a descriptive-correlation research design with 53 sampled participants. The study indicated that work-related stress among the teachers was rated as moderate and interpreted as extensive. In terms of teaching performance, 46% of the teacher participants had an outstanding rating, while 54% had a very satisfactory rating, with none rated as satisfactory or poor. The study also found a significant difference in work-related stress among teachers when grouped according to age, teaching experience, and grade level currently teaching. Additionally, the data revealed that the study found no significant impact of the stress caused by workloads on the quality of teaching. Despite the lack of a significant relationship, schools should manage workloads to support educators and maintain optimal teaching quality, fostering a healthier environment and better outcomes for all.

Keywords: elementary schools, teaching performance, teacher well-being, teacher workload, work-related stress

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Teaching is a process of inculcating ideas, skills, and desirable values to the learners. It is considered one of the most challenging fields of a profession that needs multi-tasking strategies to deal with difficulties successfully. It may include managing the learners with very unlike behaviors. This also entails utilizing multi-teaching strategies and various instructional devices since no learners are alike when it comes to learning concepts. Most importantly, it necessitates careful curriculum and lesson planning responsive to their learning needs and to the demands of the society where they live.

Additionally, Psychology Today (2019) stresses the psychological cost, which leads to signs of burnout such as fatigue and a reduction in productivity at work. These findings highlight the need for extensive support networks in educational environments to address job stress. Work-related stress among teachers can lead to increased absenteeism, decreased job satisfaction, and higher staff turnover, impacting school stability (Ortan et al., 2021)

Furthermore, as noted by Torpova et al. (2020), stress at work has a detrimental effect on the motivation and morale of both instructors and pupils as well as the school atmosphere. These results highlight how closely work-related stress and educational institution stability and efficacy are related. Workplace stress is associated with poorer instructional quality and less enthusiasm for teaching, both of which have an impact on students’ learning outcomes (Pascoe et al., 2020).

Academic progress of students can be impacted by teachers’ inability to maintain classroom discipline and cultivate a pleasant learning environment due to stress at work (Hsu & Goldsmith, 2021). These findings demonstrate the detrimental consequences that workplace stress has on both student performance and instructor effectiveness.

In 2017, a CNN PH study highlighted that 23% of Filipinos reported experiencing stress at work, citing management, deadlines, workload, and occasional conflicts with coworkers as the top causes (Ansis, 2017). This examines the prevalence of work-related stress among Filipino workers, shedding light on the challenges faced within the workplace environment. The study’s findings emphasize the need for a deeper understanding of the specific stressors impacting Filipino workers and the potential implications for their well-being and job performance.

Teacher stress, as defined by Kyriacou et al. (2019), encompasses adverse sentiments such as anger, pressure, and frustration arising from their work. Social support, personality, and self-efficacy can impact and reduce stress reactivity. Chronic work-related stress is linked to high turnover rates, absenteeism, and demotivation, affecting teaching effectiveness. Various factors including workload, pupils, system changes, coworkers, and personal issues contribute to this stress.

Teachers experience higher psychological stress and burnout levels compared to other occupations (Ouellette et al., 2018; Fathi et al., 2021). Job burnout not only impacts teachers’ teaching quality but also students’ academic achievement and social behavior, as well as teachers’ physical and mental health (Capone & Petrillo, 2018; Klusmann et al., 2016; Madigan & Kim, 2020). Exploring the generation mechanism and influencing factors of job burnout can improve teachers’ mental health and indirectly promote students’ well-being and academic progress. Stress is unavoidable and essential, but finding the right balance is crucial for it to foster and enhance performance, particularly among teachers who experience high levels of everyday stress (Ansley, Meyers, McPhee, & Varjas, 2018).

This research aims to understand and deal with the negative effects of work-related stress on teachers’ well-being and its impact on teachers’ performance. The high prevalence of work-related stress among teachers and the specific stressors they face require a thorough investigation to create effective support systems that can improve teacher performance and help students succeed academically. Based on the beliefs of the poor performance of public elementary school teachers of San Francisco Cluster IV is the main cause of students’ incapability in reading, writing, and arithmetic, this study focuses on the effort of investigating work-related stress of elementary school teachers of San Francisco Cluster IV, San Francisco Agusan del Sur

It is for this reason that the researcher is interested in determining whether the teachers’ work-related stress has associations with teacher’s teaching performance.

Theoretical Framework

This study is primarily anchored on Affective Events Theory (AET) by  Weiss and Copranzano (1996) as cited by Majid etal. (2022)which states that affective events, emotions, and mental states in the workplace cause psychological impact, thus affecting the performance of an individual.

AET is relevant to teachers’ work-related stress as it emphasizes the impact of emotional experiences on job performance and satisfaction. The workplace can be the focus of stress and mental health problems for teachers due to high emotional or cognitive demands, lack of opportunities, workload, or feeling undervalued. Teachers report elevated levels of stress and psychosomatic illnesses compared to other professions, and classroom disruptions are identified as the main stress factor. The class size, grade level taught, workload, poor student performance, and other work and school-related factors contribute to teachers’ stress.

 In addition, an individual may exhibit internal and external affective behaviors in his or her performance. The theory also proposes that an individual’s reactions to incidents happening at work directly influence job performance. If the work is stressful, the individual develops a negative attitude due to stressful events at work.  If this occurs consistently, it may result in the accumulation of perceived work-related stress over time and eventually yield poor performance standing.

Several work-related stress studies have demonstrated that high levels of psychological discomfort result in poor job performance in their particular organizations, supporting the notions underlying these theories Epel et al., (2018).   According to the hypothesis mentioned above, there is a substantial relationship between the dependent variable, results-based performance, and the independent variable, multi-grade teachers’ workload stress.

This research operationalizes that the higher the workload stress, the lower the results-based performance of teachers. The theoretical framework was developed in conjunction with the problems stated in the study that seek to answer the significant relationship between the workload stress of multi-grade teachers and their results-based performance. Anent to the influence of workload stress on teacher’s performance, Kaal (1998) as cited by Ogundipe and Ajayi (2014) found that most teachers described their jobs as very stressful.   This, in turn, reduces their effectiveness and efficiency by impairing concentration, causing sleeplessness, and increasing the risk of illness,  back problems, accidents,  and lots of time. In line with this, found that there is a significant relationship between the teacher’s level of stress and teaching performance (Khan, et al., 2012; Hanif, et al., 2011; Yusuf, et al., 2015).

The study draws on Affective Events Theory and related models to investigate the relationship between workload stress and performance among teachers, building on existing research that links teacher stress to reduced performance.

Conceptual Framework

This study central theme of the study is determining the work-related stress and teaching performance of San Francisco’s Cluster IV Public Elementary schools. It focuses on helping teachers understand the reasons behind the stress they experience at work and how it affects their classroom teaching ability.

 The conceptual framework of this study consists of nine independent variables (workload stress, assessment and evaluation stress, time management stress, classroom behavior stress, lack of resources stress, role ambiguity stress, emotional demands stress, lack of support stress, and work-life balance stress) which may influence or affect the dependent variable that is teachers’ teaching performance.

The study aims to explore how these various stressors impact teachers’ teaching performance. It is evident that the teaching profession involves numerous stressors, and understanding their effects on teaching performance is essential for developing effective interventions and support systems for teachers. The findings of this study provide ideas into the factors that influence teachers’ well-being and effectiveness in the classroom.

Based on the results of the study, a capability-building program or intervention is crafted to address the stress related to the teaching performance of the teachers.

Figure 1. The Schematic Diagram of the Study

Statement of the Problem

The general intent of this study is to determine the work-related stress and teaching performance of public elementary school teachers particularly in San Francisco, Cluster IV. Specifically, this research sought to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the profile of the participants in terms of
    • gender;
    • age;
    • teaching experience;
    • educational qualification; and
    • grade level currently teaching?
  2. What is the level of work-related stress of the participants in terms of
    • workload;
    • assessments and evaluation;
    • time management;
    • classroom behavior;
    • resources;
    • role of ambiguity;
    • emotional demand;
    • support; and
    • work-life balance?
  3. What is the level of teaching performance of the participants based on their IPCR?
  4. Is there a significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to profile?
  5. Is there a significant relationship between work-related stress and the teaching performance of the participants?
  6. Based on the data gathered, what intervention program may be proposed?

Objectives of the Study

There are six primary objectives of this study to wit:

  1. determine the profile of the participants according to their age, sex, subject taught, number of years in teaching, and their teaching position;
  2. establish the work-related stress of the participants in terms of workload stress, assessments and evaluation stress, time management stress, classroom stress, lack of resources stress, role ambiguity stress, emotional demand stress, lack of resources stress, and work-life balance stress;
  3. find out the teaching performance of the participants;
  4. establish the significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of the work-related stress when grouped according to profile;
  5. determine the significant relationship between the work-related stress and teaching performance of the participants; and
  6. design or propose an intervention program that would help to assist participants in managing and reducing work-related stress and enhancing their teaching effectiveness in a classroom setting.

Hypothesis of the Study

The following null hypotheses were tested at  0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to profile.

H02There is a significant relationship between work-related stress and the teaching performance of the participants.

Scope and Delimitation

The study involved 53 public elementary teachers that are two or more years in service of San Francisco, Cluster IV in Agusan del Sur Division, Agusan del Sur, Caraga Region. For the school year 2023-2024. The independent variables are the profile and the work-related stress of teachers while the dependent variables are the teachers’ teaching performance.

The profiles are limited to gender, age, teaching performance, educational qualification, and grade level currently teaching.   The teachers’ work-related stress is limited to workloads, assessments and evaluation, time management, classroom behavior, lack of resources, role ambiguity, emotional demand, lack of support and work balance. Teachers’ teaching performance will be obtained from their Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF) of the school year 2022-2023, which was the study’s dependent variable. The newly hired teachers were excluded from the study.

Significance of the Study

The study is envisioned to immensely contribute to existing knowledge in education, specifically in determining the stress factors that affect the teaching performance of public elementary school teachers. Particularly, this study would be beneficial to the following sectors of the community to wit.

Teachers. They would benefit from the study because they would be aware of the many types of workplace stress and how it impacts their teaching ability.

Students. They would be able to comprehend teachers better by understanding the pressures they are under.

Schools. This would make it easier to recognize the tension that the teachers felt, and the results of the study would motivate them to come up with more successful strategies for motivating teachers to enhance their teaching abilities.

School Administration. The school administration would also benefit from this research since it would allow them to put interventions and programs in place to address workplace stress and how it affects teachers’ ability to teach.

Future Researchers. To do research and studies that are linked to this study, they would use this as their guide. Additionally, they would use this as a guide and starting point for laying the groundwork and providing evidence for their research.

Definition of Terms

The following essential concepts were conceptually and/or operationally interpreted for clarity and a deeper comprehension of the study.

Assessments and Evaluation Stress.  This refers to the stress that some people experience when they undergo a mental health assessment to diagnose a mental illness.

Classroom Behavior Stress. This refers to teachers experiencing stress when they struggle to manage disruptive or challenging behaviors in their classrooms. Maintaining a conducive learning environment can be a demanding task.

Emotional demands stress.This is also known as emotional labor, in the context of teaching, refers to the stress and strain that educators experience due to the emotional aspects of their job.

Intervention Program. This describes a curriculum for interventions with a specific goal in mind. The goal of this is to develop programs and interventions based on the methods and difficulties faced by teachers.

Resources Stress.This refers to the stress and challenges that teachers experience when they do not have access to the necessary materials, tools, or support needed to effectively carry out their teaching responsibilities. This type of stress can have a significant impact on educators’ job satisfaction, teaching effectiveness, and overall well-being.

Support stress. Thisrefers to the stress and challenges that educators experience when they perceive a lack of support from various sources within their educational environment.

Proposed Intervention Program. This pertains to proposed intervention program for teachers aims to address specific stressors that educators may face in their professional roles and help improve their overall well-being, job satisfaction, and performance.

Role Ambiguity Stress. Thisrefers to the stress and anxiety that educators experience when they are uncertain or unclear about their roles, responsibilities, or expectations in their teaching positions.

Time Management Stress. This refers to the anxiety or pressure individuals experience when they struggle to effectively allocate and utilize their time to meet their responsibilities, goals, or obligations. It occurs when people perceive that they have too many tasks and insufficient time to complete them, leading to overwhelming frustration and stress.

Teaching Performance. This is referred to as a teacher’s performance in terms of their capacity to affect students’ learning.

Work-Life balance stress. This refers to the strain and challenges educators experience when they struggle to find a healthy equilibrium between their professional responsibilities (teaching and related tasks) and their personal lives (family, leisure, self-care, etc.).

Work-Related Stress. This refers to the possibility of experiencing job-related stress when individuals are exposed to pressures and demands at work that are incompatible with their abilities and experience and that test their ability for management.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter deals with the review of literature and studies which are all substantial to further comprehend and enrich the study.

Work-Related Stress of Public Elementary Teachers

Workplace stress varies depending on the profession. The profession of teaching is increasingly turning out to be quite stressful. Teaching is more difficult than ever these days because of the increased obligations and strict deadlines. Teachers are known to often experience work-related stress, and this fact has been the subject of substantial research for several years(Galias,2020).

The impact of work stress on teachers varies. Some are more resilient than others. This may be because they have different levels of support available to them. Let us face the truth; mental health education for new teachers in the service is not enough. Something has to be done to help all teachers deal with the symptoms of stress. Teachers need help to identify early signs of burnout and access to good skilled support, which can help them continue their work as teachers. Interactions in Teacher PH show that teachers of all ages are susceptible to stress with both young and old suffering work-related stress symptoms ( 2020).

A few numbers of the suicides of Teachers in the Philippines provide alarming results in the education sector in the Philippines (Business Mirror, 2018). Based on several media reports, the Department of Education is mourning over the death of a teacher and says that they will look into it and it is non-work related. The Department also clarifies that the workload should not be blamed for the teacher’s suicide because other factors may contribute (Mateo, 2018; Reyes, 2018). While The Teachers’ Dignity Coalition (TDC) met with DepEd officials to discuss concerns over the supposed workload, it cited that the heavy burden of paperwork is one of the reasons for the teacher who hanged herself in one case of teachers’ suicide in 2018. (Mateo, 2018).

In 2021, Steiner and Woo investigated the condition of teacher well-being in the US using data from the American Teacher Panel. The results showed that during the 2020–2021 school year, teachers faced a variety of work-related pressures, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the report, compared to one in six before the epidemic, nearly one in four teachers were thinking about quitting their employment by the end of the 2020–2021 school year. The study also showed that instructors who identified as Black or African American had a higher likelihood of thinking about quitting. This indicates that stress at work is a major danger to the availability of instructors, as many teachers are considering quitting because of the pressures they felt during the pandemic.

The study “Work-Related Stress and Performance Among Primary School Teachers” in the Boven Digoel district, Indonesia, focused on the relationship between work-related stress and job performance among primary school teachers. It highlighted the significant impact of stress on teachers’ performance and emphasized the need for interventions to mitigate work-related stress, ultimately contributing to the improvement of school effectiveness and the quality of education in the district (Asaloei et al, 2020).

Livio (2021)found out what the main factors were that contributed to the stress that elementary teachers were experiencing during the pandemic and what strategies they were using to deal with it. The research showed that, while trying to instruct kids amid the COVID-19 pandemic, educators faced several difficulties in the 2020–2021 school year. The study emphasized the importance of providing a platform for educators to voice their needs and concerns, as well as the significance of including teachers in decision-making processes to foster a sense of community and respect. Furthermore, the research indicated that educators were more likely than other workers to report a range of mental health ailments during the worst months of the pandemic, underscoring the substantial impact of the pandemic on teachers’ mental well-being.

The study by Elomaa et al. (2023) investigated the causes of work-related stress among elementary school principals in Finland and their coping strategies. The implications of the study offer insights into the unique stressors and coping methods of school principals, guiding the development of targeted support systems and interventions to alleviate work-related stress. Additionally, the findings have broader implications for educational leadership and policy-making, aiming to enhance the well-being of school principals and improve the overall effectiveness of educational institutions. The conclusion likely summarizes the key findings and emphasizes the significance of providing adequate support and resources to address these stressors, potentially leading to future research and interventions focused on promoting the well-being of elementary school principals and fostering positive work environments within educational leadership roles.

Sarabia and Collantes (2020) identified the predictors of teaching performance among the components of work-related stress for elementary and secondary public teachers in Angeles City. This implies that the relationship between work-related stress and teaching performance guides the development of targeted interventions and support systems to mitigate stress and enhance teaching effectiveness. Furthermore, the findings have broader implications for educational institutions and policy-making, aiming to improve the overall well-being of teachers and the quality of education. Findings related to the predictors of teaching performance in the face of work-related stress, emphasize the significance of addressing these stressors and potential avenues for future research or interventions aimed at promoting the well-being of teachers and optimizing teaching performance in the Philippines.

Kabito and Wami (2020) revealed a notable prevalence of perceived work-related stress, with 58.2% of the participants experiencing this stress in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. The specific factors contributing to this stress among teachers were likely multifaceted, potentially encompassing workload, student behavior, administrative pressure, and limited resources. These findings suggest the demanding nature of the teaching profession in the region and the potential impact on the overall well-being and teaching effectiveness of educators. It was concluded that there should be an urgent need to address work-related stress among public secondary school teachers in Gondar City.

O’Bryan (2019) examined the particular stressors that instructors of students in kindergarten through fifth-grade face, illuminating possible causes such as workload, student conduct, administrative requirements, and interpersonal difficulties. Additionally, it is possible that the study looked at the behavioral and emotional signs of stress to provide light on how it affects teachers’ performance as professionals and well-being. The identification of coping methods also provides elementary teachers with useful strategies to manage and lessen the consequences of work-related.

da Silva Cruz et al. (2019) examined the stress at work that instructors and administrators in West Bengal’s privately-run business schools faced. The results have shed light on the particular stressors such as workload, administrative demands, interpersonal difficulties, and other elements that raise stress levels at work. The study’s emphasis on stress at work is consistent with the general understanding that stress is a major problem in contemporary society that impacts many facets of human existence. Major work-related stressors have been highlighted in prior studies, including job pressures, lack of support, poor relationships with coworkers, and job change. Work-related stress has been connected to national and international economic trends, job instability, work intensity, and physical and psychological distress as well as mental illness. Furthermore, the fact that there is little research on teachers.

Restrepo and Lemos(2021) found that there is a broad portfolio of successful interventions regarding work-related stress. The results suggest that most of the successful interventions were based on mindfulness, although aerobic exercise and bibliotherapy may also be successful. The structure and level of evidence for these interventions appear to be significant. Additionally, the study points to the potential of preventing stress-related disorders by improving the psychosocial work environment. However, it also highlights the need for more prospective studies on exposure assessment and the relative contributions of single factors to enable consistent assessment. Overall, the findings suggest that successful interventions for work-related stress encompass a variety of approaches, with mindfulness, aerobic exercise, and bibliotherapy showing promise as effective strategies.

Stanzione et al. (2023) contributed to the research on the well-being of teachers within the school environment, particularly focusing on primary schools in Italy. The study recognizes that teachers are constantly exposed to numerous stressors at work, requiring greater emotional and organizational skills to navigate the increasingly urgent and complex demands of various stakeholders within the school system. The research seeks to explore the theme of the well-being of teachers in the school setting, shedding light on the working conditions and stress load to which teachers are subjected, which is a field that is still relatively unexplored.

Solomon and Parris (2018) emphasize the critical importance of teacher well-being within the school environment. The preliminary findings from Child Trends research indicate that unmet student needs may be a potentially critical source of teacher stress. When a student experiences trauma at home or lacks sufficient resources to thrive in the classroom, the teacher is often the first to notice and respond. In the absence of sufficient student support services at the school, or systems that link students with needed services in the community, the teacher feel helpless to meet the needs of that student, leading to emotional taxation for the teacher.

Lensen et al. (2021) explained that teacher stress is a significant concern, impacting individual well-being and potentially affecting student learning. This study, if it shows positive results, can contribute to evidence-based interventions for promoting teacher well-being and building a more resilient and effective educational environment. This could encompass various aspects like improved emotional regulation, increased self-compassion, better sleep quality, and potentially even greater job satisfaction and effectiveness in the classroom.

Andrisano et al. (2020) sought to explore potential personality trait variance among teachers exposed to psychosocial risk circumstances. The (BFQ) was used in the study to assess personality traits in a sample of 301 instructors. The results provide light on the impact of work-related pressures on teachers’ psychological well-being and features, as well as the possibility of personality trait instability among teachers in risky settings. This study adds to our knowledge of how teachers’ personality traits are affected by work-related stress, emphasizing the significance of addressing psychosocial risk factors in educational environments.

Seibt and Kreuzfeld (2021) examined the risk of burnout in full- and part-time secondary school teachers. The cross-sectional study sought to determine the impact of assumed work-related and personal variables on burnout risk. It included a sizable sample size, comprising 6109 full-time and 5905 part-time teachers. The results most likely shed light on the particular elements—both personal and professional—that raise the risk of burnout for teachers in various job configurations. By highlighting the significance of addressing these aspects to reduce burnout risk and promote well-being, this research advances our understanding of teacher burnout and the potential impact of diverse traits on their well-being.

Fathi et al. (2021) examined how Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors’ self-efficacy, introspection, emotion control, and burnout interact. The purpose of the study is to look into how emotion regulation mediates the relationship between burnout, reflection, and self-efficacy.  The results show that among Iranian EFL teachers, self-efficacy, introspection, emotion management, and burnout are significantly correlated. It highlights the complex interactions between these components in impacting teacher well-being and underlines the mediating function of emotion regulation in the relationship between self-efficacy, reflection, and burnout.

Ouellette et al (2018) focused on the elements that affect teachers’ job satisfaction and stress in urban schools, highlighting the critical roles that organizational health and teacher connections play in influencing teachers’ well-being. Targeting organizational factors, like the school’s climate and teacher connectedness, as potential levers for change to mitigate teacher stress and enhance satisfaction is important, as the results show that organizational health was the strongest predictor of teacher job stress and satisfaction. The study also highlights the minimal effect of evidence-based classroom interventions and training on teachers’ work-related stress or satisfaction, stressing the significance of addressing broader organizational effects.

Petrilloand Capone(2020) presented a thorough evaluation of teachers’ well-being that addresses both emotional and self-evident facets of mental health in teaching. The results discussed the intricate interactions among mental health, job satisfaction, efficacy beliefs, burnout, and depression, stressing the diverse aspects of well-being and its connections with elements related to the workplace. Offering important insights into the complex dynamics of mental health among teachers, the research clarifies how work status and mental well-being are related. It also suggests how these factors may affect teachers’ job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and efficacy views.

Alson(2019) assessed the many pressures and coping strategies that teachers at a public national high school faced. The study sought to shed light on the unique pressures faced by public school teachers and their coping mechanisms. It was based on the Person-Environment Fit or Mis-fit Model (PEFM) and the Conceptualization of Emotions in Coping with Stress. The research likely helped to understand the stressors faced by public school teachers and the coping mechanisms they use to manage and cope with these stressors, casting light on the difficulties teachers face in the classroom and the coping mechanisms they employ to overcome these difficulties,

Madigan and Kim (2021) provided a thorough knowledge of the complex processes driving teacher retention and attrition by examining the relationship between attrition and variables like burnout, work satisfaction, and intentions to resign. A considerable amount of the variance in teachers’ intentions to quit can be explained by the combined effects of burnout and work satisfaction, according to the findings, which show a significant positive association between burnout characteristics and teachers’ intentions to quit. Furthermore, the research highlights the possible negative effects of teacher burnout on student performance, highlighting the relationship between teachers’ well-being and students’ results.

Ansley et al. (2018) illustrated the high frequency of high levels of stress that teachers experience daily, with nearly half of them experiencing considerable levels of stress. The essay highlights the negative effects of this stress on children and schools, as it can result in lower teacher well-being and lower educational quality. The essay also highlights how urgent it is to address this problem, acknowledging the possible harm that teacher stress may do to their general well-being and productivity as well as the wider ramifications for the learning environment. Teachers and students can benefit from a more supportive and healthier educational environment if the hidden threat of teacher stress is recognized and addressed.

Cepeda-Carrión et al. (2020) evaluated how job performance influences the connections between academics’ positive and negative emotional states and job satisfaction in Malaysian universities and colleges. To address organizational diversity, a gender comparison study is also included in the research. The results imply that, especially in an academic setting, job performance mediates the association between affective states and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study sheds light on how gender influences the relationships between academics’ affective states, work satisfaction, and performance, and how organizational diversity affects these relationships in Malaysia.

Temam etal. (2019)analyzed the relationship between teachers’ overall and work-related well-being in socially disadvantaged schools and the socioeconomic level of their schools. The study did not find any appreciable variations in the work-related well-being of teachers in socially disadvantaged schools compared to those in non-disadvantaged schools using a representative sample of French instructors. This study adds to our knowledge of the well-being of educators in underprivileged schools by shedding light on the possible effects of the socioeconomic position of the school on teachers’ general and professional well-being.

Kiyani (2023) sheds light on the significant correlation between workplace stress and performance behavior among private-sector school teachers. The findings discussed the potential impact of stress on the professional performance of teachers within the private sector school environment, emphasizing the need for strategies to address and mitigate workplace stress to enhance overall performance and well-being.

Smith (2020) investigated the connection between teacher satisfaction and school testing culture. The results imply that teacher happiness suffers as a result of the pervasive testing culture in schools, which frequently defines teacher competency in a performative sense and holds instructors responsible for student performance metrics. This emphasizes the need for a thorough knowledge of the influence of testing culture on teachers’ well-being and job satisfaction and the possible detrimental effects of accountability reforms that center on test scores and performance indicators.

The study conducted by Çobanoglu et al. (2023) titled “The Mediating Effect of Work-Life Balance in the Relationship between Job Stress and Career Satisfaction” explored the complex relationships between work-life balance, career satisfaction, and job stress. The study’s conclusions highlight the mediating role of work-life balance in this relationship, highlighting the substantial influence of striking a balance between one’s personal and professional life on one’s overall career contentment. These findings highlight the significance of addressing job stress and promoting work-life balance as essential components in fostering positive career satisfaction among those employed in educational management roles.

Marais-Opperman (2020) examined teachers’ general well-being, coping mechanisms, stress levels, and sense of personal control over their jobs. The study examined teachers’ coping mechanisms and psychological health in light of their critical role in the creation of human capital. The study revealed that teachers most frequently employ preparation, active coping, and positive reframing as coping methods. This highlights the need for specialized intervention programs to improve teachers’ psychological well-being and increase their efficiency in the classroom.

Carlotto and Câmara (2019)evaluated the incidence of burnout syndrome and its predictive factors among public elementary school teachers. The study most likely looked into the psychological issue of burnout and how common it is in the teaching profession, with an emphasis on primary schools. The study probably gave important insights on the incidence of burnout syndrome among public elementary school teachers and the possible variables contributing to this phenomenon, even though the exact study findings were not visible in the search results. By illuminating the precise variables that may affect the frequency of burnout syndrome in the setting of public elementary school education, this study advances our knowledge of teacher burnout.sought to evaluate the incidence of burnout syndrome and its predictive factors among public elementary school teachers.

The study most likely looked into the psychological issue of burnout and how common it is in the teaching profession, with an emphasis on primary schools. The study probably gave important insights on the incidence of burnout syndrome among public elementary school teachers and the possible variables contributing to this phenomenon, even though the exact study findings were not visible in the search results. By illuminating the precise variables that may affect the frequency of burnout syndrome in the setting of public elementary school education, this study advances our knowledge of teacher burnout (Carlotto and Câmara (2019).

In 2021, Mwakasangula and Mwita conducted a study on the correlation between job satisfaction and occupational stress among primary school teachers in Tanzania. The research likely attempted to provide insights into the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction within the context of Tanzanian public primary school teachers, even if particular study findings were not available in the search results. This study sheds insight on the possible effects of occupational stress on teachers’ overall job satisfaction and advances our understanding of the factors influencing teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzanian public primary schools.

NHS (2021) asserted that stress is a state of mental or physical strain that can be brought on by a variety of situations or ideas and result in negative emotions like annoyance, rage, or anxiety. It offers a variety of tools and assistance to those dealing with stress, anxiety, and other mental health problems. Free talking therapies, self-help cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods, and individualized guidance and ideas for mental health are all included in this. Stress can cause a variety of physiological and behavioral problems, including disturbed sleep, trouble focusing, and altered behavior like biting one’s nails or grinding one’s teeth.

According to Pontsa et al. (2019), educators are put in an unjust and untenable position because of the substantial financial obligations they bear as a result of resource constraints. This gives rise to disparities in the educational system in addition to financial worries. The differences in educational possibilities may be exacerbated by the fact that teachers at schools with more resources may be able to create a more stimulating learning environment than those in schools with less funding. The results emphasize how important it is to address the shortage of resources in education and give teachers the support they need. It highlights how crucial it is to make systemic adjustments in order to guarantee that all teachers have access to the tools they need, fostering an environment that is fairer and encouraging for both teachers and students.

Cleveland Clinic (2021) illustrated how long-term stress can lead to medical symptoms, mental problems, and bad habits. It offers methods for reducing and controlling stress while emphasizing the need to visit a doctor if you’re feeling overburdened or turning to harmful coping techniques. The article also covers the causes of stress in women, how stress affects women’s health, and effective stress-reduction techniques. Additionally, it discusses post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the significance of receiving therapy from a professional. The article discusses the goal, process, and dangers of a stress test to assess blood flow and heart health. It also stresses the importance of stress management techniques and discusses the possible consequences of long-term anxiety and emotional eating.

Putus et al. (2021) investigated the relationship between these parameters and work-related stress, voice issues, and indoor air quality in teachers to spot any patterns. The study likely explores how common voice issues, such as hoarseness, are among educators who talk, sing, or yell a lot at work. Although the search results did not yield particular study findings, the investigation probably sheds light on the possible relationship between instructors’ voice issues, indoor air quality, and stress at work. This study adds to our knowledge of the occupational variables that can affect teachers’ vocal health by illuminating possible patterns and correlations between stress at work, indoor air quality, and voice issues in the teaching field.

Ed Trust and MDRC (2021) stated that teachers find it difficult to satisfy the varied needs of their students in the absence of sufficient resources and support, which exacerbates success discrepancies and lowers student engagement. Students with mental and behavioral issues, as well as impairments, find this particularly difficult. Creating a welcoming and inclusive learning environment, placing a high value on the connections between teachers and students, providing emotional support, and developing the social and emotional competency of educators are some strategies. To address enduring gaps, comprehensive support and resources for educators and students are still essential, even in the face of initiatives to promote equity.

Agyapong et al. (2022) discussed teachers’ well-being can be severely impacted by the ongoing battle to regulate behavior, fill resource gaps, and attend to mental health requirements while balancing administrative tasks. Over time, this can result in increasing stress, burnout, and a decline in teaching quality. Persistent stress in educators can hinder daily functioning and emotional equilibrium, as well as lower job satisfaction and subpar performance. Moreover, it poses a risk of acquiring mental health conditions such as sadness and anxiety. Therefore, maintaining a pleasant learning environment and advancing the mental health of educators depends on placing a high priority on teacher well-being through appropriate support, resources, and stress-reduction techniques.

It can be overwhelming for teachers to feel unsupported, undertrained, and under-resourced when it comes to meeting students’ social-emotional needs and incomplete learning. This can negatively affect teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. This may weaken their feeling of dedication to the job and professionalism, which could raise skepticism, reduce teamwork, and lower morale among educators as a whole (Garcia & Weiss, 2019). In order to maintain teachers’ well-being and professional fulfillment and to provide a friendly and encouraging learning environment, it is imperative that these problems be addressed by offering all-encompassing assistance, focused training, and sufficient resources.

Younger teachers, juggling new responsibilities, lesson planning, and adapting to their roles, might face heightened workloads and anxieties compared to their more seasoned colleagues. Mid-career individuals often grapple with balancing leadership roles, family demands, and career progression, while senior teachers encounter distinct stressors like curriculum shifts, retirement worries, or limited career advancements. Additionally, generational differences in work expectations and life-stage challenges further contribute to this complex interplay. (Van der Heijden et al., 2018).

Additionally, generational differences in work expectations and life stage challenges further contribute to this complex interplay. Younger generations, valuing flexibility and work-life balance, might perceive traditional work environments as particularly stressful, while older generations, accustomed to different workplace norms, might respond differently to contemporary stressors. Exploring these nuanced factors through qualitative research or targeted surveys can provide deeper insights into individual experiences and pave the way for developing interventions and support systems tailored to the specific needs of teachers at different stages of their careers (Wang & Zhu, 2019).

Martinek (2019) explores how job-related pressure affects self-determined teaching and, most likely, how it affects instructors’ capacity to support self-determined learning settings. Although the search results did not include particular study findings, the research is probably consistent with the tradition of Self-determination Theory, highlighting the importance of instructors’ psychological needs in inspiring their students. By shedding light on the possible consequences of pressure from their jobs on teachers’ capacity to support self-determined teaching practices, the study may further knowledge of the psychological dynamics that exist in educational contexts and how they affect teaching and learning.

Dominado and Valdez (2021) focused on the connection between public school teachers’ academic burdens, depression, and job stress. The research undoubtedly intends to evaluate the impact of demographic characteristics, stress, and depression in the workplace, particularly public-school teachers’ academic demands, even if specific study findings were not available in the search results. This study adds to our knowledge of the possible relationships between public school teachers’ academic duties, job stress, and depression. It also illuminates some of the variables that may affect their mental health and productivity.

Baker (2022) investigates the connection between teacher stress and classroom management profiles. While the search results did not include particular study findings, the research likely intends to uncover different profiles of classroom management tactics and how they relate to teacher stress levels. The importance of comprehending the interaction between classroom management strategies and teacher well-being is emphasized by recent studies on teacher stress and its effects on student conduct and discipline difficulties. Furthermore, a study on the relationship between teacher burnout and job satisfaction emphasizes the importance of stress-coping strategies on teachers’ job happiness and the necessity of stress management.

Teaching Performance of the Teachers

Recent international assessments, provide strong evidence on the persistence of a learning crisis in the country. These include the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2018, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2019, and the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics (SEAPLM). This is similar to in 2019, wherein students’ performance ranked at the bottom in each learning area was assessed (Paris 2019; Bernardo, 2020; Balinbin, 2020; de Vera, 2021).

These alarming findings bolster the call for a stronger emphasis on improving the country’s basic education quality. A review of literature suggests that poor learner outcomes are attributed to a combination of several factors, including hunger and poverty, unfavorable learning environments, and insufficient number of classrooms and teachers, as well as the deteriorating quality of instruction.

Hence, in the Philippines, the full implementation of the government’s Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, or Republic Act 10533, entitled to the 12 Years of Basic Education in the Philippines, caused a major change to the work description of teachers (Romero & Bantigue, 2016). With the changes that initiate the improvement of the educational system, it is observed that teachers are expected to perform well by simultaneously doing the trend of heavy paper, behavior management of the evolving population of students, attending numerous seminars, reporting, and training which eventually caused psychological issues such as stress,  work dissatisfaction,  disengagement and worst-case scenarios of suicide, depression, and anxiety.

In the Division of Cavite Province, Philippines, Ereje and Ambag (2020) examined the relationship between instructors’ effectiveness and students’ learning outcomes, with a special focus on the first periodic test taken by grade 10 pupils. The purpose of the study is to evaluate instructors’ performance according to headteachers’ and students’ assessments, considering their pedagogical approaches and subject-matter expertise. The research sheds light on the factors that may influence academic achievement in the Division of Cavite Province, Philippines, and offers insights into the potential relationship between teachers’ performance and students’ learning outcomes.

In their investigation into the situation of teacher education in the Philippines, Generalo et al. (2022) explicitly look at whether the existing system satisfies the demand for quality. The study intends to evaluate the standard of teacher education in the Philippines and most likely analyzes how the Philippines performed in previous international examinations. Although the search results did not yield specific study findings, the research likely adds to the ongoing discussion on improving the quality of education and teacher training in the Philippines by shedding light.

Teachers are essential in enhancing the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. Raising student achievement requires having effective teachers. Thus, among the various educational reform initiatives to ensure high-quality education, improving teacher quality comes firstGeneralo et al (2022).

The Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST) was created and nationally verified to support reform activities on teacher quality. Department of Education (DepEd) Secretary Maria Leonor Briones signed this into policy through DepEd Order No. 42 s. 2017.

Through clearly defined domains, strands, and indicators that offer measurements of professional learning, competent practice, and successful involvement across teachers’ career phases, the PPST defines what comprises teacher quality. To support teachers as they strive for personal development and professional advancement, this document serves as a public declaration of professional accountability.

UNESCO emphasizes the critical role that teachers play in ensuring educational quality and promoting positive learning outcomes. The report notes that improving teacher motivation and incentives is crucial for improving the overall quality of the educational system. It argues that improving the motivation and status of teachers is a key factor in improving the quality of teaching. This can be achieved through various measures, including better working conditions, increased professional development opportunities, and higher salaries and benefits.

The literature and studies cited by the researcher have a bearing on the present study. Since it gives the researcher an insight in the making of the conceptual framework.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter includes the research design used in the conduct of this study, the research locale, the study’s participants, the research instrument, the data gathering procedure, the scoring and quantification of data, and statistical treatment applied in the analysis of the data gathered.

Research Design

The study used the descriptive-correlational method design. It is descriptive because it illustrates the teachers’ work-related stress and their teaching performance, respectively, and correlational since it involves testing whether there is a significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of the work-related stress when group according to profile and relationship between the work-related stress and teaching performance of the participants.

Research Locale

The study was conducted in the Public Elementary Schools of San Francisco, Cluster IV in Agusan del Sur Division, Agusan del Sur, Caraga Region.

San Francisco, Cluster IV located in San Francisco, Agusan del Sur. It is 1.35 kilometers away from the municipality of San Francisco and 2.7 kilometers from the Division of Agusan del Sur.

Figure 2 shows the research locale of the study.

Figure 2. Research Locale

Participants of the Study

This study involved 53 participants from the public elementary schools of San Francisco Cluster IV in Agusan del Sur Division. The Cochran formula was used to determine the number of participants in the study, which included Borbon Elementary School, Tagapua Elementary School, MJ Labindao Elementary School, and Pisaan Elementary School.

The number of participants is shown in the table below.

Table 1. Participants of the Study

Participants Population Number of Participants
School A 21 19
School B 15 13
School C 10 7
School D 15 14
Total 61 53

Sampling Design

The study used a probability sampling design, specifically simple random sampling. In the selection of the participants, this study used the fish-bowl technique.  The names of the teachers were listed by the researcher and a corresponding number will be assigned in every name.  Fifty-three (53) numbers that correspond to the teachers’ names, respectively, were drawn and they were considered as the participants of the study.

Research Instrument

A questionnaire created by the researcher was used in this investigation. The research tool is divided into two (2) parts.  The survey’s first section includes questions about the teachers’ gender, age, number of years of teaching experience, educational qualifications, and grade level currently teaching. The questions in the second section focus on the teachers’ work-related stress factors.

The researcher utilized a survey questionnaire as the primary data-gathering instrument.  Researcher-made questionnaires were used to suit the objectives of the researcher in conducting the research.  The instrument was piloted among fifty-three (53) public elementary school teachers  in Agusan del Sur Division.  The responses of the participants gathered in the pilot testing were statistically treated to find out whether the items in the questionnaire were reliable. The results of the reliability test of the survey tool used revealed strong internal consistency as shown in the Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.0967. In other words, all questions were retained as they are in the tool. The questionnaire was submitted for content validation. It was validated by three experts.

Data Gathering Procedure

The data gathering primarily utilizes the researcher-made survey questionnaire described in the preceding section.  This study employs the following strategies. A letter of permission was secured to conduct the study.  The said letter was signed and granted by the Public Schools District Supervisor and Cluster Head of San Francisco Cluster IV.

With proper caution for safety, the researcher administered in person the survey questionnaire to the participants.  A brief orientation on the nature of the study was done with the teachers.  After filling it out, instruments were retrieved and checked for possible missing information. Validation of the Gathered Information After the initial analysis of the data gathered, the researcher made some validation on items that generated ambiguous and/or interesting results. The responses will be checked and monitored to ensure the correctness of the data. The data were tallied, tabulated, processed, and submitted to the statistician for analysis and interpretation.

The answers of the participants on the work-related stress and teaching performance of public elementary school teachers were classified respectively with the use of the following scale of statistical mean, range, value, and its descriptive equivalent.

The responses, scale, range, and interpretation assigned for each item on the level of work-related stress are shown below:

Responses Scale Range Interpretation

 

Very High 5 4.50-5.00 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is very extensive
High 4 3.50-4.49 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is moderately extensive
Moderate 3 2.50-3.49 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Low 2 1.50-2.49 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is slightly extensive
Very low 1 1.00-1.49 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is not extensive

The scale, range, and interpretation assigned for each item on the Individual Performance Review Commitment Form are shown below:

Scale Range Interpretation
5 4.50-5.00 Outstanding
4 3.50-4.49 Very Satisfactory
3 2.50-3.49 Satisfactory
2 1.50-2.49 Fair
1 1.00-1.49 Poor

Statistical Treatment

The following statistical treatment was used to analyze the data gathered from the participants.

Frequency Counts and Percentages. This was used to determine the profile of the participants.

Weighted Mean. This wasutilized to get the level of work-related stress of the teachers.

ANOVA. This was used to utilized in analyzing the significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to profile.

T-Test.This was used in analyzing the significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to gender.

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation. This was used to determine the significant relationship between work-related stress and the teaching performance of the participants.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings and results of the study. Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using appropriate statistical tools. Findings are shown and narrative presentations are sequentially discussed based on the statement of the problem.

Problem 1. Profile of the participants in terms of Gender, Age, Teaching experience, Educational qualifications, and Grade level currently teaching

Table 2 shows the profile of the participants.A notable gender disparity, with most participants being female. The study indicated that 80% of the participants were female, while only 20% were male. The data aligns with the broader societal perception that certain professions, including teaching, clerical work, childcare, and nursing, are traditionally associated with women. This perception is further supported by an article by Esplanada of the Philippine Daily Inquirer in 2009, where Education Secretary Jesli A. Lapus noted that male teachers constituted a tiny portion of the overall teacher population in the country.

The data revealed that the elementary teacher participants spanned an age range of 31 to 40, comprising 36% of the participants. It indicates that most respondents were in the middle adult stage of life. Specifically, the data showed that the most significant proportion (36%) of the respondents were in the 31 to 40 age bracket, followed by (26%) in the 41 to 50 age bracket. It was followed by 20-

30 years old, consisting of (22%). A smaller percentage, approximately 16% of the respondents, belonged to the 51-year-old and above age bracket. These findings indicate that most respondents were in their early 30s, with less than half falling into the late 40s category. This suggests that the participants were predominantly in the middle adulthood stage, a period associated with peak productivity in the workplace.

Table 2. Demographic profile of the participants according to school

Variable Category Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 10 20
Female 43 80
Age 20-30 11 22
31-40 18 36
41-50 13 26
51 and above 8 16
Teaching Experience Less than 5 years 8 16
5-10 years 27 54
11-15 years 7 14
16 years and above 8 16
Educational Qualification Bachelor’s Degree 27 54
Master’s Degree 23 46
Doctorate 0 0
Grade Level Currently Teaching Kindergarten 3 6
Grade I 9 18
Grade II 7 14
Grade III 9 18
Grade IV 10 20
Grade V 5 10
Grade VI 7 14

The elementary teacher participants exhibited a range of teaching experience from less than 5 to 16 years and above. The data revealed that a significant portion, approximately 54% of the teacher participants, had accumulated up to 5 to 10 years in service. Additionally, 16% had reached less than five years of service and 16 years and above. Furthermore, 14% fell within the 11 to 15 years of service category.

The findings regarding the highest educational attainment of the elementary teacher respondents indicate a notable emphasis on advanced education. Specifically, the data revealed that 54% of the participants had obtained a Bachelor’s Degree, while the other half (46%) had completed a master’s degree. None of the respondents have a Doctorate Degree. This distribution signifies the commitment of the participants to pursue graduate degrees to enhance their skills and credentials. It also aligns with the broader trend of increasing educational attainment among professionals, reflecting a dedication to continuous learning and professional development.

The participants chosen for the study came from elementary teachers handling various levels. The majority of the teachers were Grade IV teachers consisting of (20%) of the total population; both Grade I and Grade III consist (18%), while both Grade II and Grade VI consist (14%). Furthermore, Grade V consists of only (10%) and Kindergarten (6%)

Problem 2. Work-related stress of the participants in terms of Workloads, Assessments and Evaluation, Classroom Behavior, Resources, the Role of Ambiguity, Emotional Demand, Support and Work-life Balance

Table 3 shows the level of work-related stress of the participants in terms of workloads

Table 3. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of workload

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. I usually feel stressed at work 2.94 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. I feel physically exhausted at the end of every workday. 3.08 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. I usually feel tense with the number of duties I’m required to do daily. 2.98 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I feel stressed about combining teaching duties with non-teaching duties. 3.34 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. I feel a lot of pressure from my workload. 2.8 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 3.03 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

As noticed, indicator four (4) in which I feel stressed about combining teaching duties with non-teaching duties got the highest mean of 3.34, verbally described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. Meanwhile, indicator number five (5) which states that I feel a lot of pressure from my workload gained the lowest mean of 2.8, with an equivalent verbal description of moderate and the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

The overall weighted mean on the level of work-related stress of the participants in terms of workloads is 3.03 verbally described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

The study conducted by Kiyani et al. (2022) entitled “Workplace Stress and Performance Behavior among Private Sector Teachers” highlights the understanding that stress, when prolonged or excessive, can have detrimental effects on both physical and mental well-being, the moderate levels of stress and tension associated with the number of daily duties may impact the overall job satisfaction and motivation of the teachers, potentially influencing their effectiveness in the classroom and their ability to engage in professional development activities.

Table 4 entails the level of work-related stress of teachers in terms of assessment and evaluation. As observed, indicator number three (3) which states that I worry about the weight that grades carry in determining a student’s success, both in my class and in their future endeavors garnered the highest mean of 2.6, which has an equivalent verbal description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is extensive. On the other hand, indicator number one (1) in which I am unable to keep up with correcting papers and other schoolwork earned the lowest mean of 2.46 described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is extensive.

Table 4. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of assessments and evaluation

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. I am unable to keep up with correcting papers and other schoolwork. 2.46 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is slightly extensive
2.  I often find myself questioning if I’m accurately assessing students’ true understanding of the material or if I’m just assessing their test-taking skills 2.58 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. I worry about the weight that grades carry in determining a student’s success, both in my class and in their future endeavors 2.6 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I worry about how standardized testing impacts my students’ learning experience and the pressure it puts on them 2.64 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. I worry about the potential for cheating or academic dishonesty during assessments, and it’s a constant battle to prevent it.” 2.54 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.56 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

Entirely, the table got an average weighted mean of 2.56 which signifies that the stress of the participant is moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. This specifies a moderate level of stress. The weight that grades carry in determining a student’s success and the inability to keep up with correcting papers and other schoolwork are the main sources of stress. This level of stress is considered extensive and may have implications for the teacher’s well-being and effectiveness in the classroom. It is important to address these stressors and provide support to help manage the workload and maintain a healthy work-life balance for the teacher.

The study of Salazar (2023) emphasized that concerns about the weight of grades, standardized testing impact, and the potential for cheating during assessments can add to the high-pressure environment experienced by both teachers and students. These concerns not only affect the teachers’ workload and stress levels but also influence the overall learning environment for students. The pressure to ensure fair and accurate assessments, coupled with the weight placed on testing outcomes, can create a tense atmosphere that may impact the well-being and motivation of both educators and learners.

This level of work-related stress in assessment and evaluation may also lead to burnout and decreased morale among teachers, ultimately affecting the quality of education and the overall learning environment in schools (Wangdi, 2021).

Table 5 shows the participants’ work-related stress regarding time management.The result reveals the level of work-related stress of teachers in terms of time management. As seen, indicator number three (3) which says that I often sacrifice personal time and hobbies to keep up with the demands of teaching, which can lead to burnout obtained the highest mean of 3.12, which has an equivalent verbal description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Table 5. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of time management stress

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
 1. Balancing lesson planning, grading, meetings, and administrative tasks can be overwhelming. 2.54 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. The demands of paperwork and documentation take up a significant portion of my time, leaving less for teaching and interacting with students. 2.98 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. I often sacrifice personal time and hobbies to keep up with the demands of teaching, which can lead to burnout. 3.12 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I often find myself working late into the evenings or spending weekends catching up on tasks. 2.98 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
  5.    Meeting deadlines for report cards, progress reports, and other administrative tasks can be extremely stressful, especially when they all pile up at once. 2.82 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.56 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

Concurrently, indicator number one (1) which is balancing lesson planning, grading, meetings, and administrative tasks can be overwhelming had the lowest mean of 2.95, with an equivalent verbal description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. Meanwhile, the overall mean is 2.56 described as moderate, and the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

This indicates that the level of stress experienced by teachers can have negative consequences, such as increased risk of burnout, decreased job satisfaction, and potential impacts on mental health. It is crucial to address these stressors and provide support to teachers in managing their workload and maintaining a healthy work-life balance.

Furthermore, the sacrifices of personal time and hobbies to meet teaching demands can lead to increased stress and reduced resilience (Çobanoglu et al, 2023). The additional burden of working late into the evenings, spending weekends catching up on tasks, and managing stressful administrative deadlines can further compound the stress experienced by educators (Marais-Opperman, 2020).

Implementing strategies to support educators in managing their time effectively, streamlining administrative processes, and providing resources for work-life balance can help mitigate these challenges and contribute to a more positive and sustainable work environment for educators.

Table 6 shows the work-related stress of the participant in terms of classroom behavior.Indicator five (5) states that it is hard to remain patient and calm when faced with persistent behavioral issues, especially when it disrupts the learning process acquired the highest mean of 2.78 described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Table 6. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of classroom behavior

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. Maintaining a positive classroom environment while addressing disruptive behavior can be a constant struggle. 2.52 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. Dealing with challenging student behaviors daily can be emotionally exhausting. 2.6 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. It’s stressful when one disruptive student’s behavior affects the entire class’s learning experience. 2.66 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4 I constantly feel the pressure to find the root causes of challenging behaviors and address them effectively. 2.74 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
 5. It’s hard to remain patient and calm when faced with persistent behavioral issues, especially when it disrupts the learning process. 2.78 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly  extensive
Weighted Mean 2.66 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

On the contrary, indicator number one (1) maintaining a positive classroom environment while addressing disruptive behavior can be a constant struggle earned the lowest mean of 2.52 with an equivalent verbal description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. In general, the total mean is 2.66, with an equivalent verbal description of moderate and interpreted as level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Creating a supportive and positive classroom environment, implementing behavior management strategies, and providing professional development and resources for teachers can help alleviate the extensive stress associated with managing behavioral issues. Additionally, fostering open communication and collaboration between teachers, students, and parents can contribute to a more conducive learning environment and reduce stress levels for teachers.

Johnson et al (2020) emphasize the importance of such things as professional development on positive behavior interventions, cooperative problem-solving schemes, and mental health support for teachers. It is important to acknowledge the emotional impact of student behavior problems on teachers; fostering well-being with mindfulness programs, work-life balance initiatives and positive school cultures can greatly influence the success of each child and all the children in a classroom.

Table 7 shows the work-related stress of the participants in terms of Lack of Resources.As observed, indicator number two (2) limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket had the highest mean rate of 3.08, which has an equivalent description of moderate and the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.Meanwhile, indicator number five (5) limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket obtained the lowest mean of 2.58 with an equivalent description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive

Table 7. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of resources

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. I constantly worry about not having enough textbooks or learning materials for all my students. 2.64 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. Limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket. 3.08 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. Having to choose between essential resources like textbooks or classroom repairs is a constant dilemma. 2.78 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. Teaching without access to up-to-date technology and educational tools puts my students at a disadvantage in today’s digital world. 2.76 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. Teaching without resources puts my students at a disadvantage, hindering their ability to fully engage with and benefit from modern educational practices. 2.58 The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.77 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

 As a whole, it has a mean of 2.77, described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

This indicates that the financial strain of having to purchase materials out of pocket can have a negative impact on teachers’ finances and well-being. It can create additional stress and financial pressure, potentially leading to job dissatisfaction and burnout. Limited funding for classroom supplies can affect the quality of education and learning experience for students. Insufficient resources may hinder teachers’ ability to provide engaging and effective lessons, impacting student outcomes.

Pontsa et al. (2019)revealed that significant financial burdens are placed on educators due to resource limitations. The financial burden transcends monetary concerns. It reflects a systemic issue where educators are forced to compensate for a lack of necessary resources, putting them in an unfair and untenable position.

Table 8 shows the work-related stress of the participants in terms of Role Ambiguity. The data shows that indicator number three (3) which states that sometimes, I feel like I’m juggling multiple roles, from counselor to educator, without clear guidance on how to balance them garnered the highest mean of 2.76, which was described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. On the other hand, indicator number one (1) states that I sometimes feel overwhelmed by conflicting expectations from parents, administrators, and policymakers obtained the lowest mean of 2.52, described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. In general, the total mean is 2.64 with a description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Table 8. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of role ambiguity stress

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. I sometimes feel overwhelmed by conflicting expectations from parents, administrators, and policymakers. 2.52 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. I’m not always sure how much time and focus I should allocate to curriculum development versus classroom management. 2.58 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. Sometimes, I feel like I’m juggling multiple roles, from counselor to educator, without clear guidance on how to balance them. 2.76 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I worry about not meeting all the expectations placed on me, which can lead to self-doubt and burnout. 2.66 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. I worry about not meeting all the expectations placed on me, which can lead to self-doubt and burnout. 2.68 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.64 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

This implies the challenges faced by teachers in navigating their multiple roles and meeting the expectations of various stakeholders. The extensive stress experienced in balancing these responsibilities can have negative implications for teachers’ well-being and job satisfaction. It is important to provide teachers with clear guidance, support, and resources to effectively manage their multiple roles and address conflicting expectations.

Beyond purely academic concerns, teachers themselves have already been worn so thin. They perform juggling acts daily –playing multiple roles such as counselor and educator. In the words of Farvis (2020)”No map” is no guide, and a simple lack of a compass leaves many wandering teachers to grope forward on their way. Teachers’ constant anxiety about whether they meet these requirements coalesces into uncertainty and weariness that can be a significant burden on the teacher’s well-being as well as whether students succeed. This is a significant threat to both teacher well-being and students’ success in education (Ramberg et al, 2020).

Table 9 shows the work-related stress of the participants in terms of emotional demand stress. The result presents that indicator one (1) dealing with students’ anger, frustration, and emotional outbursts can be mentally and physically exhausting the emotional challenges faced by teachers obtained the highest mean of 2.72 with the description moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experience by the teacher is fairly extensive. Meanwhile, indicator five (5) which is balancing my own emotions while helping students navigate their emotional struggles can be emotionally draining acquired the lowest mean of 2.48 verbally describe as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experience by the teacher is fairly extensive. Holistically, the average weighted mean of all indicators is 2.62 described as moderate and the stress level experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Table 9. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of emotional demands stress

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. Dealing with students’ anger, frustration, and emotional outbursts can be mentally and physically exhausting. 2.72 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. The emotional labor of teaching, especially when dealing with diverse student backgrounds and needs, can be overwhelming. 2.68 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. I often feel like I’m carrying the emotional burden of my students, and it can be a heavy weight to bear. 2.62 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I worry about the long-term impact of emotional stress on my mental health. 2.6 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5 Balancing my own emotions while helping students navigate their emotional struggles can be emotionally draining. 2.48 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.62 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

The result presents that indicator one (1) dealing with students’ anger, frustration, and emotional outbursts can be mentally and physically exhausting the emotional challenges faced by teachers obtained the highest mean of 2.72 with the description moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experience by the teacher is fairly extensive. Meanwhile, indicator five (5) which is balancing my own emotions while helping students navigate their emotional struggles can be emotionally draining acquired the lowest mean of 2.48 verbally describe as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experience by the teacher is fairly extensive. Holistically, the average weighted mean of all indicators is 2.62 described as moderate and the stress level experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Teachers, as the data reveals, navigate a treacherous emotional landscape burdened by students’ outbursts, diverse needs, and their mental well-being. Managing frustration and anger takes a heavy toll, adding complexity to the already intricate emotional labor of teaching.

This burden often translates into feeling weighed down by students’ struggles, leading to a legitimate fear of its long-term impact on teachers’ mental health. While balancing personal and student emotions may appear slightly less demanding, the overall picture begs for robust support systems (Fitzgerald et al., 2022).

Table 10 shows the work-related stress of the participants in terms of support. The data reveals that indicator two (2) which states that limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket got the highest mean of 3.08 described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

Table 10. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of Lack of Support Stress

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. I constantly worry about not having enough textbooks or learning materials for all my students. 2.64 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. Limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket. 3.08 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. Having to choose between essential resources like textbooks or classroom repairs is a constant dilemma. 2.78 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. Teaching without access to up-to-date technology and educational tools puts my students at a disadvantage in today’s digital world. 2.76 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. Teaching without resources puts my students at a disadvantage, hindering their ability to fully engage with and benefit from modern educational practices. 2.58 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Weighted Mean 2.77 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

On the other hand, indicator five (5) which states that teaching without resources puts my students at a disadvantage, hindering their ability to fully engage with and benefit from modern educational practices garnered the lowest mean of 2.58 with an equivalent description of moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

In general, all indicators had a average weighted mean of 2.77 described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

The result implies that without adequate resources and support, teachers struggle to provide their students with the necessary materials, emotional well-being support, and differentiated instruction to meet their diverse needs. This can lead to widening achievement gaps, decreased engagement, and frustration among both students and their educators.

Feeling unsupported, inadequately trained, and under-resourced as they try to meet the social-emotional needs of students and address unfinished learning can contribute to feelings of being overwhelmed and can impact teachers’ job satisfaction and retention. When teachers feel undervalued and under-resourced, it can erode their sense of professionalism and commitment to the field. This can lead to increased cynicism, decreased collaboration among colleagues, and ultimately, a decline in the overall morale of the teaching profession (Garcia & Weiss, 2019).

Table 11 shows the work-related stress of the participants in terms of Work-Life Balance Stress.

Table 11. Mean distribution of the work-related stress of the participants in terms of Work-Life Balance Stress

Indicators Mean Description Interpretation
1. Finding time for my personal life and hobbies is a constant struggle when teaching demands so much of my time. 2.6 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
2. I often feel like I’m taking work home with me, both physically and mentally, which makes it hard to disconnect. 2.54 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
3. I sometimes must sacrifice weekends and evenings to keep up with the demands of teaching. 2.66 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
4. I sometimes feel like I’m neglecting my own needs in the pursuit of providing the best education for my students. 2.54 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
5. I often feel guilty when I need to take time off for my well-being or to attend to personal matters. 2.8 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
 Weighted Mean 2.63 Moderate The level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive
Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Very Low; 1.50-2.49 Low; 2.50-3.49 Moderate; 3.50-4.49 High; 4.50-5.00 Very High

The table shows indicator five (5) which states that I often feel guilty when I need to take time off for my well-being or to attend to personal matters acquired the highest mean of 2.8, verbally described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. Meanwhile, both indicator number two (2) which states that I often feel like I’m taking work home with me, both physically and mentally, which makes it hard to disconnect and indicator number four (4) which states that I sometimes feel like I’m neglecting my own needs in the pursuit of providing the best education for my students got the lowest mean of 2.54, described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive. Furthermore, the average weighted mean of all indicators is 2.63, described as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is fairly extensive.

This indicates how chronic work overload and work-life imbalance can deplete cognitive resources, leading to diminished mental capacity and a sense of emotional withdrawal. Teachers often have a strong sense of dedication and responsibility towards their students. This can lead to prioritizing student needs over their well-being, neglecting their physical and emotional needs like sleep, healthy eating, exercise, and relaxation.

Setting healthy boundaries between work and personal life can be challenging for teachers. The feeling of being “on call” 24/7 can lead to working longer hours and neglecting personal commitments and relationships (Klusmann et al., 2017).

The widespread use of technology and communication tools can make this problem worse by making teachers feel obliged to reply to emails, texts, or demands from their jobs even when they are on their own time. The emotional demands of teaching, such as helping students through trying times, can further obfuscate the lines between work and personal life, making it challenging for educators to disengage from their roles in the classroom.

Problem 3. The Teaching Performance of the Participants based on Their IPCR

The bar graph of Figure 3 illustrates the level of teaching performance of the participants.

Figure 3. Teaching Performance of the Participants based on their IPCR

Range of Means: 1.00-1.49 Poor; 1.50-2.49 Fair; 2.50-3.49 Satisfactory; 3.50-4.49 Very Satisfactory; 4.50-5.00 Outstanding

It can be seen that 26 of the teacher participants had a rating performance of outstanding while 27 of the teacher participants had a rating performance of very satisfactory. Data also indicates that none of the teacher participants had a rating performance of satisfactory, fair, or poor. The lack of ratings below “very satisfactory” implies that most teachers are meeting or exceeding expectations. This suggests effective teaching practices, strong professional development, or a supportive school environment (Kuhnert & Zeichner, 2020).

Problem 4. The significant difference in the Appreciation of the participants of Work-related Stress when grouped according to profile

Table 12 presents the result of the T-Test analyzing the significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to profile.

Table 12. Significant difference in the appreciation of the participants of work-related stress when grouped according to their profile.

Variables Test p-value Decision
Sex Male 3.918 0.51 Not Significant
Female
Age 20-30 27.842 0.000 Significant
31-40
41-50
51 and above
Teaching Experience Less than 5 years 76.055 0.000 Significant
5-10 years
11-15 years
16 years and above
Educational Qualification Bachelor’s Degree 1.630 0.205 Not Significant
Master’s Degree
Grade Level Currently Teaching Kindergarten 24.587 0.000 Significant
Grade I
Grade II
Grade III
Grade IV
Grade V
Grade VI

Significant at 0.05 level

The acquired date appeared that there is a significant difference in the appreciation of work-related stress when grouped according to age (p-value: 0.000), teaching experience (p-value: 0.000), and grade level currently teaching (p-value: 0.000)

Age demonstrably varies on how teachers perceive and react to work-related stress. This implies that different age groups within the teaching profession experience unique patterns and intensities of stress when navigating their professional demands.

Additionally, generational differences in work expectations and life stage challenges further contribute to this complex interplay. Younger generations, valuing flexibility and work-life balance might perceive traditional work environments as particularly stressful, while older generations, accustomed to different workplace norms, might respond differently to contemporary stressors(Wang & Zhu, 2019).

The number of years spent in the classroom significantly differ on how teachers perceive and manage work-related stress. This suggests that teachers at different stages of their careers experience distinct stress patterns and possess varying coping mechanisms.

Novice teachers, grappling with lesson planning, classroom management, and establishing their professional identities, might be particularly vulnerable to stress. As experience accumulates, teachers develop routines, refine pedagogical skills, and gain confidence, potentially leading to reduced stress levels. However, mid-career teachers often face increased responsibilities like leadership roles, subject coordination, and navigating complex school politics, which can reintroduce significant stress. Senior teachers, approaching retirement or grappling with limited career progression, might encounter different stressors, such as adapting to technology changes, mentoring younger colleagues, or facing age-related challenges (Niu, 2019).

Teachers teaching different grade levels experience work-related stress in demonstrably different ways. The age and cognitive abilities of students at different grade levels present unique challenges. Early childhood educators juggle fostering emotional regulation, managing active play, and navigating potty training, while high school teachers might grapple with complex social dynamics, emerging independence, and college application pressures (Hussein, 2019).

Each grade level presents distinct demands. Lower-grade teachers invest significant time in foundational skills like reading and math, while upper-grade educators might confront complex subject matter and standardized testing anxieties. Additionally, ever-evolving education policies and curriculum changes can add stress for teachers at all levels (Cunningham, 2019).

The analysis found no significant differences in the appreciation of work-related stress when grouped according to sex or educational qualification.

Problem 5. Significant Relationship Between Work-Related Stress and the Teaching Performance of the Participants

Table 13 presents the result of the Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between work-related stress and the teaching performance of the participants.

Table 13. Correlation analysis between work-related stress and the teaching performance of the participants

Variables Correlation Coefficient p-value Decision Remarks
Teaching Performance vs. -.304* .032 Reject Ho Significant
Work-related stress

·        Workload stress

·        Assessment and evaluation stress -.027 .853 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Time management stress -.123 .397 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Classroom behavior stress -.062 .669 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Lack of resources stress -.144 .318 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Role ambiguity stress -.238 .096 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Emotional demands stress -.202 .160 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Lack of support stress -.090 .538 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant
·        Work-life balance stress -.133 .356 Fail to Reject Ho Not Significant

Correlation is significant at 0.05 level (2-tailed)

The table shows a study’s results investigating the relationship between work-related stress and teaching performance. The study found that there is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.304, p = 0.032) between work-related stress and teaching performance. This means that higher levels of work-related stress are associated with lower teaching performance. This suggests that reducing workload could be a key lever for improving teacher well-being and bolstering student learning outcomes.

Work-related stress acts as a silent saboteur, infiltrating the minds of teachers and chipping away at their cognitive prowess. The detrimental effects on focus, memory, and decision-making, as highlighted by (Jane Cooley Fruehwirth et al., 2023)hinder effective lesson planning and delivery, creating a ripple effect that disrupts the entire learning process. Stress disrupts the prefrontal cortex, the brain’s command center for executive functions, leading to difficulties in structuring lessons, prioritizing tasks, and adapting to classroom dynamics (Ordonez, 2019).

Attention and memory also fall prey, with chronic stress depleting crucial neurotransmitters, resulting in forgetfulness, inability to maintain focus, and impaired responses to student needs (De Kock, 2019). Monotonous lessons lacking creativity, missed key points, and inconsistent delivery, leaving students disengaged and frustrated (Lauricella et al. 2023.).

 This cognitive decline then feeds back into the stress cycle, creating a vicious loop that jeopardizes both teacher well-being and student learning outcomes. Recognizing and addressing the impact of stress on cognitive abilities is thus crucial. Implementing stress management techniques, fostering supportive school environments, and providing professional development in effective planning and stress management can equip teachers with the tools to break free from this cycle and reclaim their cognitive prowess, paving the way for a more vibrant and effective learning environment for all.

Problem 6. Proposed Intervention Program

Based on the results of the study, the researcher designed a localized intervention plan that would help address the work-related stress of teachers and their teaching performance.

Empowering Educators to Conquer Work-Related Stress

Rationale

Even though the study found no significant relationship between teaching performance and various stress factors, and teaching performance does not directly influence the experience of work-related stress, there are several reasons why an intervention program for teachers may still be beneficial.

Therefore, the researcher proposed this localized intervention that will enhance teachers’ stress management techniques and self-care strategies, and provide a safe space for reflection and support, the program aims to improve teacher well-being and create a positive work environment.

Program Description

This intervention plan focuses on the comprehensive and holistic approach designed to support teachers in managing and overcoming the challenges of work-related stress. Through a series of workshops, individual coaching sessions, and ongoing support, this program aims to equip educators with practical tools and strategies to enhance their well-being, job satisfaction, and overall effectiveness in the classroom.

Program Goal

This intervention plan adheres to the following goals:

  • To increase educators’ awareness of the causes and effects of work-related stress.
  • To equip educators with practical coping strategies to effectively manage work-related stress.
  • To emphasize the importance of self-care in combating work-related stress.
  • To create a supportive network among educators, providing them with opportunities to connect, share experiences, and offer mutual support.
  • To enhance teachers’ job satisfaction by addressing work-related stress.
  • To recognize that reducing work-related stress directly impacts teaching effectiveness.

General Objectives

In line with the goals of this plan, the following objectives are derived:

  • To identify common stressors in the teaching profession and articulate the potential impacts of stress on their well-being and job performance.
  • To demonstrate the ability to apply techniques such as mindfulness, relaxation exercises, time management skills, and effective communication strategies in their daily lives.
  • To articulate the benefits of self-care practices and understand how self-care positively impacts their overall job performance and job satisfaction.
  • To engage in peer support groups, check-ins, and collaborative discussions, fostering a sense of community and camaraderie among educators.
  • To articulate how the acquired coping strategies, self-care practices, and support network have positively impacted their overall job satisfaction.
  • To articulate how managing and mitigating work-related stress positively influences their ability to deliver quality instruction, engage students, and create a positive learning environment.

Implementation Scheme

  • Pre-Intervention Phase

In this phase, permission from the Schools Division Office (SDO) and Elementary School heads will be secured to gather all the teachers in San Francisco District Cluster 4 to conduct the said intervention together with the help of District personnel. Afterward, particular activities will be laid down addressing the work-related stress of teachers as a result of the survey.

The intervention plan will be presented to the teachers during the District meeting and will be verified and authorized by the Division office of Agusan del Sur to carry out the goals of the plan.

  • Intervention Phase

The following tasks will be completed during this phase to ensure an efficient and successful implementation of the intervention plan:

  1. Orientation of teachers. Organize a meeting with the teachers of the same cluster and school heads to talk about their roles in carrying out the intervention program.
  2. Information dissemination. Discuss with the district personnel the allocation of funds needed for the implementation of the program.
  3. Organize capacity-building activities for teachers. They will receive in-service training so they are capable of creating localized assessment instruments.
  4. Invite personnel for added knowledge. Invite the different psychological and health personnel to discuss plans for the implementation of the intervention program.
  5. Procurement of materials. To achieve the intervention plan’s goal, the facilities and school resources required will be acquired.
  6. Conduct Intervention for teachers. Focus on teachers during the intervention and monitor the level of stress after the activities.
  • Post-Intervention Phase

In this stage, an evaluation will be carried out to determine how effective the intervention was. Here, the school administrators will carry out quarterly monitoring and evaluation to look into the success of the implementation and the adoption of the localized intervention program. This intervention will be evaluated by psychological and health.

Table 14. Intervention Program: Empowering Educators to Conquer Work-Related Stress Matrix

Objectives Activities Time Frame Resources Budget Sources Persons Involved Expected Output
Pre-Intervention Phase
Creation and Identification of Activities to be conducted – Conduct a consultative meeting with the District In charge, School head

– Present data on the level of work-related stress of teachers based on the result of the study

– Lay down activities and skills training

August

2024

Laptop, projector, paper, ballpen P1,500 Other funds District Personnel, School Heads Crafted

Plan of Activities

Intervention Phase
Create activities Organize activities August 2024 Laptop, Projector,

Paper, Ballpen

P1,500.00 Other funds District Personnel and School Heads Organized capacity-building capacities
Invite Speakers Training workshop and seminars and discuss the level of support needed September 2024 Laptop, Projector,

Paper, Ballpen

P3,500.00 Other funds Health Professionals, District personnel, School Heads and Teachers Discussed planned activities
Procurement of Materials Purchase supplies and materials needed September 2024 Checklist P5,000 Other funds Teachers Purchased materials
Post-Intervention Phase
Ensure proper implementation Conducts monthly monitoring of the programs and activities November 2024 Checklist P1000.00 Other funds School Heads and Teachers Sustainable programs and activities
Check and balance Reporting of the materials used and activities conducted December 2024 Checklist

Laptop

Projector

P2,000.00 Other funds District Personnel, School Head Reported the materials procured and used.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter includes the restatement of the problems, findings, conclusions drawn, and recommendations in work-related stress of teachers and their teaching performance.

Summary

This study sought to determine the relationship between work-related stress of teachers and their teaching performance. The study adopted the descriptive-correlational method design with 53 teachers as participants. All the participants were randomly selected. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. The results of the data were treated using the mean, T-Test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation.

The majority of respondents were female, or 81.13% of the participants while there were only 20 males or 18.87% of the total participants. The age distribution of respondents was the following 22% are between 20-30 years old, 36% are between 31-40 years old, 26% are between 41-50 years old, and 16% are 51 years old and above.  Respondents with less than 5 years of teaching experience accounted for 16% of the total. Those with 5-10 years of experience accounted for 54%, while 14% had 11-15 years of experience. Respondents with 16 years and above of teaching experience also accounted for 16%. The majority of respondents (54%) held a Bachelor’s Degree, while 46% held a Master’s Degree. No respondents reported having a Doctorate. The distribution of respondents across different grade levels is as follows: 6% teach Kindergarten, 18% teach Grade I, 14% teach Grade II, 18% teach Grade III, 20% teach Grade IV, 10% teach Grade V, and 14% teach Grade VI.

The findings showed that work-related stress (workload, assessments and evaluation, time management, classroom behavior, lack of resources, role of ambiguity, emotional demand, lack of support, and work-life balance) of the teachers of the Public Elementary Schools of San Francisco Cluster IV in Agusan del Sur Division were rated as moderate and interpreted as the level of stress experienced by the teacher is extensive.

In terms of teachers’ performance, it was found that forty-six percent (27) of the teacher participants had a rating performance of outstanding while fifty-four percent (26) of the teacher participants had a rating performance of very satisfactory. Data also indicated that none of the teacher participants had a rating performance of satisfactory or poor.

The results showed that sex was not a significant factor in determining stress levels. However, age was found to be a significant factor, with participants in the 20-30 age group experiencing higher levels of stress compared to other age groups. Teaching experience was also found to be a significant factor, with participants with less than 5 years of experience experiencing higher levels of stress. Educational qualification did not have a significant impact on stress levels. Finally, the grade level currently being taught was found to be a significant factor, with participants teaching in higher grade levels experiencing higher levels of stress.

Moreover, it was found that there is no significant relationship between teaching performance and various stress factors, including workload stress, assessment and evaluation stress, time management stress, classroom behavior stress, lack of resources stress, role ambiguity stress, emotional demands stress, lack of support stress, and work-life balance stress. This indicates that teaching performance does not directly influence the experience of work-related stress.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

Teacher demographics show a majority of female educators, with most having 5-10 years of experience and a Bachelor’s Degree. Grade IV has the highest number of teachers, indicating specific trends in gender, age, and qualifications across grade levels.

Additionally, teachers in San Francisco Cluster IV of Agusan del Sur Division report moderate work-related stress, manageable without the need for school head intervention. Factors such as workload, evaluations, time management, classroom dynamics, resource scarcity, role clarity, emotional demands, support, and work-life balance significantly influence their stress levels.

On the other hand, the study revealed that the teacher participants exhibited exceptional performance, with a significant majority receiving ratings of ‘outstanding’ or ‘very satisfactory.’ The absence of any ‘satisfactory’ or ‘poor’ ratings underscores the teachers’ high degree of proficiency and efficacy in their educational roles.

The study concludes that while gender had no significant impact, age and teaching experience did influence stress levels, with younger and less experienced teachers facing more stress. Higher grade level teaching also correlated with increased stress.

Therefore, teaching performance is not a significant indicator of work-related stress, highlighting the need for dedicated support and interventions to address educator stress irrespective of performance metrics.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are drawn:

  1. School administrators may provide ongoing professional development and support for all teachers, regardless of their performance ratings. This can include training programs, mentoring opportunities, and access to resources that can help teachers continuously improve their skills and knowledge.
  2. Teachers may initiate the assessment process to inform the subsequent professional development and support provided by school administrators. This support, tailored to each teacher’s unique needs and performance, may encompass training programs, mentoring opportunities, and a variety of resources aimed at fostering continuous skill and knowledge enhancement.
  3. Administrators may provide targeted support and interventions for teachers in the 20-30 age group, as they were found to experience higher levels of stress compared to other age groups. Give support and resources to early-career teachers with less than 5 years of experience. Provide additional support and resources for teachers in higher grade levels which include smaller class sizes, specialized training, and collaborative planning time to help them manage the demands and responsibilities associated with teaching higher grade levels.
  4. School administrators may implement targeted interventions for teachers, focusing on those aged 20-30 and those with less than 5 years of experience to alleviate stress. Additionally, support for teachers in higher grades should include smaller class sizes, specialized training, and collaborative planning to manage teaching demands effectively.
  5. Educational institutions implement comprehensive support systems that address the multifaceted nature of work-related stress. These systems should provide resources and strategies that help educators manage stress effectively, regardless of their performance levels, ensuring a healthier work environment and promoting overall teacher well-being.
  6. School administrators may develop and provide targeted intervention programs to address the work-related stress of teachers. These programs should offer various support services and resources to help educators manage stress effectively, fostering a positive work environment and enhancing teacher well-being.
  7. The education institutions may be encouraged to adopt the proposed capability-enhancement program to address the teachers’ work-related stress while they are still in the field of teaching. They may also consider providing free learning and development activities for the teachers in the goal of enhancing the teachers’ well-being and teaching performance.
  8. Future researchers may consider the data gathered in this study as basis for another research endeavor in relation to the assessment of teachers work related stress in teaching performance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to express and acknowledge with sincere appreciation and profound gratitude to the following individuals for their kind and invaluable support in various ways in the completion of this research study:

Dr. Ariel U. Cubillas his research advisor, for his perseverance, guidance, and unflagging efforts in providing helpful reading materials, offering helpful critique, and checking this paper;

Dr. Emybel M. Alegre, Dr. Trixie E. Cubillas, and Dr. Gladys L. Lagura as members of the Oral examination panel, whose advice and comments significantly improved her research study;

Dr. Josita B. Carmen, CESO V, Schools Division Superintendent to her permission to conduct and administer the questionnaires to the teachers and learners of the chosen schools of San Francisco Cluster IV;

Teachers of the selected schools of San Francisco Cluster IV for their cooperation and patience in answering the questionnaire:

To her family, for their unconditional love, inspiring thoughts, constant prayer, and undying support, and who inspired her not to give up and focus instead to make this endeavor possible.

Above all, to the Almighty God, the creator of his life, who provides him with the fortitude, health, sound mind, courage, wisdom, and innumerable blessings to complete and overcome this most challenging endeavor. Without Him, it would not have been possible. All the glory and honor belong to Him.

The Researcher

DEDICATION

This piece of work is first and foremost to God Almighty my creator, my strong Pillar, my source of wisdom, knowledge, and understanding. He has been my source of strength throughout this time. This work is heartily dedicated to my entire family and most particularly, to my beloved wife, my son who motivated me to complete this research.

The Researcher

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APPROVAL SHEET

The Faculty of the Graduate School of Caraga State University accepts the thesis entitled:

WORK-RELATED STRESS AND TEACHING PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF SAN FRANCISCO CLUSTER IV

Submitted by ARIEL A. GONZALES., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Education major in Educational Management is hereby accepted.

ARIEL U. CUBILLAS, PhD

Research Adviser

Chair, Final Defense Panel

TRIXIE E. CUBILLAS, PhD        EMYBEL M. ALEGRE, PhD     Member, Final Defense Panel               Member, Final Defense Panel

GLADYS L. LAGURA, EdD

Member, Final Defense Panel

EMYBEL M. ALEGRE, PhD

MAED/EdD Program Coordinator

ROWENA P. VARELA, PhD

Dean, Graduate School

A Thesis Presented to the Graduate School Caraga State University Ampayon, Butuan City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Education  Major in Educational Management

APPENDICES

Appendix A.

SURVEY TOOL

Dear Participant:

Wonderful day! Please take a moment to respond to the following questions. This will assess the work-related stress and teaching performance of public elementary school teachers and serve as the foundation for an intervention program that might assist the teachers in resolving issues. You can be sure that the information we request from you will be kept private. Thank you for your good feedback.

Respectfully,

The Researcher

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Name (Optional): ___________________________________________________

IPCRF Rating: ____________________

  • Directions: Please select the appropriate options that match your gender, age, teaching experience, educational qualification, and grade level currently teaching.

Teachers. Check the box of your response.

Questions Answer
Gender Male 
Female
Age 20-30
31-40
41-50
51 and above
Teaching Experience Less than 5 years
5-10 years
11-15 years
16 years and above
Educational Qualification Bachelor’s Degree
Master’s Degree
Doctorate
Grade Level Currently Teaching Kindergarten
Grade I
Grade II
Grade III
Grade IV
Grade V
Grade VI
  • Directions: Please check the column that best describes the level of Stress

Teachers. Use the scales below as your guide in self-assessment:

1- Not at all Stressful

2- Slightly Stressful

3- Moderately Stressful

4-Very Stressful

5-Extremely Stressful

Level of Work-Related Stress of Public Elementary School Teachers

A. Workload Stress 5 4 3 2 1
1. I usually feel stressed at work          
2. I feel physically exhausted at the end of every workday.          
3. I usually feel tense with the number of duties I’m required to do daily.          
4. I feel stressed about combining teaching duties with non-teaching duties.          
5. I feel a lot of pressure from my workload.          
B. Assessments and Evaluation Stress          
1.I am unable to keep up with correcting papers and other schoolwork.          
2.  I often find myself questioning if I’m accurately assessing students’ true understanding of the material or if I’m just assessing their test-taking skills          
3. I worry about the weight that grades carry in determining a student’s success, both in my class and in their future endeavors          
4. I worry about how standardized testing impacts my students’ learning experience and the pressure it puts on them          
5. I worry about the potential for cheating or academic dishonesty during assessments, and it’s a constant battle to prevent it.”          
C.Time Management Stress          
 1. Balancing lesson planning, grading, meetings, and administrative tasks can be overwhelming.          
2. The demands of paperwork and documentation take up a significant portion of my time, leaving less for teaching and interacting with students.          
3. I often sacrifice personal time and hobbies to keep up with the demands of teaching, which can lead to burnout.          
4. I often find myself working late into the evenings or spending weekends catching up on tasks.          
  5.    Meeting deadlines for report cards, progress reports, and other administrative tasks can be extremely stressful, especially when they all pile up at once.          
D. Classroom Behavior Stress          
1. Maintaining a positive classroom environment while addressing disruptive behavior can be a constant struggle.          
2. Dealing with challenging student behaviors daily can be emotionally exhausting.          
3. It’s stressful when one disruptive student’s behavior affects the entire class’s learning experience.          
4 I constantly feel the pressure to find the root causes of challenging behaviors and address them effectively.          
 5. It’s hard to remain patient and calm when faced with persistent behavioral issues, especially when it disrupts the learning process.          
E.Resources          
1. I constantly worry about not having enough textbooks or learning materials for all my students.          
2. Limited funding for classroom supplies means I often have to purchase materials out of my pocket.          
3. Having to choose between essential resources like textbooks or classroom repairs is a constant dilemma.          
4. Teaching without access to up-to-date technology and educational tools puts my students at a disadvantage in today’s digital world.          
5. Teaching without resources puts my students at a disadvantage, hindering their ability to fully engage with and benefit from modern educational practices.          
F. Role Ambiguity Stress          
1. I sometimes feel overwhelmed by conflicting expectations from parents, administrators, and policymakers.          
2. I’m not always sure how much time and focus I should allocate to curriculum development versus classroom management.          
3. Sometimes, I feel like I’m juggling multiple roles, from counselor to educator, without clear guidance on how to balance them.          
4. I worry about not meeting all the expectations placed on me, which can lead to self-doubt and burnout.          
5. I worry about not meeting all the expectations placed on me, which can lead to self-doubt and burnout.          
G. Emotional Demands Stress          
1. Dealing with students’ anger, frustration, and emotional outbursts can be mentally and physically exhausting.          
2. The emotional labor of teaching, especially when dealing with diverse student backgrounds and needs, can be overwhelming.          
3. I often feel like I’m carrying the emotional burden of my students, and it can be a heavy weight to bear.          
4. I worry about the long-term impact of emotional stress on my mental health.          
5 Balancing my own emotions while helping students navigate their emotional struggles can be emotionally draining.          
H. Support          
1. I often have to spend my own time and money on classroom supplies and materials due to a lack of support.          
2. I feel unsupported when it comes to managing the emotional and mental health needs of my students.          
3. I often feel like I’m on my own when it comes to managing classroom behavior and student discipline issues.          
4. I wish there were more resources and materials available to help me meet the diverse needs of my students.          
5.” Balancing the demands of teaching with administrative tasks becomes even more challenging without support staff or assistance.          
I. Work-Life Balance Stress          
1. Finding time for my personal life and hobbies is a constant struggle when teaching demands so much of my time.          
2. I often feel like I’m taking work home with me, both physically and mentally, which makes it hard to disconnect.          
3. I sometimes must sacrifice weekends and evenings to keep up with the demands of teaching.          
4. I sometimes feel like I’m neglecting my own needs in the pursuit of providing the best education for my students.          
5. I often feel guilty when I need to take time off for my well-being or to attend to personal matters.          

Appendix B. Pilot Testing Result

Appendix C. Authorization Letter

Appendix D. Validation Letter

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name                    :              Ariel A. Gonzales

Nickname            :              Abong

Age                       :              30

Address :              P-3, Borbon San Francisco Agusan del Sur

Contact No.         :

Email Add            :

Educational Attainment

Elementary        :   Borbon Elementary School Borbon, San Francisco Agusan del Sur 1998-2004

High School      :      D.O. Plaza Memorial National High School Borbon, San Francisco Agusan del Sur 2004-2008

College   :  Bachelor in Elementary Education, Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and Technology Bunawan, Agusan del Sur  2011-2014

Post-Graduate     :              Master of Arts in Education – Educational Management, Caraga State University, Ampayon, Butuan City

TEACHING EXPERIENCES

Public Elementary Teacher I

Langasian Elementary School 2016-2019

Public Elementary Teacher III

Rizal Elementary School 2019-Up to present

Civil Service Eligibility/License:

Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)

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