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A Comprehensive Analysis of Monitoring and Control Mechanisms in Operational Relocation Project at Limkokwing University, Botswana

A Comprehensive Analysis of Monitoring and Control Mechanisms in Operational Relocation Project at Limkokwing University, Botswana

Lenah Cleo Kelepile

University of Sunderland


Received: 27 April 2024; Revised: 13 May 2024; Accepted: 17 May 2024; Published: 17 June 2024


The analysis of project monitoring and control processes holds paramount significance in project management and delivery, attracting considerable attention within academic discourse. The study explores the intricacies of project monitoring and control, particularly in the context of operational relocation at Limkokwing University of Creative Technology Botswana. The study employs a comprehensive survey methodology, encompassing all project team members and university management, stratified by department, and tasked with responding to structured questionnaire items. Analysis of the gathered data unveils proficient performance in project monitoring and control, underscored by systematic reviews of project progress and interface oversight.

Based on the insights gleaned from this investigation, the study urgently recommends the establishment of a specialized monitoring and control unit or function within the university’s organizational framework. This is not just a suggestion, but a crucial step to address developmental exigencies or challenges, and to enhance the prospects of successful project outcomes. However, the study also identified certain barriers to success, including inadequate staff coordination, a need for more skilled personnel with requisite experience, and resistance to organizational change. Therefore, further research is necessary to refine and optimize the efficacy of monitoring and control processes, taking into account these key factors.



Projects are critical components in almost every organization. PMI describes a project as a temporary endeavor to create a unique product, service, or result. The institute further explains the term temporary as a distinct start and end within time, scope, and cost. Furthermore, it defines the term unique as a particular set of operations designed to achieve a specific goal and not a routine operation.

Therefore, unlike typical businesses with permanent or semi-permanent functions and usually repetitive, projects are temporary and have general attributes such as purpose, life cycle, and uniqueness dependent. Adebayo et al., (2018).  Projects are intended to address developmental needs or complications. Woodhill (2000). Project management, therefore, is the application of Knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. (PMI 2000)

Project monitoring and control ensures that projects run as planned by identifying deviations, handling change management, and providing feedback to adjust the plan (Jack et al., 2016). Therefore, monitoring and control are critical processes in project management and delivery. Organizations must employ effective monitoring and control techniques to meet project objectives.  Adebayo et al., (2018)

Monitoring and control of projects is endemic and always exercised through people. The purpose is always the same – to bring the project’s actual schedule, budget, and deliverables into reasonably close congruence with the planned schedule, budget, and deliverable. Hence, this necessitates researching this area regarding Limkokwing University’s unique operational relocation of business processes and units. This project will undoubtedly present a new approach to monitoring and control as the process will be earmarked as a continuous process framed in the project’s life cycle context. It will assess various monitoring and control techniques and their effects on operational relocation project delivery, taking Limkokwing University of Creative Technology as a case study.


Limkokwing University of Creative Technology (LUCT) is a prominent private institution with a global footprint, boasting twelve campuses spanning Asia, Europe, and Africa. Renowned for its avant-garde approach to education, LUCT integrates Eastern and Western pedagogical traditions, prioritizing industry-aligned 21st-century technological programs. In Africa, LUCT maintains operational campuses across Botswana, the Kingdom of Eswatini, Lesotho, and Sierra Leone, with strategic expansion plans into South Africa, Nigeria, and Uganda. Despite a robust start, the Botswana campus encountered a notable downturn in student enrollment, primarily attributed to regulatory policies and dwindling governmental sponsorship quotas. LUCT initiated a comprehensive relocation effort and strategic operational overhauls to ensure sustained viability amidst enrollment fluctuations and potential further quota reductions. However, the endeavor encountered practical challenges, prompting the necessity for a rigorous monitoring framework to assess project performance, financial implications, and timeline adherence, thereby addressing uncertainties inherent in the implementation process.

Due to its complex nature, the organizational relocation project is a suitable candidate for applying the monitoring and controlling tool because it deals with the triple constraints of time, cost, and performance. The major constraining factor is that there should be no overrun on the allocated time and cost (Shen, 2001). Milestones are essential in project management because they indicate and assess when significant events are fulfilled (Kerzner, 2006).

The relocation of a university is a rare and large-scale undertaking. It is risky in terms of its impact on the institution and the success of a particular project management. Project management employs various management, financial, and decision-making tools to implement projects successfully. It involves understanding a project’s basic concepts, establishing project objectives and teams, and implementing a project plan to achieve the objectives. One of the critical project management tools employed is monitoring and controlling, which consists of measurements and decisions taken to take corrective actions to ensure the project is on the right track (Kumar, 2004).


This study aims to deepen insights into the management and control of relocation projects, offering specific methodologies and techniques to aid organizations in future endeavors or provide valuable references for project managers navigating such projects. The objectives of this research endeavor are twofold:

Delineating Success Factors and Conceptual Criteria

The first objective of this research endeavor is to delineate success factors pertinent to the case study project and extrapolate broader conceptual success criteria applicable to relocation projects in general. This involves Identifying and analyzing specific success factors that contributed to the successful completion of the case study relocation project. Extracting broader principles or criteria from these success factors can be applied to relocation projects in various contexts. Exploring how planning, communication, stakeholder engagement, risk management, and resource allocation contributed to project success. Providing insights into how these success factors can be adapted or generalized to different relocation projects.

Developing Monitoring and Controlling Guidelines

The second objective is to develop comprehensive and pragmatic guidelines for monitoring and controlling mechanisms tailored to the context of relocation projects. This includes Investigating existing monitoring and control mechanisms used in relocation projects, both within the case study and in the relevant literature, identifying strengths and weaknesses of current monitoring and controlling practices in the context of relocation projects, and developing practical guidelines or recommendations for improving monitoring and controlling mechanisms specific to the challenges and requirements of relocation projects. When designing these guidelines, Consider project size, complexity, duration, stakeholder involvement, and resource constraints—providing actionable steps or methodologies that project managers can implement to enhance the management and control of relocation projects effectively.

Defined by (Idrees and Shafiq2021) as the physical transfer of an existing facility to a new location, relocation projects are characterized by their complexity, high-risk nature, and relative rarity in terms of emulation. This scarcity of emulation contributes to the dearth of past research on the topic, as some organizations may erroneously perceive relocation projects as routine facility moves, thereby overlooking their distinctive challenges and requirements, ultimately compromising project outcomes.



The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) guide is a pivotal resource encompassing extensive material pertinent to project monitoring and control. While specific publications elucidating PMBOK principles in the context of operational relocation were not uncovered in the literature, abundant references to the guide and its precepts were noted. Monitoring and controlling mechanisms during operational relocation emerge as a relatively understudied domain. This assertion is substantiated by the markedly limited availability of academic and professional literature addressing this subject, in contrast to other disciplines within business administration.

Moreover, research on monitoring and controlling in disparate fields cannot readily apply to operational relocation without a nuanced comprehension of the project’s distinct management objectives, inherent nature and scope, and broader operational context. Despite time constraints curbing an exhaustive literature review, the exploration unveiled intriguing theoretical frameworks and potentially adaptable monitoring and controlling methodologies.

Undoubtedly, thoroughly examining this specific project’s monitoring and control mechanisms holds considerable significance. This sentiment resonates throughout various project management literature, where scholars consistently highlight the value of diligent monitoring and control efforts as pivotal contributors to project success. For instance, research by Rose and Manley (1987) underscores the repercussions of inadequate control and monitoring, illustrating how such shortcomings can precipitate project delays, cost overruns, compromised quality, and other adversities. Similarly, studies by Edum-Fotwe and McCaffer (2000) emphasize the essential nature of effective monitoring and control practices in successful project management endeavors.

In the absence of a well-devised strategy for achieving success, Limkokwing University risks falling short of its envisioned goals for this significant undertaking, potentially resulting in financial losses.This literature review addresses the research objectives of delineating success factors pertinent to relocation projects and developing comprehensive guidelines for monitoring and controlling mechanisms tailored to the context of relocation projects. While exploring existing literature on project monitoring and control, the aim is to align the discussion closely with the objectives outlined for this research endeavor.

Success Factors in Relocation Projects

The success of relocation projects hinges on a multifaceted interplay of various factors, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of project management principles. Extensive literature underscores several critical success factors that are instrumental in ensuring the smooth execution and favorable outcomes of relocation projects (Kerzner, 2017; Pinto & Slevin, 2018).Effective communication is a cornerstone success factor, facilitating transparent information flow, fostering stakeholder engagement, and mitigating potential misunderstandings or conflicts. Clear and consistent communication channels enable project teams to efficiently convey objectives, expectations, and progress updates, fostering a shared understanding among stakeholders involved in the relocation.

Stakeholder engagement is another pivotal success factor highlighted in the literature, emphasizing the importance of actively involving critical stakeholders throughout the relocation process. Engaging stakeholders, including employees, suppliers, regulatory authorities, and community members, fosters ownership, cultivates support, and ensures alignment with organizational goals and objectives. Risk management is paramount in relocation projects, with literature emphasizing the proactive identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential risks and uncertainties. Robust risk management strategies enable project teams to anticipate challenges, develop contingency plans, and navigate unforeseen obstacles effectively, safeguarding project timelines, budgets, and objectives.

Change management principles are pivotal in ensuring organizational readiness and resilience in relocation-induced transitions and transformations. Effective change management practices facilitate smooth transitions, minimize resistance, and foster a culture of adaptability and innovation within the organization. Alignment with organizational objectives, meticulous planning, resource allocation, and leadership are identified as foundational success factors in relocation projects (Turner, 2019; Shenhar & Dvir, 2007). Aligning relocation initiatives with overarching organizational strategies and priorities ensures that project outcomes contribute to broader business objectives and deliver tangible value to the organization.

Comprehensive planning, encompassing detailed project scope definition, milestone identification, resource requirements assessment, and risk analysis, lays the groundwork for successful relocation execution. Regarding human capital and financial investments, adequate resource allocation ensures that project teams have the tools, expertise, and support to execute relocation activities effectively. Leadership emerges as a critical success factor, with practical project leadership driving vision, motivation, and accountability throughout the relocation journey. Strong leadership fosters team cohesion, inspires confidence, and navigates challenges, steering the project toward completion and delivering value to stakeholders.

Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms in Relocation Projects

The literature offers various methodologies and techniques for monitoring and controlling relocation projects. Effective monitoring and control mechanisms are integral to the successful execution and management of relocation projects, and the literature offers a plethora of methodologies and techniques to facilitate this process. By implementing robust monitoring and controlling practices, project teams can proactively track progress, identify deviations, and take timely corrective actions to ensure project success. Earned Value Management (EVM) is widely adopted in monitoring and controlling relocation projects (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016). EVM integrates cost, schedule, and performance metrics to overview project performance comprehensively. By comparing planned costs and schedules with actual expenditures and progress, EVM enables project teams to assess project health, forecast future performance, and identify variances that may necessitate corrective actions.

In addition to EVM, various scheduling techniques such as the Critical Path Method (CPM), Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), and Gantt charts offer valuable tools for monitoring and controlling activities within relocation projects (Kerzner, 2017). CPM helps identify critical activities and sequences to ensure timely project completion, while PERT provides probabilistic estimates of project duration based on optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely scenarios. Gantt charts offer visual representations of project schedules, facilitating easy tracking of task dependencies, milestones, and progress. Furthermore, risk management tools are crucial in monitoring and controlling relocation projects, enabling project teams to identify potential threats and develop proactive mitigation strategies. Techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation offer probabilistic assessments of project risks, allowing project managers to assess the likelihood and impact of various risk scenarios (Hillson & Murray-Webster, 2017). By quantifying risks and their potential consequences, project teams can allocate resources effectively, implement risk response strategies, and minimize the likelihood of adverse outcomes.

Guidelines for Monitoring and Control Mechanisms

Developing comprehensive guidelines for monitoring and controlling mechanisms tailored to the context of relocation projects requires a holistic approach. The literature suggests establishing clear performance metrics aligned with project objectives (PMBOK Guide, 6th ed., 2017). Regular progress reviews, variance analysis, and corrective action plans are essential for effective monitoring and control (Schwalbe, 2019). Furthermore, communication channels should facilitate information flow and decision-making among project stakeholders (Project Management Institute, 2017). By adhering to these guidelines, organizations can enhance their ability to manage and control relocation projects effectively.

For the purpose of this research, Shabtai and Ronie’s (2014) definition will be used. They described project control as taking necessary steps to increase productivity by rectifying or minimizing project deviations. They further monitor projects by identifying deviations from the planned schedule, budget, and quality the client requires in the actual execution of the project. This indicates that monitoring is an activity and controlling uses data supplied by monitoring to bring actual performance into approximate congruence with planned performance. Projects can be challenging and not easily controllable, leading to project cost and time overruns, hence the need to monitor and control.

According to Jack et al. (2016), project monitoring and control are performed to detect discrepancies, handle change management, provide feedback, and progressively identify areas to update the project plan, ensuring everything goes according to plan. Project monitoring and control ensure that project objectives are accomplished as they take account of policies, methods, and tools. Hazir (2014). For that reason, developing a control and monitoring system should be part of the project management effort.

Case Studies and Best Practices

Case studies and best practices are invaluable resources for insights into successful relocation projects. By examining real-world examples, project managers can glean valuable lessons from the triumphs and setbacks of others in the field (Kerzner, 2017).Many case studies spanning various industries, including corporate headquarters, manufacturing facilities, and data centers, offer rich insights into the intricacies of relocation projects. These case studies examine project planning, execution strategies, and risk management methodologies employed in diverse relocation scenarios (Turner, 2019).

For instance, case studies of successful corporate headquarters relocation projects shed light on critical success factors that contribute to seamless transitions, such as stakeholder engagement, effective communication strategies, and meticulous planning. By analyzing these case studies, project managers can identify common patterns of success and glean actionable insights that can be applied to their relocation endeavors. Similarly, case studies focusing on the relocation of manufacturing facilities offer valuable lessons on logistical challenges, supply chain disruptions, and facility optimization strategies. These case studies often highlight the importance of contingency planning, stakeholder collaboration, and technology integration in mitigating risks and ensuring operational continuity throughout the relocation process.

Moreover, case studies involving the relocation of data centers provide valuable insights into the complexities of technology infrastructure migration, data security considerations, and downtime mitigation strategies. Project managers can learn from these case studies to develop robust migration plans, implement rigorous testing protocols, and minimize disruptions to critical business operations during data center relocations.

Emerging Trends and Technologies

In recent years, emerging trends and technologies have significantly influenced the landscape of relocation projects. These advancements reshape traditional project management practices and offer innovative solutions to streamline the relocation process. One of the most impactful trends is the widespread adoption of digitalization, automation, and artificial intelligence (AI) in project management. These technologies are revolutionizing how relocation projects are planned, executed, and monitored. Digitalization allows for digitizing project documents, streamlined communication through digital platforms, and enhanced collaboration among project stakeholders. Automation reduces manual tasks, improves efficiency, and minimizes errors in project management processes. AI-powered tools enable predictive analytics, risk assessment, and decision-making support, empowering project managers to proactively make informed decisions and mitigate potential challenges (Crawford, 2019).

In addition to digitalization and AI, innovative tools such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) transform how relocation scenarios are visualized and analyzed. BIM enables multidimensional modeling of buildings and infrastructure, providing stakeholders with a comprehensive view of the relocation site and facilitating better planning and design decisions. GIS technology allows for spatial analysis, mapping, and visualization of geographic data related to the relocation project, helping project teams identify optimal locations, assess environmental factors, and mitigate risks associated with the new site (Eastman et al., 2011).

Furthermore, remote monitoring and collaboration platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in relocation projects. These platforms enable project teams to manage and coordinate activities efficiently, even in distributed environments. Through virtual project management tools, team members can communicate, share documents, track progress, and resolve issues in real-time, regardless of geographical location. This remote accessibility enhances flexibility, reduces reliance on physical meetings, and accelerates decision-making processes, improving overall project efficiency (Project Management Institute, 2020).

Theory of Control

According to Koskela and Howell (2002), control involves measuring the recognized assignment rate, analyzing non-realization causes, and eliminating those causes. In conventional project management, the main controls are made up of a comparison of progress with the baseline performance, articulated through hours or in the value of money. They further discussed that the theory of control has two models, which are the thermostat and the scientific experimentation model; the thermostat model for the production process concept measures the performance of a unit, the standard performance, and a controlling unit as a control process whereas scientific experimental model focuses on finding causes of deviations and acting on those causes, unlike the thermostat model that focuses on changing the performance model to achieve the target in case of a deviation.

In addition, the scientific experimental model adds learning to control. Therefore, project control consists of measuring performance, detecting deviations, learning the causes and effects of these deviations, and devising a way of working against them. The project manager can use this process to monitor and control the processes relating to operational relocation at the University.

In examining the existing literature on this subject, it is evident that a project comprises intricate and interrelated tasks. Any bottleneck encountered at any stage significantly influences the timely completion of other project phases, underscoring the importance of project monitoring and control. Scholars emphasize that the project monitoring and control approach can vary from one project to another. Nevertheless, there is limited discussion regarding operational relocation’s specific monitoring and control processes.


The research explored the monitoring and control aspects and examined project progression concerning time, resources, and performance schedules throughout the project’s execution. It will identify areas that may be falling behind and need prompt attention. The study adopted a qualitative approach, intending to deeply explore the intricacies of monitoring and controlling operational relocation projects. This qualitative strategy is chosen to gain insights into project participants’ attitudes, behaviors, and experiences, aligning with the works of Dawson (2019) and Donegan and Fleming (2007).

Data Collection Methods

The scientific way of collecting data for the research study is called research methodology. For this study, primary and secondary data collection methods were used. The primary data was collected through a questionnaire. The questionnaire is a technique used to collect information and opinions of a set of people; each person is asked to respond to the same questions. According to Gendall (1998), the purpose of a questionnaire is to discover the respondent’s opinion about the question the researcher intends to discover.

The questionnaire was designed based on the project client deliverables to address the research objectives above and centered on the literature review. It was structured also in line with the study’s conceptual framework and was personally administered by the researcher. The questions were structured so that information from respondents would be extracted as much as possible by using a combination of open and closed-structured questions. The respondents useda five-point Likert scale to indicate the degree of the aspect answered. The scale was used because it is simple to construct, read, and complete.

Collis and Hussey (2003) established rules for designing the questionnaire: The researcher should explain the purpose of the questionnaire and ensure that the questions are short and straightforward so that respondents do not struggle with them. Secondly, use simple words and avoid vague and hostile questions, calculations, or offending questions. Lastly, ask one question at a time and ensure the questions are relevant. These rules will be used to develop a quality questionnaire for this study.

The primary purpose of this questionnaire was to examine the level of implementation of the project monitoring and control and the scope for the operational relocation of the targeted university; this questionnaire was used to determine if the project was delivered at or below-promised cost and schedule. The questionnaire comprised twenty questions and was divided into three sections. The first section was aimed at assessing the level at which respondents were affected and involved in project monitoring and control, the second section addressed the project measurement in which the outcome from the process was measured, and lastly assessed project monitoring and control as well as compliance issues and further establish if the project was delivered at or below-promised cost and schedule.

The questionnaire targeted lower- and high-level project management team members of Botswana Limkokwing University in Gaborone, which consists of forty-six employees. The criteria used to select the study population was limited to the project team for the operational relocation project to allow for the elicitation of information related to research objectives. Hamed (2017) attests that sample size is a substantial feature for many researchers as its objective is to create a conclusion about the population from a sample. Therefore, it is imperative to avoid sampling errors by using an adequate sample size.

Monitoring Framework for Relocation Project Management

A comprehensive monitoring framework was developed to facilitate effective management and control of relocation projects. This framework encompasses essential components aimed at systematically monitoring various facets of the project lifecycle, including:

1. Formation and Training of Project Team: Ensuring adequate training and competency of project team members, aligned with recommendations by Wang & Zhang (2015) and Tavana et al. (2013).

2. Coordination of Staff Interaction: Effective communication and coordination among project team members are essential for project success, as emphasized by Ansar et al. (2017).

3. Performance Monitoring of Project Delivery: Regular monitoring of project performance against planned objectives, in line with monitoring practices advocated by Jack et al. (2016) and Gaurav & Ashu (2010).

4. Adherence to Regulatory Requirements: Njoroge (2018) highlighted that ensuring compliance with relevant policies and regulatory standards is vital for project legality and sustainability.

5. Management of Change and Scope: Follow the best practices outlined by Zulch (2014) to proactively manage changes to the project scope to prevent scope creep.

6. Engagement of Stakeholders: Establishing effective stakeholder engagement and communication mechanisms is critical for project success, as Hennink et al. (2020) discussed.

The monitoring framework delineates the frequency of monitoring activities, the responsibilities of project managers and monitoring teams, and reporting mechanisms. It also includes provisions for evaluating and continuously improving the monitoring framework based on feedback and lessons learned.This framework serves as a blueprint for systematically monitoring and managing relocation projects, thereby contributing to attaining objectives and ensuring successful project outcomes.

Sampling and Data Analysis

Thematic analysis, as outlined by Braun and Clarke (2014), was utilized to analyze the interview data, allowing for a thorough examination of themes and patterns. SPSS software was employed to facilitate data analysis, following the methodological framework proposed by Braun and Clarke (2006). An inductive approach guides the examination of four pre-existing research propositions, in line with methodologies that Muller et al. (2015) advocated for qualitative studies.

The study population comprises professionals with extensive experience in operational relocation projects selected through a purposive sampling technique. This technique ensures representation across various project management roles, enriching the data’s depth and breadth. In-depth interviews are the primary data collection method conducted online, audio-recorded, and transcribed for analysis. Snowball sampling is utilized to recruit participants, enabling the identification of individuals with specific characteristics relevant to the research objectives. This approach, endorsed by Hennink et al. (2020), ensures diversity in experience and perspectives among the study participants.

Data validity and reliability are paramount in qualitative research. To ensure reliability, consistent interview protocols were developed and adhered to throughout the data collection process, per the guidelines outlined by Gibbs (2007). Regular transcript checks were conducted to identify inconsistencies or errors, minimizing the risk of data drift. Data validity was maintained by providing rich and thick descriptions in the analysis, allowing for a nuanced understanding of the themes and concepts discussed (Creswell, 2009).

Ethical considerations were central to the research process, with appropriate approvals obtained to safeguard the rights and confidentiality of participants. The research adhered to established ethical guidelines, ensuring transparency, confidentiality, and informed consent. Overall, the research methodology was designed to provide a robust and systematic approach to exploring the monitoring and control mechanisms inherent in the operational relocation project at Limkokwing University, thereby contributing valuable insights to the field.


The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will analyze the survey data. In addition, pie charts and bar charts were used to display quantitative data from the questionnaire.  Forty-six people were targeted, both lower and high-level project management team members of Botswana Limkokwing University in Gaborone. From 46 questionnaires issued, only 39 were returned, yielding a response rate of 85 percent; however, after scrutinizing and validating the responses, it was discovered that amongst the returned, three were partially completed and could not be used for data analysis, therefore reducing the response rate by 7 percent to 78 percent.

Notably, out of the 46 questionnaires distributed, only 78 percent were used for analysis, while the remaining 28 percent were not. The 28 percent comprised 7 percent, discovered when verifying if the questions were all answered. Respondents did not answer some of the questions, and the remaining 22% was not returned. Most questionnaires were returned, and the overall response rate was 78%.

The responses by the project team were dominated by the Operations department with 13 people, and this was because the relocation required most of their expert skills, such as interior designers, electricians, plumbers, painters, land scraping, etc. Other departments supported operations and coordinated the relocation of business operations.  Nonetheless, the supporting departments were equally important,so this study examined their perspective on this project. The questionnaires were distributed randomly. However, positions such as project manager, university management, and student representative council technical personnel were selected as they are focused on this study. This also enhanced the answer’s reliability.


The findings from the analyzed survey results were discussed to address the research questions and compare them with the literature. In addition, the section delves into examining survey results to address research inquiries and juxtapose them with existing literature. This section encapsulates a comprehensive analysis of the findings, shedding light on the extent of project monitoring and control implementation, project delivery performance, identification of variables influencing project monitoring and control, and proposed mitigation strategies for these variables, with implications for future projects.

Discussions on Implications of Project Staff Selection

Analysis of Project Team Formation

The university utilized existing staff to form the project team, ensuring representation from all departments involved in the operational relocation. The dominance of the Operations department in the project team underscores the specialized expertise required for the relocation process. Team formation is crucial, considering the diverse knowledge and skills required for project success (Wang & Zhang, 2015; Tavana et al., 2013).

Training of Project Staff

While 59% of respondents believed that project staff were adequately trained, 41% expressed concerns about the qualifications of the university staff. Refresher training is recommended to enhance project team competency, as training is imperative for project success (Kumar & Bansal, 2010).

Staff Interaction Coordination

Most respondents (73%) reported satisfactory coordination among project staff. Effective communication and coordination are essential for project success, as emphasized by Ansar et al. (2017).

Assessment of Project Delivery Performance

Project Performance Monitoring

The survey revealed mixed responses regarding project performance monitoring, with 55% of respondents indicating that project performance was monitored and controlled. However, 45% disagreed, suggesting potential gaps in monitoring processes.

Alignment with Project Objectives

While 68% of respondents indicated that project objectives were measured, 32% disagreed. Monitoring project performance against planned objectives is essential to assess project effectiveness (Jacket et al., 2016).

University Management Involvement

Most respondents (80%) agreed that university management was involved in project monitoring and control, highlighting the importance of leadership engagement in project success (Njoroge, 2018).

Discrepancy Analysis

Positive feedback was received regarding analyzing discrepancies in the project, with 75% of respondents indicating that discrepancies were analyzed. Practical discrepancy analysis facilitates corrective actions and enhances project outcomes.

Discussions on Implications of the Operational Relocation on Stakeholders

Compliance with Regulatory Requirements

Most respondents (68%) agreed that the university’s operational relocation complied with regulatory requirements, indicating adherence to established policies and procedures.

Change Management Processes

Procedures were established for managing changes in project scope, with 78% of respondents indicating the presence of change control processes. Effective change management is critical for project success and stakeholder satisfaction.

Discussion for Mitigating Identified Variables

Project Progress Monitoring

All respondents reported monitoring project progress through scheduled meetings and a designated WhatsApp group, highlighting the importance of communication and collaboration in project monitoring (Zulch, 2014).

Scope Management

The collaborative approach to managing project scope changes aligns with best project management practices, emphasizing proactive communication and stakeholder engagement (Zulch, 2014).

Weekly Stand-Up Meetings

Approximately 91% of respondents disclosed the routine conduct of stand-up meetings, which facilitate timely updates and identify deviations from planned milestones (Zulch, 2014).

Documented Plan Adherence

Most respondents (75%) believed project plans and documents were frequently updated, ensuring alignment with project objectives and minimizing schedule slippages.



The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of project monitoring and control procedures for the operational relocation initiative at Limkokwing University of Creative Technology Botswana. The assessment encompassed various aspects, including monitoring project interfaces, progress review, risk management practices, and handling deviations from established plans. Findings from the assessment indicate that project interfaces were vigilantly monitored, and project progress was periodically reviewed. Furthermore, the adequacy of risk management processes in addressing discrepancies and managing change was explored. The analysis also delved into the effectiveness of corrective measures implemented in response to deviations from planned milestones.

Moreover, stakeholder satisfaction levels regarding project control mechanisms were scrutinized, revealing a consensus among respondents regarding the attainment of time, cost, and quality objectives. Additionally, respondents expressed confidence in the project’s ability to fulfill financial objectives and meet stakeholders’ requirements.Furthermore, the project monitoring and control framework facilitated timely feedback and proactive identification of areas requiring attention to ensure adherence to planned objectives (Jacket et al., 2016).In line with the findings, it is recommended that university management prioritize implementing robust monitoring systems and adhere to best practices to optimize project outcomes.


Based on the insights gleaned from this study, it is advisable for the University to institute a dedicated monitoring and control unit within its organizational structure, a fundamental component crucial for ensuring project success. However, several impediments may hamper this endeavor, including inadequate staff coordination, insufficient expertise, workforce, experience, and resistance to change. While implementing refresher courses and training programs is commendable, it may not suffice to address these challenges comprehensively. Consequently, the following recommendations are proposed:

Firstly, the monitoring system should not solely serve to identify problems but also be adept at recognizing and highlighting opportunities and achievements. Furthermore, the monitoring process should remain flexible to accommodate evolving circumstances and project dynamics instead of rigidly adhering to pre-established targets. Moreover, reports generated by the monitoring system must undergo independent verification by designated coordinators rather than relying solely on custodianship to mitigate the risk of overlooking potential issues. Additionally, it is recommended that university management formally endorse these reports to underscore their significance.

Furthermore, it is advised that not all recommendations be universally implemented; only those pertinent to the university’s context should be adopted. Nonetheless, valuable lessons can be gleaned from all recommendations for future initiatives. In terms of future research directions, it is proposed that organizations explore the development of a holistic monitoring and control model applicable across all facets of the institution, extending beyond project management domains. This would enable continuous monitoring of educational delivery across academic and non-academic departments. Additionally, to enhance data reliability, future questionnaire distributions should be limited to employees who have remained engaged with the project from its initiation to completion, mitigating the risk of data incompleteness due to personnel transfers.


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