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A Correlational Study between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-Being among Public Secondary Schools

  • Bantolinao, Aljane N.
  • Juanillo, Sebastian Jr. S
  • Aquino, Laiza Dale
  • Dalde, Jeza Mea Cloe G
  • Demitillo, Zedrick Charles
  • Lauron, Jayson T
  • Llanos, Angeline L.
  • Loar, John Paul M
  • Malinao, Kristine Bernadette G
  • Polinar, Richelle C
  • Sencio, Kejie B
  • Krystal Joy M. Clamares
  • Anna Marie O. Pelandas
  • 3082-3090
  • May 25, 2024
  • Psychology

A Correlational Study between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-Being among Public Secondary Schools

Bantolinao, Aljane N.1., Juanillo, Sebastian Jr. S1., Aquino, Laiza Dale1, Dalde, Jeza Mea Cloe G1., Demitillo, Zedrick Charles1, Lauron, Jayson T1., Llanos, Angeline L.1, Loar, John Paul M1., Malinao, Kristine Bernadette G1., Polinar, Richelle C1., Sencio, Kejie B1., Krystal Joy M. Clamares, PhD1., Anna Marie O. Pelandas, MAEd1

1Department of Education, Senior High School Students, Philippines

2Department of Education, Senior High School Teachers Division of Davao de Oro, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.804288

Received: 26 April 2024; Revised: 12 May 2024; Accepted: 14 May 2024; Published: 25 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study dealt with the influence of emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among teachers in Mawab District secondary schools. The primary goal of the study was to determine the level of in terms of emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being their respective indicators, the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being, and what domains of emotional intelligence substantially influence teachers’ well-being. Also, this study utilized a quantitative-correlational design with 103 respondents among teachers in Mawab District secondary schools. The average weighted mean, Pearson R, and multiple regression analysis were the statistical tools used in this study. Along with this, results showed a very high level of emotional intelligence among teachers in terms of appraisal of others’ emotion, appraisal of own emotion, and social skills. Likewise, results showed a very high level of teachers’ well-being in Mawab District Secondary schools regarding teacher active support towards students, classroom social climate, and teacher co-operation. In addition, there is a high correlation, and a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being. Hence, this leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Also, all domains of emotional intelligence showed very high ratings as perceived by teachers.

Keywords: GAS, Emotional Intelligence, Teachers’ well-being, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

In the United Kingdom, the excessive workload for teachers was often identified as a significant driver of teachers’ well-being, and cited reasons for teachers’ well-being include lack of administrative support, dissatisfaction with the teaching career, including lack of opportunities for advancement, and dissatisfaction with working conditions (National Association of Schoolmasters Union of women Teachers, 2018). In addition, in China, the health of teachers was deteriorating year by year; teachers encountered challenges to their well-being, especially with growing demands, lack of a work-life balance, and decreased work security (Bao & Wang, 2021). Furthermore, it is unsurprising in France that teachers’ well-being has become a prominent issue in policy and public debates (Schleicher, 2018).

In the Philippines, particularly in Nueva Vizcaya, teachers’ emotional intelligence is an important personal resource when teachers are faced with the demands of their profession (Valente et al., 2020). Likewise, according to Welmilla (2020), teachers in Manila with high emotional intelligence were good at engaging students in learning activities, which had a positive impact on student learning outcomes. In addition, high levels of emotional intelligence influenced teacher wellbeing, teachers who were better at regulating their emotions experienced less likely to feel burned out (Turner & Stough, 2020).

In Davao City, Casamayor (2019) stated in a report that past suicide incidents involving teachers, allegedly resulting from depression in the city and other places, could be connected to excessive workload and pressure from piled-up requirements. Furthermore, in our local municipality, Mawab, researchers observed that teachers face difficulties managing stress, understanding, and regulating emotions, which ultimately impacted the work environment. With this, the researchers were interested in determining whether emotional intelligence significantly influenced the growing problem of well-being in Mawab district secondary schools.

Although numerous studies have explored the impact of work conditions on teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation, effectiveness, and overall well-being, there is a dearth of research assessing the relationship between emotional intelligence and the well-being of educators in Mawab district. This study marked the first attempt to investigate the interplay between emotional intelligence and teacher well-being in small-scale educational institutions in the region. Understanding how individual differences in emotional intelligence interacted with factors in the work environment could offer insights into why certain teachers were more likely to experience well-being than others, even under similar conditions. This knowledge is crucial for developing targeted strategies to enhance teachers’ well-being and improve overall retention rates. The researchers are motivated to conduct this study to identify factors contributing to the relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being in educational institutions in Mawab district secondary schools, emphasizing the need for such research.

Research Objectives

This study was conducted to determine the influence of Emotional intelligence towards the teacher’s well-being. Specifically, the study sought answers to the following objectives:

  1. To assess the level of emotional intelligence among teacher’s well-being in terms of:

 1.1  Appraisal of others’ emotions;

 1.2  Appraisal of own emotions; and

 1.3  Social skills.

  1. To assess the level of teacher’s well-being among emotional Intelligence in terms of:

 2.1   Teacher active support towards students;

 2.2   Classroom social climate; and

 2.3   Teacher co-operation.

  1. To determine the significant relationship between the influences of emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being.
  2. To determine which of the domains in emotional intelligence significantly influences teacher well-being in Mawab district secondary school.

METHODOLOGY

This study used a quantitative, non-experimental research design utilizing a correlational technique. This method was used when the objective is to describe the status of the situation as it exists at the time of the study in order to explore the causes of a particular phenomenon. In correlational research, it involved collecting data in order to determine whether the degree of a relationship exists between two more quantifiable variables (Gay, 2006).

Population and Sample

Simple random sampling was used in the selection of respondents. The subject of the study was the 103 teachers who are employed in Mawab district secondary schools. They are ideal respondents for this study because they can provide insights into how to enhance emotional intelligence and well-being among secondary teachers. Their experiences and perspectives could contribute valuable information on strategies to improve emotional intelligence and promote overall well-being in the teaching profession.

Research Instrument

The instrument used in the study was adapted from the standardized survey of Anastasi and urban, (1997) for the independent variable and Lundgren et al., (2012) for the dependent variable.

Statistical Tool

The following statistical tools were utilized for the data analysis and interpretation.

Mean. This statistical tool was used to determine the level of emotional intelligence and teacher well-being among secondary teachers of Mawab district, Davao De Oro.

Pearson (r).This statistical tool was used to determine the significance of the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher well-being among secondary teachers of Mawab district, Davao de Oro.

Multiple Regression Analysis. This statistical tool was used to determine the influence of the emotional intelligence and teacher well-being among secondary teachers of Mawab district, Davao de Oro.

RESULTS

Level of Emotional Intelligence      

Shown in Table 1 were the mean scores for the indicators of emotional intelligence among Teachers’ in Mawab District Secondary Schools with an overall mean of 4.21 and described as very high with a standard deviation of 0.48. The very high level could be attributed to the very high rating given by the respondents in all indicators. This entails that the respondents’ responses to the level of Emotional Intelligence are very much positive in terms of appraisal of others’ emotion, appraisal of own emotion and social skills.

The cited overall mean score was the result obtained from the following computed mean scores from highest to lowest: 4.26 or very high for appraisal of own emotion with standard deviation of 0.48; 4.25 or very high for social skills with standard deviation of 0.47; and 4.11 or high for appraisal of others’ emotion with standard deviation of 0.49.

Table 1. Level of Emotional Intelligence

Indicator Mean SD Descriptive level
Appraisal of others’ emotion 4.11 0.49 High
Appraisal of own emotion 4.26 0.48  Very high
Social skills 4.25 0.47 Very high
Overall 4.21 0.48 Very high

Level of Teachers’ Well-being

Shown in table 2 were the mean scores for the indicators of teachers’ well-being in Mawab District Secondary Schools with an overall mean of 4.50 and described as very high with a standard deviation of 0.53. The very high level could be attributed to the high rating given by the respondents in all indicators. This entailed that the respondents’ responses to the level of Teachers’ Well-being were very much positive in terms of Teacher active support towards students, Classroom social climate, and Teacher co-operation.

Furthermore, the cited overall mean score was the result obtained from the following computed mean scores from highest to lowest: 4.53 or very high for Classroom social climate with standard deviation of 0.50; 4.51 or very high for Teacher active support towards students with standard deviation of 0.55; 4.46 for very high for Teacher co-operation with standard deviation of 0.53.

Table 2. Level of Active Reading Experience

Indicator Mean SD Descriptive level
Teacher active support towards students 4.51 0.55 Very High
Classroom social climate 4.53 0.50 Very high
Teacher co-operation 4.46 0.53 Very high
Overall 4.50 0.53 Very high

Significance on the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-being

The results revealed that emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being had a significant relationship. This result was due to an R-value of 0.689, which was greater than the 0.05 critical value. Hence, this led to the decision that the null hypothesis, which stated that there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among teachers in Mawab District Secondary school, was rejected. This further meant that there was a moderate correlation, and there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being.

Multiple Regression Analysis of The Influence of the Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-Being

Using the Multiple Regression Analysis, the data revealed that the influence of emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being had an f-value of 37.599 and corresponding significance p-value <.001, which was significant.

Consistently, this meant that the usage of emotional intelligence influenced the intelligence and teachers’ well-being among teachers in Mawab District secondary schools since the probability was less than 0.05. The R squared of 0.533 implied that 53.3% of the teachers’ well-being in Mawab District secondary schools was influenced by the usage of emotional intelligence, while the remaining 46.7% were not covered by the study and were influenced by other factors.

DISCUSSIONS

Level of Emotional Intelligence

The respondents level of Emotional Intelligence of secondary teachers’ in Mawab district is very high. This means that Emotional Intelligence among secondary teachers in Mawab District is very much positive. This further means that the Emotional Intelligence in secondary schools in Mawab District manifested a positive emotional intelligence, which the teachers could freely express their thoughts about Appraisal of others’ emotions, which refers to understand the feelings and the emotions of other people around them. This was important for others to recognize the feeling and to be aware of the current situation; Appraisal of own emotions, wherein teachers understand their own emotion that affects their overall teaching and learning experience; and Social skills, that refers to the interactions between their co teachers and create a community where they feels like they belong, it also provide collaboration and communication to share and received feedback that is important process of teaching.

Moreover, this result is in relation to the proposition of Zheng et al., (2022) which stated that people with high Emotional Intelligence are able to maintain more positive emotions, mindfulness and sufficient intrinsic motivation at work thus, promoting creative self-efficacy and behavior. Further, emotional intelligence had they capacity to access and generate feelings, understand emotions and the capacity to promote emotional growth (Sanchez-Nunez et al., 2020)  As a matter of fact, Valente et al., (2020) expressed that teachers with abilities to recognize and understand emotions were  more likely to identify discrepancies between what students feel and their outward behavior, knowing when and how to provide support.

Level of Teachers’ Well-being

It revealed that the teacher’s well-being as very high. All three indicators for this variable were also described as very high. The respondent’s level of Teachers’ Well-being in Mawab District Secondary Schools is high. This means that Teachers’ Well-being was positive among Teachers in Mawab District Secondary Schools. This result is symmetrical with the work of Chen (2019) teachers are emotional workers and teachers’ emotions have been found to influence their performance, self-efficacy, job satisfaction, burnout, and instructional effectiveness. As well as Aparisi (2019) expressed that teachers’ well-being depends on interpersonal relationships, and professional success. In addition, teachers’ well-being has gained a lot of positive interest over the past decades that experienced by teachers has increased their work engagement, that positively affect the well-being (Benevene, De Stasio et al., 2020).

 To add, as evidence of the very high level of teacher active support towards students, the level of teachers’ well-being was very much positive. This signifies that the teachers’ well-being is promoting teacher active support towards students. This is congruent to the study of Addimando, (2019) a teacher who is engaged in the classroom and actively involved in developing a healthy student-teacher relationship promotes a students’ engagement and thereby improved students’ academic achievement. Moreover, positive teacher- student relationships lead to increased cooperation and engagement in the classroom while contributing a welcoming, inclusive school climate that promotes equity, social and emotional learning and improved students’ outcome (Vicki Nishioka, 2019). In addition, teacher support has helped in building character in different ways, including fostering a loving connection, including in molding the skills they seek to improved (Shubert et al., 2019) Aside from that, Support from teachers is also related to higher level of intrinsic motivation and lower level of anxiety.

Significance on the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-being

The present study reveals a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among secondary teachers of mawab district. This implies that emotional intelligence influences teachers’ well-being among secondary teachers, which can be seen in the data. This confirms the proposition of this study, Goleman (1995) which claimed that high emotional intelligence would lead to greater feelings of teachers’ well-being. Those who are able to understand and regulate their emotions should be able to generally maintain a better outlook on life and experience better emotional health. Some empirical evidence that emotional intelligence is associated with emotional well-being comes from research indicating that higher emotional intelligence is associated with less depression (Schutte et al., 1998), greater optimism, and greater life satisfaction (Ciarrochi et al., 2000). Thus, both theory and previous research suggest a link between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being.

Further, the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher well-being is significant among secondary teachers of mawab district. This implies that teachers’ well-being is dependent on emotional intelligence among secondary teachers. these findings further aligned with, Keyes (1998) teachers’ well- being and theories detailing the psychological component of well- being, introduced the dimension of social well-being, pointing out that well- being is “the appraisal of one’s circumstance and functioning in society. Also supported by the proposition of Jansen (2006) that a Person environment occupation performance model capitalizes on individual strengths as well as environmental contexts and provides a framework for understanding how the interactions between the person and the environment promote or inhibit optimal functioning and work-related outcomes. moreover, this multidimensional model suggests that both individuals and the environment they inhabit include internal factors and external factors (e.g., job requirements, behavior, organizational culture, and pay; Edwards & Billsberry, 2010). Finally, teachers’ well-being is divided into three factors: Teachers active support towards students; Classroom social climate; Teacher co-operation (Lundgren et al., 2012).

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Influence of the Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Well-Being

The regression coefficient is to test the significant influence of overall emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among the secondary teachers. Using the Multiple Regression Analysis, the data revealed that the emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among the secondary teachers have a significant influence. The overall results of the Emotional intelligence predict teachers’ well-being of secondary teachers. Therefore, the significance level of hypothesis of emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being among the secondary teacher is rejected.

Correspondingly, these results support the statement of Turner and Stough, (2020) High levels of emotional intelligence support teacher wellbeing. Teachers who are better at regulating their emotions experience higher job satisfaction, positive impact, and are less likely to feel burned out. Specifically, Earlier research points out that teachers’ emotional intelligence has a significant and optimistic association with several aspects of teaching, which comprise enjoyment in class Kang, (2022), teacher efficacy beliefs Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci et al., (2022), the relationship between teachers and students burnout and engagement (Yin et al.,2019).

Teacher emotional intelligence has a significant impact on the teaching and learning process, and teacher emotional intelligence has been shown to influence student learning behaviors, engagement, and academic performance (Corcoran and Tormey, 2013; Latif et al., 2017). Especially in second language teaching, the emotions of educators also have a significant impact on learners’ performance and success (Dewaele and MacIntyre, 2019; Wang et al., 2021; Shen, 2022).

CONCLUSION   

The findings of the study are used to draw conclusions. The level of Emotional Intelligence among secondary teachers in mawab district is high for appraisal of others’ emotion, very high for appraisal of own emotions, and very high for social skills, thus the Overall mean is very high for the emotional intelligence. The level of teachers well-being in secondary teachers in mawab district is very high for teacher active support towards students, very high for classroom social climate, and very high for teachers’ co cooperation, thus the overall mean is very high for the level of teachers well-being.  Moreover, the findings opposed the Theoretical assumption of no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being of secondary teachers in Mawab district.

Contrary to the assumption, the study concludes that emotional intelligence and teachers’ well-being were positively correlated. That was, change in the level of emotional intelligence affects the level of teachers’ well-being. Further, there are three domains in emotional intelligence that significantly influence the teacher’s well-being in Mawab district secondary schools.

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