Submission Deadline-30th July 2024
July 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Open
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

An Integrated Analysis of Production, Marketing, and Value Addition in Rose and Gerbera Cultivation and Distribution

  • Shirajum Manjira
  • Fauzia Yasmin
  • Md. Rayhan Ali Rejvi
  • Tasmia Mahmuda Chowdhury
  • Taskin Afrina
  • Tahrima Haq Beg
  • Fatema Tus Sadia
  • 1679-1691
  • Jun 18, 2024
  • Agriculture

An Integrated Analysis of Production, Marketing, and Value Addition in Rose and Gerbera Cultivation and Distribution

Shirajum Manjira1, Fauzia Yasmin2, Md. Rayhan Ali Rejvi4, Tasmia Mahmuda Chowdhury3, Taskin Afrina1, Tahrima Haq Beg1, Fatema Tus Sadia4

1Department of Agricultural Finance and Management, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Farmgate, Dhaka.

3Department of Development and Poverty Study, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4Department of Agricultural Economics, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.805123

Received: 30 April 2024; Accepted: 16 May 2024; Published: 18 June 2024

ABSTRACT

This comprehensive study offers an integrated investigation of various elements of rose and gerbera farming, marketing, and value-added operations. First, by evaluating the Cobb-Douglas production function’s coefficients and associated statistics, the production aspect is examined. which reveals strong relationships between inputs such as labour, seedlings, fertilisers, and output yield. Second, the marketing channels used in the distribution of rose and gerbera flowers are identified, with eight separate channels ranging from direct farmer-to-consumer transactions to multi-tiered networks comprising local and Dhaka wholesalers. Third, examine average marketing expenditures for performers or agents in each channel, including expenses for baskets, packing, transportation, storage, waste loss, commission, and other costs. Finally, the net value addition for each agent across various channels is derived by subtracting the selling price from the total marketing costs. The findings shed light on the intricacies of rose and gerbera cultivation and distribution, assisting stakeholders in optimising production methods, marketing approaches, and resource allocation to boost floriculture profits and efficiency in the floriculture industry.

Key word: Cutflower, Marketing channel, Cobb-Douglas production function, Value chain mapping, Rose, Gerbera

INTRODUCTION

As an increasingly globalized market, the worldwide economic importance of cut flower industry rose significantly in recent years. Due to the growing demand of cut flower along with its thriving capture of market share in global trade, both the amount of production per unit of area and their market value are now to be taken with salient gravity.  The global cut flower market is expected to reach USD 45.5 billion by 2027 with a CAGR of 4.6% from 2022 to 2027. (Markets and Markets, 2023). Worldwide, cut flowers were the 344th most traded product in 2021, with $10.5 billion in global trade, representing 0.05% of total world trade and ranking 953rd in the Product Complexity Index (OEC, 2023). In Bangladesh, over 100,000 people are employed directly or indirectly by commercial floriculture, which is practiced by 10,000–12,000 farm families on a production base of approximately 10,000 hectares, of which 70% is dedicated to the production of flowers with the value of exports TK 3840 million, while the local market turnover is approximately TK 4000 million (FAO, 2011). For FY2020–21, Bangladesh produced 32,120 tonnes of flowers on 3,930 hectares, up 12% from 931 hectares in FY 2009–10 (BBS, 2023). Among the major cut flowers produced extensively in the world, rose and gerbera hold significant portion of the floriculture industry (Gudin, 1999 and Rahman et al., 2013). Roses are a popular cut flower for commerce and are grown all around the world; it belongs to the Rosaceae family and genus Rosa. (Rusanov, K., et al 2009). Roses are widely grown in Asia for their cut flower industry, although fewer species are native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa (Xia, Y et al., 2006, Debener, T., & Linde, M. 2009 and Liorzou, M et al., 2016). As for the scenario of Bangladesh in rose production, in the years 2021-22, total production of rose was 22140.14 metric tons and the area under production was 608.09 acres and it is evident that roses predominate in domestic output; at about 22,000 tons, over two-thirds (67%) were roses (BBS, 2023 and Dhaka Tribune, 2023). Whereas the gerbera is a native of tropical Asia and Africa and belongs to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family and genus Gerbera which currently includes 45 species (Pasini et al., 2016; Xu et al., 2018 and Hossain, S. A. 2018). Gerbera is a highly appealing crop of cut flowers used for commercial purposes, and it is sold in large quantities to international florists (Faust & Dole, 2021and Reinten, E. Y et al., 2011). After tuberose, different varieties of roses, gladiolus, and marigold, gerbera is a popular flower in Bangladesh (Reza, M. 2013).  Although the demand for this profitable flower is raising daily, gerbera farming in Bangladesh is currently limited to Jashore and to a lesser extent Chuadanga, Savar, Gazipur and Mymensingh (Mamun et al., 2020). The profitability of cultivating rose, and gerbera as commercial flowers differs due the difference in cost of production and their respective prices (Haque et al., 2013 and Mou, 2012). Furthermore, different factors including irrigation, fertilizer, pesticide, human labour etc., found to have different effects on the production of these two commercially viable flowers in our country (Aegerter et al., 2003). Rose and gerbera cultivation boost farmers’ income and quality of life. To maximise production in this sector, yield-influencing elements and value chain dynamics must be identified, which lead to self-employment, and poverty reduction. Policy interventions can be customised. This study advances rose and gerbera culture and establishes the framework for future research. The generated data benefits flower growers, traders, and exporters. Understanding growers’ socio-demographic profiles, profitability, production parameters, distribution methods, value addition, and grower and value chain actor restrictions are the goals. This study provides farm-level data on input utilisation, pricing, expenses, returns, productivity, and value chain dynamics. It advises development agencies and governments on improving rural livelihoods in Bangladesh.

METHODOLOGY

Study Area and Data Source

Bangladesh’s Jashore and Dhaka districts were chosen as the study’s area. Over a 625-hectare area in Jashore’s 35 villages, 42 domestic and foreign flower varieties are cultivated for commercial purposes. Initially, a list of gerbera and rose growers was prepared. Then, 200 flower farmers in all—100 of whom were gerbera farmers and the other 100 of whom were rose farmers—were chosen at random to provide data. 70 flower market supply chain participants transport flowers from Jashore to Dhaka was also interviewed.

Profitability Analysis: Analysis of costs and returns is the prevailing approach utilized to ascertain profitability. In this study profitability of flower cultivation was calculated by the following method.

GM = TR – VC

Where, GM = Gross margin, TR = Total revenue, VC = Variable cost

NI = TR – TC

Where, NI = Net income, TR = Total revenue, TC = Total cost

BCR = TR / TC

Where, BCR = Undiscounted benefit cost ratio, TR = Total revenue, TC = Total cost (Variable cost + Fixed cost)

Average return per taka spent on production is a key profitability indicator.

Analytical Technique

Cobb Douglas production function determined flower production input-output relationship and significant variables. To solve it using OLS, the function was logarithmically modified.

LnY = a + b1lnX1 + b2lnX2 + b3 lnX3 + b4lnX4 + b5lnX5 +Ui

Where,

Y = Yield (Stick /ha);

X1 = Human Labor (Man-days /ha);

X2 = Seedlings (Numbe r/ha);

X3 = Fertilizers (Kg /ha);

X4 = Insecticides (kg /ha);

X5 = Irrigation (Liter /ha);

a = Intercept;

b1, b2, b3, b4, b5 = coefficients of the variables to estimate. Ui = Error term.

Marketing Cost of Value Chain Actors

Marketing expenditures involve expenses for promoting flower shipment from farmers to customers. Marketing costs include transportation, loading, unloading, storage, market fees, commissions, and packaging. This data came from surveys and interviews.

Net Value Addition

The gap between sell and buy prices adds value. The use of gross margin analysis is based on the belief that actor’s priorities return over cost. The following equation will evaluate the value created by specific actors.
Additionally, value addition will evaluate consumer and farmer prices.

VA = SP-PP.

Where, VA=Value addition, SP= Sale price, PP= Purchase Price
To determine net value addition, subtract marketing expenditures from value addition.
Net value addition = VA-MC.

Where, VA = Value addition, MC= Marketing cost

RESULTS

Per-hectare Rose and Gerbera Cultivation Cost

The cost of cultivation of rose and gerbera as per hectare under these two crops with respect to various items of expenditure was calculated and it is presented in Table 1. Analyses were conducted on the variable costs associated with rose and gerbera cultivation per hectare, including labor, land preparation, seedlings, fertilizers, and so forth. The total cost of roses amounted to Tk. 327,019, with the most expensive component being seedlings. The principal reason for the increased total cost of Tk. 538,479 in Gerberas was seedlings. In comparison to the cultivation of roses, gerbera cultivation exhibited a higher cost per hectare.

Profitability of Rose and Gerbera Cultivation

Table 2 shows rose and gerbera profitability. Like any business, rose and gerbera cultivation profitability depends on production and cost. Per hectare of farming, rose and gerbera returns were calculated using the value of each flower stick. Rose farming had a gross return, net return, and gross margin of Tk. 902484, Tk. 575465, and Tk. 648214, whereas gerbera farming had Tk. 2116800, 1578321, and 1646766. For rose culture, the complete cost and cash cost benefit cost ratios were 2.76 and 3.55, and for gerbera cultivation, 3.93 and 4.50. Table 2 shows that rose and gerbera farming were profitable, but gerbera was more profitable.

Table 1. Per-hectare rose and gerbera cultivation cost

Cost items Units Amount (Unit /ha) Price (Tk. /Unit) Cost (Tk. /ha) Percent of cost (%)
    Rose Gerbera Rose Gerbera Rose Gerbera Rose Gerbera
Variable cost items               Percent of total variable cost (%)
Human labor Man-days 70 65 475 475 33250 30875 13.08 6.57
Land preparation Tk. 2120 3550 0.83 0.76
Seedling No. 6397 6000 10 36 63970 216000 25.16 45.95
Organic manure Kg. 1728 1817 1 1 1728 1817 0.68 0.39
Urea Kg. 1545 1635 16 16 24720 26160 9.72 5.56
TSP Kg. 1100 1136 25 25 27500 28400 10.82 6.04
MoP Kg. 555 615 16 16 8880 9840 3.49 2.09
Insecticides Brail 384 356 125 125 48000 44500 18.88 9.47
Irrigation Tk. 33153 43652 13.04 9.29
Poly House 45000 9.57
Interest on operating cost 10949 20240 4.31 4.31
Fixed cost items Percent of total fixed cost (%)
Land use cost 72749 68445 100 100
Total Cost items Percent of total cost (%)
Total variable cost 254270 470034 77.75 87.29
Total fixed cost 72749 68445 22.25 12.71
Total cost 327019 538479 100 100

Table 2. The profitability of cultivating gerberas and roses

Items Total (Tk. /hectare)
Rose Gerbera
Gross returns 902484 2116800
Yield(stick/ha) Price(tk./stick)
Rose 530873 1.7
Gerbera 216000 9.8
Total variable costs 254270 470034
Total Fixed Cost 72749 68445
Total costs 327019 538479
Net return 575465 1578321
Gross margin 648214 1646766
Benefit-cost ratio

(Full cost basis)

2.76 3.93
Benefit-cost ratio

(Cash cost basis)

3.55 4.50

 Factors Influencing Gerbera and Rose Cultivation Yields

The Cobb-Douglas production function study showed that inputs had a major effect on the growth of gerberas and roses. Table 3 shows calculated Cobb-Douglas production function co-efficient and statistics.

The study of the Cobb-Douglas production function showed that inputs had a noteworthy impact on the growth of gerberas and roses. The production of roses was positively impacted by human labor (0.226), seedlings (0.124), urea (0.186), and irrigation (0.035); MOP (0.102), pesticides (0.050), and TSP (0.115) had less pronounced but still significant effects. Organic manure had no discernible effect. The yield of gerberas was positively impacted by seedlings (1.049) and TSP (0.628), although organic manure (0.438) demonstrated significance at the 10% level. Insecticides, urea, and human labor had no discernible effects. Strong explanatory power was indicated by the coefficients of determination (R2), which were 0.97 for gerberas and 0.81 for roses. The coefficients for roses and gerberas added up to 1.04 and 1.93, respectively, indicating that both crops showed rising returns to scale. The yield variation was shown to be strongly dependent on the included factors, as indicated by the F-values of 76.96 for roses and 475.7 for gerberas, which were significant at the 1% level.

Table 3. Estimated Cobb-Douglas Production Function Coefficients and Statistics

Rose Gerbera
Explanatory

variables

Co-efficient Standard error T-value Co-efficient Standard error T- value
Intercept 13.071*** 3.449 3.79 4.546*** 1.561 2.91
Human labour (X1) 0.226*** 0.088 2.58 -0.063NS 0.047 -1.35
Seedling (X2) 0.124*** 0.035 3.54 1.049*** 0.106 9.93
Organic manure (X3) 0.203NS 0.327 0.62 0.438* 0.247 1.77
Urea (X4) 0.186*** 0.049 3.79 -0.100NS 0.203 -0.49
TSP (X5) 0.115* 0.072 1.60 0.628*** 0.231 2.72
MOP (X6) 0.102** 0.048 2.14 0.051NS 0.121 0.42
Insecticides (X7) 0.050** 0.025 1.98 -0.272NS 0.137 -1.50
Irrigation (X8) 0.035*** 0.010 3.39 0.201NS 0.197 1.02
R2 0.81 0.97
Adjusted R2 0.80 0.96
Return to scale 1.04 1.93
F-value 76.96*** 475.7***

Note: *** Significant at 1%; ** Significant at 5%; * Significant at 10%; and NS: Not Significant.

Value Chain Mapping and Actor Distribution in Rose and Gerbera Marketing

The value chain for cut flowers (Rose and Gerbera) includes input suppliers, farmers, wholesalers, forias, contact farming agents, Dhaka wholesale market, retailers, and consumers (Figure 1). This value chain chart clarifies links and integration.

The following major channels were involved in rose and gerbera marketing:

Channel ⅰ: Farmer → local consumer

Channel ⅱ: Farmer → local retailer → local consumer

Channel ⅲ: Farmer → local wholesaler → local retailer → local consumer

Channel ⅳ: Farmer → local wholesaler → Dhaka wholesaler → retailer→ consumer

Channel ⅴ: Farmer → contact farming agent → Dhaka wholesaler (Shahbag and Agargoan) → retailer → consumer

Channel ⅵ: Farmer → foria → contact farming agent → Dhaka wholesaler (Shahbag and Agargoan) → retailer → consumer

Channel ⅶ: Farmer → foria → local wholesaler → Dhaka wholesaler (Shahbag and Agargoan) → retailer → consumer

Channel ⅷ: Farmer → foria → Contact farming agent → local wholesaler → Dhaka wholesaler (Shahbag and Agargoan) → retailer → consumer

Channel ⅸ: Farmer → Dhaka wholesaler (Shahbag and Agargoan) → retailer → consumer

Marketing Cost of Rose and Gerbera

The average marketing expenses accrued by participants in the rose and gerbera value chains are detailed in Table 5. Dhaka wholesalers and retailers incurred the greatest prices for roses, at Tk 68.2 and Tk 59.7, respectively. 29 taka were expended by farmers on marketing expenses. Gerberas were once more most expensive for wholesalers and retailers in Dhaka, at Tk 73.2 and Tk 70.7, respectively. 37.2 Tk was expended by farmers on marketing expenses.

Net Value Addition of Rose and Gerbera

The net value addition (Tk. 159.4/100 rose) for roses sold to local consumers (Channel ⅰ) was the highest, while the lowest (Tk. 39.4/100 rose) was obtained when roses were sold to contact agricultural agents (Channel ⅴ) and to forias in Channel ⅶ. The gerberas that were sold directly to local consumers resulted in the greatest net value addition (Tk 470.5/100 gerbera), whereas the gerberas that were sold to contact agricultural agents (Channel ⅴ and forias in Channel ⅶ) generated the least (Tk 113.5/100 gerbera). When selling to end consumers (Channel ⅸ), retailers achieved the greatest net value addition for both roses (Tk. 120.3/100 rose) and gerberas (Tk. 949.3/100 gerbera).

Cut flower (Rose and Gerbera) value chain map and actor dispersion.

Figure 1. Cut flower (Rose and Gerbera) value chain map and actor dispersion.

Table 5. The average cost of marketing roses and gerberas for various actors (Tk./100 Sticks)

Cost Items of Marketing Actors
  Farmer Foria Contact Farming Agent Local Wholesaler Local Retailer Dhaka Wholesaler Retailer
Rose              
Basket 8 5 7 7 7 5 5
Packing 2       5 4.8 8.5
Transport   5     6 12.5 8
Telephone cost   10 10     2.7  
Storage 4         4.8  
Wastage loss 15     7 2.5 5 3.2
Commission     3.5   4.4 10 4.5
Shop rent       5 10 23.4 30.5
Other cost   5          
Total cost 29 25 20.5 19 34.9 68.2 59.7
Gerbera
Basket 8 6 7 7 7 8 5
Packing 5 8 4.8 8.5
Transport 5 10 6 12.5 8
Telephone cost 10 10 2.9 6
Storage 5.5 6 5 5.6 4.8 5
Wastage loss 16.7 6.5 4.5 6.8 3.2
Commission 3.5 3.5 5.4 10 4.5
Shop rent 8 10 23.4 30.5
Other cost 2 1
Total cost 37.2 30.5 36.5 27.1 40.9 73.2 70.7

 Table 6. Net value addition of roses in several channels

Agents Rose Marketing Channel
Farmer Purchase price 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60 61.60
Selling price 250 150 145 145 130 160 130 160 200
Value Addition 188.4 88.4 83.4 83.4 68.4 98.4 68.4 98.4 138.4
Marketing cost 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29
Net Value Addition 159.4 59.4 54.4 54.4 39.4 69.4 39.4 69.4 109.4
Foria Purchase price 160 130 160
Selling price 250 170 250
Value Addition 90 40 90
Marketing cost 25 25 25
Net Value Addition 65 15 65
Contact Farming Agent Purchase price 130 250 170 250
Selling price 200 300 240 300
Value Addition 70 50 70 50
Marketing cost 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5
Net Value Addition 49.5 29.5 49.5 29.5
Local Wholesaler Purchase price 145 145 240
Selling price 250 300 300
Value Addition 105 155 60
Marketing cost 19 19 19
Net Value Addition 86 136 41
Local Retailer Purchase price 150 250
Selling price 225 300
Value Addition 75 50
Marketing cost 34.9 34.9
Net Value Addition 40.1 15.1
Dhaka Wholesaler Purchase price 300 200 300 300 300 200
Selling price 400 300 400 380 400 320
Value Addition 100 100 100 100 100 120
Marketing cost 67.2 67.2 67.2 67.2 67.2 67.2
Net Value Addition 32.8 32.8 32.8 12.8 32.8 52.8
Retailer Purchase price 400 300 400 380 400 320
Selling price 470 450 500 500 500 450
Value Addition 70 150 100 180 100 130
Marketing cost 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.7
Net Value Addition 10.3 90.3 40.3 120.3 40.3 50.3
Total Net Value

Addition

159.4 99.5 155.6 233.5 212 237 263 237 232.5

 Table 7. Net value addition of gerbera in several channels

Agents Gerbera Marketing Channel
Farmer Purchase price 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3 249.3
Selling price 750 500 450 450 400 460 400 460 700
Value Addition 450.7 249.7 200.7 200.7 150.7 210.7 150.7 210.7 500.7
Marketing cost 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2
Net Value Addition 470.5 213.5 163.5 163.5 113.5 173.5 113.5 173.5 413.5
Foria Purchase price 460 400 460
Selling price 580 510 570
Value Addition 120 110 130
Marketing cost 30.5 30.5 30.5
Net Value Addition 89.5 79.5 99.5
Contact Farming Agent Purchase price 400 580 510 570
Selling price 600 700 640 700
Value Addition 200 120 150 130
Marketing cost 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.5
Net Value Addition 163.5 83.5 113.5 93.5
Local Wholesaler Purchase price 450 450 640
Selling price 650 700 800
Value Addition 200 250 160
Marketing cost 27.1 27.1 27.1
Net Value Addition 172.9 222.9 132.9
Local Retailer Purchase price 500 650
Selling price 700 800
Value Addition 200 150
Marketing cost 40.9 40.9
Net Value Addition 159.1 109.1
Dhaka Wholesaler Purchase price 700 600 700 800 700 700
Selling price 900 900 925 980 850 950
Value Addition 200 300 225 180 150 250
Marketing cost 73.2 73.2 73.2 73.2 73.2 73.2
Net Value Addition 126.8 226.8 151.8 106.8 76.8 176.8
Retailer Purchase price 900 900 925 980 850 950
Selling price 1200 1500 1300 2000 1700 1550
Value 300 600 375 1020 850 600
Marketing cost 70.7 70.7 70.7 70.7 70.7 70.7
Net Value Addition 229.3 529.3 304.3 949.3 779.3 529.3
Total Net Value Addition 470.5 372.6 445.5 742.5 1033.1 802.2 1517 1222.6 1119.6

 DISCUSSION

The Cobb-Douglas model showed that human labour, seedlings, and other inputs affected rose and gerbera yields. Profitability and value chain analysis revealed Bangladesh’s detailed rose and gerbera agriculture profitability dynamics.

Benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) for rose and gerbera cultivation were shown to be favorable in previous research conducted in the districts of Jashore and Mymensingh (Haque et al., 2013 and Mou, 2012). Our analysis, which displays BCRs of 3.93/4.50 for gerberas and 2.76/3.55 for roses on full/cash-cost bases, is consistent with these conclusions. Growing gerberas was consistently more profitable, which was consistent with patterns found in earlier studies (Aegerter et al., 2003 and Hajong et al., 2022).

This study showed various inputs that significantly affect rose and gerbera yield. Skill-oriented labour management and organisation choice are associated to cut rose cultivation (van ‘t Ooster et al., 2015). A prior study indicated that seedling density and plant material significantly affected rose yield (Pessala, T. A. P. A. N. I. 1977). Inorganic fertilisers like urea, TSP, and MOP have been studied on rose types in several countries (García-Castro & Restrepo-Díaz, 2013; Al-Sayed et al., 2019; Kumar et al., 2017; Hamedi et al., 2022). One study found that pesticides increase rose yield in Ecuador (Idrovo-Novillo et al., 2019). In diverse climates, irrigation frequencies and procedures affected rose production quantity and quality (Kittas et al., 2004; Katsoulas et al., 2006; Fascella, 2010). Our study also indicated that rose output was positively and significantly associated with human work, seedling, urea, TSP, MOP, pesticides, and irrigation. This study also reveals that seedling, organic manure, and TSP affect gerbera yield. Exotic potted gerbera varieties were studied in Bangladesh for growth and yield (Uddin et al., 2012). Rashid, M. H. (2020) investigated how TSP in final land preparation affects gerbera production potential in Bangladesh. A prior study examined gerbera flower output after organic manure treatment (Longchar, A., & Keditsu, R. 2013).

This study’s value chain analysis shows nine rose and gerbera marketing channels with various actors and marketing cost structures, comparable with other Bangladeshi research. A prior study examined Bangladesh’s flower industry value chain and rose and gerbera market share (Rakibuzzaman, M et al., 2018). In this study, we examined rose and gerbera net value addition. Qualitative interviews with Bangladeshi farmers could add depth to these findings and inspire more research.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, using Cobb-Douglas modelling in conjunction with profitability and value chain analysis, our research offers a thorough insight of the intricate dynamics of gerbera and rose production in Bangladesh. We determined that important variables affecting yields included labour, fertilisers, irrigation, and seedlings. Higher benefit-cost ratios indicate that gerbera growing is generally more profitable than rose cultivation. The floriculture industry’s complex distribution network emphasises how crucial it is to make well-informed decisions and implement calculated interventions in order to maximise production and marketing techniques. Notwithstanding certain limitations, such as the study’s concentration on just two districts and the exclusion of certain elements like inflation, the results are consistent with other national studies. Notably, by utilising nationally representative data, the study presents a novel viewpoint on the cultivation of roses and gerberas in Bangladesh. Policymakers and other stakeholders can use this insightful data to create efficient intervention plans that will benefit farmers and consumers alike.

Acknowledgements: The authors thank National Science and Technology (NST) for funding and enumerators and farmers for their assistance.

REFERENCES

  1. Aegerter, B. J., Nuñez, J. J., & Davis, R. M. (2003). Environmental factors affecting rose downy mildew and development of a forecasting model for a nursery production system. Plant Disease, 87(6), 732–738. https://doi.org/10.1094/pdis.2003.87.6.732
  2. Al-Sayed, H. M., Hegab, S. A., Youssef, M. A., & Khalafalla, M. Y. (2019). Integrated effect of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources on growth and yield of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 50(3), 164-183.
  3. BBS. (2023). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Summary of Crop Statistics: Area, Yield and Production of Minor Crops 2020-21 and 2021-22. . https://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/16d38ef2_2163_4252_a28b_e65f60dab8a9/2022-12-12-06-15-661c2e4e8ee906cbfb2b77bee3d74429
  4. Debener, T., & Linde, M. (2009). Exploring complex ornamental genomes: the rose as a model plant. Critical reviews in plant sciences28(4), 267-280.
  5. Dhaka Tribune. (2023). Bangladesh Flower Society: Monthly sales revenue to cross 300C in February. https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/305243/bangladesh-flower-society-monthly-sales-revenue
  6. FAO. (2011). Report of the expert consultation on floriculture development in Asia. https://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/0f99d5ef-d7f2-5f0d-ab24-f80ae4012464/
  7. Fascella, G., Agnello, S., Maggiore, P., Zizzo, G., & Guarino, L. (2009, May). Effect of controlled irrigation methods using climatic parameters on yield and quality of hydroponic cut roses. In V International Symposium on Rose Research and Cultivation 870 (pp. 65-72).
  8. Faust, J. E., & Dole, J. M. (2021). The global cut flower and foliage marketplace. In Cut flowers and foliages (pp. 1–47). CABI. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781789247602.0001
  9. García-Castro, A., & Restrepo-Díaz, H. (2013). Evaluation of fertilization with uncoated urea and 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)-coated urea on nitrogen leaching and rose (Rosa spp.) yield. Chilean journal of agricultural research, 73(2), 154-159
  10. Gudin, S. (1999). IMPROVEMENT OF ROSE VARIETAL CREATION IN THE WORLD. Acta Horticulturae, 495, 283–292. https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.1999.495.14
  11. Hajong, P., Kobir, M., Paul, S., Dipto, R., & Ghosh, A. (2022). PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SYSTEM OF FLOWERS IN THE SELECTED AREAS OF JASHORE. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 0, 1. https://doi.org/10.5455/jbau.46468
  12. Hamedi, B., Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., & Rajabzadeh, F. (2022). Responses to Morpho-physiological, Phytochemical, and Nutritional Characteristics of Damask Rose (Rosa damescena Mill.) to the Applied of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 53(17), 2156–2169. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2022.2070634
  13. Haque, M., Miah, M. M., Hossain, S., & Alam, M. (2013). Profitability of rose cultivation in some selected areas of Jessore District. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 38(1), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v38i1.15204
  14. Hossain, S. A. (2018). Study of in vitro regeneration protocol of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) grown in Bangladesh (Doctoral dissertation, BRAC University).
  15. Idrovo-Novillo, J., Gavilanes-Terán, I., Veloz-Mayorga, N., Erazo-Arrieta, R., & Paredes, C. (2019). Closing the cycle for the cut rose industry by the reuse of its organic wastes: A case study in Ecuador. Journal of Cleaner Production, 220, 910–918. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.02.121
  16. Jahan, H. (2009). Production, post harvest handling and marketing of cut-flowers in Bangladesh: an agribusiness study.
  17. Katsoulas, N., Kittas, C., Dimokas, G., & Lykas, Ch. (2006). Effect of irrigation frequency on rose flower production and quality. Biosystems Engineering, 93(2), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.11.006
  18. Kittas, C., Dimokas, G., Lykas, C. H., & Katsoulas, N. (2004, September). Effect of two irrigation frequencies on rose flower production and quality. In International Conference on Sustainable Greenhouse Systems-Greensys2004 691 (pp. 333-340).
  19. Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Sood, S., Kaundal, M., & Agnihotri, V. K. (2017). Effect of manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield, and essential oil of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) and chemical properties of soil in western Himalayas. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40(11), 1604–1615. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1270315
  20. Liorzou, M., Pernet, A., Li, S., Chastellier, A., Thouroude, T., Michel, G., … & Grapin, A. (2016). Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background. Journal of Experimental Botany, 67(15), 4711-4725.
  21. Longchar, A., & Keditsu, R. (2013). Flower yield and vase life of Gerbera in response to planting time and organic manures on Alfisol.
  22. Mamun, A., Remme, R., Islam, M., & Xulian, R. (2020). Efficacy of irrigation methods with varying levels of water in gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) production. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 0, 1. https://doi.org/10.5455/jbau.94715
  23. Markets and Markets. (2023). Which region is projected to account for the largest share in the cut flowers market? https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/cut-flowers-market-18187231.html
  24. Mou, N. H. (2012). Profitability of flower production and marketing system of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 37(1), 77–95. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v37i1.11179
  25. OEC. (2023). Cut flowers (HS: Flowers;) product trade, exporters and importers. The Observatory of Economic Complexity. https://oec.world/profile/hs/cut-flowers
  26. Pasini, E., Funk, V. A., de Souza-Chies, T. T., & Miotto, S. T. S. (2016). New insights into the phylogeny and biogeography of the Gerbera‐Complex (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). TAXON, 65(3), 547–562. https://doi.org/10.12705/653.7
  27. Pessala, T. A. P. A. N. I. (1977). The effect of plant material and plant density on flowering in the ‘Baccara’rose variety. Agric. Fenniae, 16, 72-79.
  28. Raha, S. K., & Siddika, M. (2004). Price spreads in cut-flower marketing: Some evidence from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics, 27(454-2016-36658), 87-97
  29. Rahman, M., Ahmed, B., Islam, R., Mandal, A., & Hossain, M. (2013). A biotechnological approach for the production of red gerbera (gerbera jamesonii bolus). Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, 02(01), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.20286/nova-jmbs-020125
  30. Rakibuzzaman, M., Rahul, S. K., Jahan, M. R., Ifaz, M. I., & Uddin, A. J. (2018). Flower industry in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business, Social and Scientific Research, 7(1), 50-56.
  31. Rashid, M. H. (2020). 2. Effects of varieties and inorganic fertilizers on growth and flowering of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii). Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment (JAFE)| ISSN (Online Version): 2708-5694, 1(4), 6-12.
  32. Reinten, E. Y., Coetzee, J. H., & Van Wyk, B. E. (2011). The potential of South African indigenous plants for the international cut flower trade. South African Journal of Botany, 77(4), 934-946.
  33. Reza, M. (2013). Flower Market Development in Bangladesh. In A Paper Presented in National Seminar on Floriculture Development in Bangladesh on 18th May.
  34. Rusanov, K., Kovacheva, N., Atanassov, A., & Atanassov, I. (2009). Rosa damascena Mill., the oil-bearing Damask rose: genetic resources, diversity and perspectives for molecular breeding. Floriculture Ornamental Biotech3, 14-20.
  35. Uddin, A. J., Das, C., Shammy, F. H., Foysal, M., & Islam, M. S. (2012). Growth and flowering performance of potted gerbera, gerbera jamesonii L. Under different light intensity. Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, 36(2), 221–226. https://doi.org/10.3329/jbas.v36i2.12965
  36. van ’t Ooster, A., Bontsema, J., van Henten, E. J., & Hemming, S. (2015). Model-based analysis of skill oriented labour management in a multi-operations and multi-worker static cut rose cultivation system. Biosystems Engineering, 135, 87–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2015.04.014
  37. Xia, Y., Deng, X., Zhou, P., Shima, K., & Teixeira da Silva, J. A. (2006). The world floriculture industry: Dynamics of production and markets. Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology4, 336-347.
  38. Xu, X., Zheng, W., Funk, V. A., Li, K., Zhang, J., & Wen, J. (2018). Home at last III: Transferring Uechtritzia and Asian Gerbera species into Oreoseris (Compositae, Mutisieae). PhytoKeys, 96, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.96.23142

Article Statistics

Track views and downloads to measure the impact and reach of your article.

2

PDF Downloads

[views]

Metrics

PlumX

Altmetrics

Paper Submission Deadline

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.