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Assessing the Effects of Terrorism on the Living Conditions of Residents in Garissa County, Kenya.

Assessing the Effects of Terrorism on the Living Conditions of Residents in Garissa County, Kenya.

Mbindyo Jedidah Ndinda1 & Dr. Casper Masiga2

1Master’s Student, Department of Security and Correction Science, Kenyatta University,

2Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Gender, and Development Studies, Kenyatta University

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.805008

Received: 13 April 2024; Accepted: 24 April 2024; Published: 27 May 2024

ABSTRACT

Garissa County is prone to terrorism activities. Frequent terror attacks in Garissa County have had economic effects on the livelihoods of local people in Garissa County. The research sought to determine the effects of terrorism on the living conditions of Garissa County residents. The study targeted residents, chiefs, national police officers and women groups who have been in Garissa sub-county which is in close proximity to Garissa University College where a terror attack occurred in 2015. A sample size of 399 was obtained from 163,914 residents in Garissa sub-county. The survey utilized random and purposive sampling to select the study participants. Data was collected using questionnaires, scheduled interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics and presented in forms of means, percentages, and standard deviations. Qualitative data from the interviews and Focus Group Discussions was tape recorded, and analyzed qualitatively and presented in narratives. The study found that the effects of terrorism on residents are broad ranging from health issues to economic problems; terrorism diminishes the living conditions of the residents in Garissa County, Terrorism event diminishes the quality of life by creating anxiety and uncertainties, chasing away investors and entrepreneurs who create employment opportunities, hence reducing income levels. The study proves its value to a number of stakeholders such as, the government, Kenya police, residents and future researchers, by recommending on how to improve counter- terrorism mitigation strategies and consequently reduce terrorist attacks leading to improved quality of life. The study particularly recommends the government to focus on intelligence led community policing, to improve information flow and sharing, create research platforms which checks for vulnerability and commit to improving security related technology.

 Key terms: Counter-terrorism, Livelihood, Social-Economic, Terrorism

INTRODUCTION

From a victim perspective, the implications of terrorism have led to multiple human right violation which are experienced individually, collectively, or societally with survivors undergoing both mental, psychological, and social traumas depending on their proximity to points of victimization, age, gender, social, religious, and political affiliation (Zalman, 2013). Apart from the immediate impacts of terrorism, it produces disruption to the country’s economy, that may be experienced days, months, or a year after the terrorism incident. Significantly, terrorism alters economic behavior since money for development is channeled towards addressing insecurity. Resource mobilization and youth unemployment are some of the challenges towards counter-terrorism, which should be made a policy for both the National and County governments.

According to Global Terrorism Data (2020), the normal annual death toll over the last 20 years is 21,000. The loss of life in the world went from a minimum of 7,827 in the year 2010 to a maximum of 44,490 in 2014. Deaths from terrorist crackdowns fluctuated from 0.01% to 0.02% in the 1990s and mid-2000s. It expanded to 0.08% in 2014. The previous drop in 2017 was 0.05%. Therefore, 2017 was a reasonably high year for terrorist extremist deaths, but not at its peak (GTD, 2020). Illegal intimidation and movements also vary from place to place. According to GTD (2020), 95% of the 26,445 terrorist deaths worldwide in 2017 occurred in Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. It accounts for less than 2% of deaths in the United States, Europe and Oceania.

When Islamic al-Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the United States was mostly afflicted by terrorism. However, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 killed 3,000 people and launched a large-scale US campaign to counter the crackdown on terrorism. From around September 11, jihadists have killed 107 people in the United States. This loss of life was comparable to that caused by an illegal threat on the far right, with 114 death sentences executed. In addition, on April 15, 2013, a bombing of the Boston Endurance Race (BMB) occurred, two bombs exploded near the final destination, three spectators and police officers were killed, and 264 people were killed.

Africa faces the same threat of war on terror as the rest of the world. Anyway, Africa seems to be more powerless in the fight against terrorism, especially for many reasons due to weak governments, porous borders and powerless security agencies. In Nigeria, Boko Haram has been the biggest threat in the last decade. Boko Haram, one of Africa’s largest Islamic attack groups, was formed in 2002 but began brutal practices in 2009. The rally led to manipulator attacks on heavy and political rallies near police and the military, and reckless attacks on the residents of the industrial estates and towns involved. The Boko Haram emergency seriously threatens the survival of the Nigerian nation. This is due to the scale of formal and informal resettlement, coupled with financial damage to the region (Olanrewaju, 2019).

The history of terrorist attacks in Kenya dates back to mid-1975, when the first bomb exploded in independent Kenya. In February 1975, there were two explosions that took place, one in a travel agency near the Hilton hotel, and the second one in the central Nairobi inside the starlight night club. This was followed by another bus bombing in Nairobi on March 1, 1975, killing 30 people (Rhaman, 2016). The terrorism incidents then subsided over the next five years, but on December 31, 1980, there was another attack on Nairobi’s Norfolk Inn, owned by a celebrity in the neighboring Jewish community. The bomb resulted to death of 20 people of a several nationalities, injured 87 more, and destroyed a significant part of the west wing. In 1998, the US consulate was besieged by Al-Qaeda and more than 200 people of different nationalities lost their lives, and scores were injured. In September, 2013 a radical attack on the Westgate Shopping Mall in Nairobi stood out as truly newsworthy where 67 people from almost twelve nations died. Kenya was then seen as the hub for terrorism, brutal fanaticism, and factionalism (Rhaman, 2016). Six significant Kenyan urban areas and towns were the centre of the greater part of the attack: Nairobi recorded 76 attacks, Garissa 53 attacks, Mandera 50 attacks, Mombasa 27 attacks, Wajir 23 attacks and Dadaab 17 attacks. Similarly, in the year 2015, a terrorist attack on the Garissa University College left 148 dead and more than 79 students injured (Mogire, Mkutu & Alusa, 2017). Terrorist attacks limit the growth and development of all targeted areas and can affect people’s lives and, as a result, their quality of life. This study sought to determine the effect of terrorist attacks on the lives of residents of Galissa County.

1.1  Statement of the Problem

Despite the containment and eradication of terrorism through the efforts of the Kenyan government and collaboration with other organizations such as the United Nations, some counties such as Mombasa, Lamu, and Garissa are still vulnerable to terrorist activity. Garissa county saw numerous attacks in 2015, including an attack on Garissa University College on April 2, 2015, killing at least 148 people. The current rate of terrorism has multiple effects, which can be experienced at many interrelated levels, individually, collectively and societally. Terrorist attacks bring about numerous financial and social results. Terrorism in Kenya has made harms the foundation, natural misfortune, ecological harms, loss of trust on the lookout and government, social disturbance, disappointment of banking, exchange, and supply framework. This has resulted to people living in fear of loss, traumas, and other related physiological aspects which undermine their economic production and social cohesion. Consequently, this informed the intention to study the implications of terrorism on people’s livelihood and how it can be mitigated in Garissa County.

1.2 Research Objectives   

The study aimed to assess the effects of terrorism on the living conditions of residents in Garissa County.

1.3 Significance of the study

This study is helpful to Kenyan government in a sense that it contributes on knowledge regarding the implications of terrorism on the livelihood of the people. The study is of great value in helping people understand the effects of terrorism and might provide insights on how to gain confidence and carry on with their activities without fear of victimization. The study gives insights on how to counter terrorism by implementing terrorism mitigation practices which allows the people of Garissa to have confidence and trust with each other hence improving social cohesion and economic growth. This study information is especially crucial for the police officers who will understand the implications of terrorism and ways to mitigate it hence ensuring enforcing those strategies to ensure peace in Garissa County.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Terrorism warfare makes unforgiving blows the travel industry area and the lessening in global flights, the relaxation business likewise endured (Lowe, 2020). A decrease in the tourism industry harms restaurants, clubs, cafes and so forth. The circumstance in Israel following the rush of fear assaults from 2000 to 2003 gives an especially material contextual analysis in understanding the financial repercussions of psychological oppression. The process started with an end in the travel industry following terror attacks, which prompted a monetary downturn for the whole relaxation industry. The sad mind-set in the business area brought about by the fear of assaults immediately influenced the capital market and from there on the commercial sector (Bilgen and Karahasan, 2017).

According to Bryson and MacKerron (2018) working paper, the impact of international level terrorism varies with the nature of the incident, and the time that has lapsed since the incident. The research discovered significant impact on people’s transitory satisfaction and somewhat bigger consequences for uneasiness levels, yet the impacts are brief and are generally kept to occurrences that lead to the numerous demises of casualties and incidents. These impacts anyway are evident inside regions just as across areas, recommending that assumptions related with narratives of confined brutality don’t plan people for the impacts of terror attacks.

In Israel, Waxman (2018) calls attention to that fear monger assaults that brought out self-destruction resulting to annihilation of property. Additionally, Enders and Gary (2012) saw that the quickest impacts felt after fear monger assaults incorporated the obliteration of the constructions, decrease of business, annihilated products, and other aberrant loss of property. The scholar noticed that property obliteration hurt the excitement among forthcoming financial backers, with direct ramifications for the economy.

Gatimu, (2014) pointed out that terrorism leads to property destruction. According to a Gatimu (2014) survey on the economic and social impacts of terrorism in Eastleigh, Nairobi County, Kenya, most of the businessmen chose to close down their businesses or relocate them to the central business district for safety. Consequently, many workers lose their jobs, while others relocated to the nearby markets, as the urge to secure their property, lives, and finances increased resulting in soaring corporate and running costs.

Kirui (2019) study discovered that terrorism adverse contrarily affects the economy of Kenya and expectations for everyday comforts of individuals and the travel industry being the most affected industry prompting diminished income and joblessness. The investigation recognized neediness, joblessness and minimization as explanations for the ascent in fanaticism and radicalization that prompted terrorism adverse in Kenya. According to Akanyisi (2014) terrorism has serious and negative multifaceted social and economic impact on the well-being of this country. On the social front, many Kenyans have lost their loved ones as a result of fatalities caused by terrorism and survivors have been rendered physically challenged as a result of terrorism attacks.

Additionally, Kirui (2019) study found that over 500,000 Kenyans have their jobs connected to the tourism industry hence this subsequently leads to laying off workers. Similarly, terrorism scares away potential investors who would have invested were it not for the threat, and sums of money are redirected to security purposes leading to economic underdevelopment, which in turn encourages the reliance of foreign aid. In the aftermath of Eastleigh terror attack, majority of the businesses were closed and investors were scared away. This affected the income of residents and consequently their living standards diminished due to unavailability of jobs to sustain them.

Iyekekpolo (2017) study on Boko Haram in Nigeria found that farmers who were affected by terror attacks lived with disabilities and confronted various difficulties that swayed their capacity to keep farming. As per the investigation, farmers experienced difficulties brought about by injury or ailment, which might be physical, intellectual, or emotional in nature after fierce assaults by the  Boko Haram. There is an acknowledgment that the government assistance expenses of outfitted clash stretch out past the direct monetary impacts to the mystic and enthusiastic costs it causes on people. Another writing looks to distinguish the disutility of equipped struggle by assessing the impacts of terrorism on people’s abstract prosperity.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

Strategic Theory of Terrorism

The strategic theory of terrorism was developed by Neumann and Smith (2007). According to Neumann and Smith (2007), a strategy is a process, constantly adapting to situations and changes in the world where opportunities, uncertainties and ambiguities dominate. Violence is the basic strategy terrorists use to reach their goals. They use collective violence, such as mass assault, as a form of protest, urged by a range of social, economic and political issues to seek justice and express dissatisfaction. Strategic theory of terrorism points out that terrorism is an organized form of violence with collective responsibility. It also shows that terrorists make decisions to achieve future conditions on how to use their coercion or persuasive power to control and harm people in general situations according to their policies. The calculated relationships between methods, objectives, and means are rational configurations of strategies used to achieve a set of short-term and long-term goals.

Terrorist decisions also include the choice of targets, tactics, and timings, which are influenced by the strategic environment, political climate as well as their opponents. Additionally, terrorism in this view is perceived as a means to an end (Menkhaus, 2013). The strategies used by terrorists are meant to maximize their strength while minimizing their weaknesses. Also, terrorists use their preferred means based on anticipated consequences such as biological loss, economic loss, loss of entrepreneurship and trust in the government and market, and increased fear which affects the livelihoods of the people through employment loss (Neumann & Smith, 2007). Low incomes and a shortage of domestic and foreign investors are also areas of interest. Terrorist decisions are subject to internal logic that is different from external purposes. Therefore, this theory is based on an accurate and informed worldview of terrorist groups’ strategic and tactical decisions, where decision makers handle incomplete information and thus a conditional view of the work environment.

The strategic effect of terrorism is to diminish the economic welfare of the targeted residents. As such the strategic theory by Neumann and Smith, (2007) is very significant in this study because it expounds on the effects of terrorism on the livelihoods of the people through strategic acts by terrorists as well as the challenges the government faces when mitigating terrorism.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design and Target population

The research utilized the descriptive research design. Descriptive design explains the association between independent and dependent variables and provides a detailed description of these variables relevant to the study hypotheses. The research addressed the questions how and who is affected by terrorist acts and the extent of effect on the livelihoods of people in Garissa County.

The study was conducted in Garissa County which is located at latitude -0.45280 S and longitude 39.6460E. It is part of Africa and the southern hemisphere. Garissa County is mostly inhabited by ethnic Somalis. The study specifically targeted residents with close proximity to Garissa University where terrorism attack occurred. Due to its geographical position, the county is in close proximity to Somali country which is an in point of terrorist (al-Shabaab) hence making the county suitable for this study.

The target population for this research includes residents and the general public, local chiefs and police who live in the immediate vicinity of Garissa University College. In this regard, 163,914 residents in the Garissa area are the target population for the survey.

Table 1 Target Population

Population Category Population Percentage
Chiefs 96 <1%
Police 317 <%
Residents 163,501 99.8%
Total 163,914

Source: Author (2021).

3.2 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size

The research conducted random sampling to select residents in the immediate vicinity of Garissa University who agreed to participate in the study. Similarly, purposive sampling was used to select the main informants interviewed for qualitative information: police chiefs and police commanders. Krejcie and Morgan (1970) formula is commonly used in research to estimate sample size. In this study, the Krejcie and Morgan formula was used to determine the sample size from the primary data.

………………………………………………………Equation (3.1)

Where S is the ideal sample size, X2 is the table value of chi-square for one level of freed at ideal confidence level which is 1.96x 1.96= 3.841. N is the populace size while P is the populace proportion assumed to be 0.5 as this will give maximum sample size and d is the level of precision communicated as a proportion 0.05.

 The population size for this study is 163,914.  The sample size S, is therefore:

3.3 Data Collection Instruments and Data Analysis

The survey utilized questionnaire, interview schedules and Focused group discussion. The research instruments produced both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequencies, percentages and standard deviations, and inferential statistics such as correlation and regression analysis. Descriptive statistics give simple summaries about the populace sample and the measures used to make it simpler to decipher the information highlights (Gravetter and Wallnau, 2016). The analyzed data was displayed through frequency tables, and charts. Qualitative data from interviews and focus group discussion was coded and information with similar meaning were classified into themes. The researcher organized the responses in categories of recurring themes and patterns and present them in narratives. This information was used to give insights regarding study objective.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Effect of Terrorism on Living Conditions of Garissa County Residents

The study objective was to establish the effect of terrorism and its dynamics on the living conditions of Garissa County residents. First, the participants were asked to indicate their thoughts on the effects of terrorism in Garissa County and rate on a likert scale of 1 to 5, with 1 and 2 indicate disagreement while 4 and 5 indicated agreement. In addition, participants who ticked 3 were not sure about the question or their answer.

Table 2 Descriptive Statistics on the Social-Economic effects of Terrorism in Garissa County.

D N A SA Mean
Terrorist incidences lead to loss of life 3.4% 13.8% 41.4% 41.4% 4.2
Terrorist incidents have decreased entrepreneurship and confidence leading to layoff 0.0% 18.3% 33.4% 48.3% 1.8
High frequency of terrorist attacks lead to loss of income due to closure of business 0.0% 10.3% 48.3% 41.4% 4.3
Terrorist attacks lead to destruction of property 0.0% 6.9% 51.7% 41.4% 4.3
Terrorist increases fear, anxiety, and reduces trust in government institution 35.1% 17.1% 13.1% 34.8% 3.6

Source: Survey Data

As shown in Table 2, the majority 82.8% of the participants were in agreement that terrorist incidences lead to loss of life through both indiscriminate and targeted attack. Similarly, the participants 81.7% agreed that terrorist incidences decrease investors’ confidence leading to layoff in Garissa County, and a mean of 1.8 indicates agreement. This is also reported by Kirui (2019) who averred that over 500,000 Kenyans have their jobs connected to the tourism industry hence this subsequently leads to laying off workers after terror attacks effect on the tourism industry. Additionally, the majority of the participants 89.7% agreed the high frequency of terrorist attacks affects their income-generating activities leading to low income that can barely support the family hence reliance on foreign aid. Overall, terror attacks affect the economic well-being of residents through closure of business, and loss of income after closure of businesses in Garissa County. Moreover, 93.1% of the participants also agreed that increased terrorism incidents have led to destruction of property. As a fact, whenever terrorists attack, the immediate impacts are on the people and property. Finally, participants were almost divided on whether terrorists’ attacks increase fear and anxiety and diminish confidence in government institutions. Majority of the participants 52.1% disagreed that terrorist increases fear and anxiety during and after attack while a significant 47.9% of the participants indicated that fear and anxiety is inevitable. The explanation to those who agreed can be explained by the fact that terrorist’s modus operandi is not predictable since they can attack any time of the day increasing fear of victimization, while those who disagreed perhaps were influenced by series of indiscriminate attacks which were witnessed in the region. The results agreed with the views of key informants and focus group discussions. One of the key informants from officer commanding stations said:

“There is a heightened threat of terrorism, including terrorist kidnappings, across Kenya and not only in Garissa County. Recently, they appear to have cooled a bit or changed their strategies because there were a lot of terrorist kidnappings here in Garissa County.” Key informant from the police stations.

Another participant from women group discussion said;

“Terrorism activities are common here in Garissa. Every day we fear something bad like what happened in Garissa University will happen. The recent events of terrorism in Garissa have been mostly kidnapping of young boys.” Focus Group Discussion Participant from women groups.

The results imply that terrorism incidents affect the livelihoods of the people through death, fear and anxiety, closure of business institutions leading to low income and huge reliance on foreign aid as well as destruction of property. Consequently, a lot of funds are diverted to fight insecurity which affects other aspects of life such as increased poverty, ignorance and youth unemployment which acts as a catalyst for radicalization.

The analysis suggests that terrorism is common in Garissa County especially attacks in crowded places to achieve their target in form of publicity and impacts they aimed for. This result concurs with the assertion of Mutahi and Oosteram (2017) who asserted that despite government efforts, terrorism is still rampant in areas such as Garissa and Mombasa County.

The participants were asked to describe their household’s social economic status following the latest terrorist attacks in Garissa County. The question was designed to check whether the participants’ livelihood was in any way affected and the findings are presented in Figure 4 below.

Social Economic Status

Figure 2: Social Economic Status

As shown in Figure 2, majority of the participants (55.6%) said that their social economic status worsened following the recent terror attacks in Garissa County. Additionally, a huge percentage of (40.52%) said that their social economic status remained static while significantly low number of the participants said that their social economic status improved following the latest terror attacks in Garissa County. The question on the status of social economic activities following the recent terror attacks in Garissa County was followed by a question on the social economic areas affected and to what extent. The findings of the analysis were presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Social Economic Status of Residents Following Terrorists Attacks

To what extent do you think the following were affected following terror attacks? NE SE ME GE LE Mean SD
Employment opportunities 0.90% 0.00% 8.60% 58.60% 31.90% 4.2 0.7
Income levels 0.40% 3.40% 10.30% 61.20% 24.60% 4.1 0.7
Resources availability 0.40% 0.00% 15.50% 46.10% 37.90% 4.2 0.7
Security 0.40% 0.00% 13.40% 49.60% 36.60% 4.2 0.7
Education level 2.60% 0.00% 9.10% 57.80% 30.60% 4.1 0.8
Health facilities 4.70% 1.70% 12.10% 52.20% 29.30% 4 1
Political liberty 11.60% 12.50% 19.00% 39.70% 17.20% 3.4 1.2
Religious freedom 12.50% 7.80% 16.80% 34.10% 28.90% 3.6 1.3
Business opportunities 9.10% 10.80% 17.70% 35.30% 27.20% 3.6 1.2
Aggregate 3.93 0.92

Where NE indicates no extent, SE indicates small extent, ME indicates medium extent, GE indicates big extent and LE indicates large extent.

Source: Survey Data

The participants were asked to indicate to what extent the above social economic areas were affected after terrorism incidences. Majority of the participants indicated that employment opportunities were affected to great and large extent (90.5%). Also, the income levels of the participants were affected to a great and large extent (85.8%), while 84% indicated that resource availability were affected to a great and large extent. In regard to education levels, 88.4% or a mean of 4.1 showed that majority of the participants believed it was significantly affected. In addition, majority (81.5%) of the participants believed that the health facilities were affected to a great and large effect, while 56.9% of the participants believed that their political liberty was similarly affected to large and significant effect. The results also revealed that religious freedom was affected to great and large effect (63%), while 62.5% of the participants indicated that business opportunities were affected following terrorism incidences. Overall, the aggregate mean of 3.93 suggests that majority of the participants believe that terrorist incidences affect social economic aspects to a significant extent. The standard deviation indicated that the responses did not significantly deviate from the mean.

Besides, the participants reported that after decline in employment opportunities, their income was adversely affected. With decline in inflows of investments following recent terrorist attacks in Garissa County, normal business dealings and consumption activities also declined resulting into low income. This is also reported by Kirui (2019) who averred that over 500,000 Kenyans have their jobs connected to the tourism industry hence this subsequently leads to laying off workers after terror attacks effect on tourism industry. Not only does terrorism affect the economic aspects of the residence, but also the social life.

According to the participants’ education was affected following terror attacks. Following the Garissa University attack, the university was closed down consequently affecting the continuation of any form of learning at the university. Besides, the participants noted that most parents were in fear of sending their children to schools because they might be kidnapped and transformed into terrorist. In addition, the participants’ consistently mentioned fear when asked to explain how their health was affected. From the theme of fear, it can be implied that perceptions of future threats, traumatic experiences and uncertain economic and safety conditions affected their health and well-being.

Additionally, the key informants and FGD participants were asked to describe the effects of terrorism on economy of Garissa County. The common theme included businesses which were impacted negatively, loss of employment opportunities and lack of economic growth.

The key informant said:

“Terror attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful create instability and fear among the employers. Employers who are mostly investors after a terror incidence tends to avoid the place and its vicinities hence leaving the job opportunities. No investor would like to invest their money and set a job creating opportunities in places that are known to be terrorist zones. Unfortunately, Garissa County is one of those zones where employers avoid.” Key informant 2.

Additionally, on the same question participants in FGD agreed that terror attacks make the employers run away and dessert the place. One focus group participant said:

“After the Garissa University terror attack, many employers and business people from other counties escaped and left the area. Because of insecurity, employers fear that they are not immune to terror attacks and that they can do better anywhere, where their businesses are protected. This leaves job opportunities low.” FGD participant 2.

Additionally, in regard to business a number of key informants and focus group discussion pointed out that businesses tended to dry out after terror attacks. One of the key informants said:

“What can be said about economic impact of terrorism is that they affect the businesses. The business people leave, mostly because the area is insecure but also because of negativity, consumer sentiments and uncertainty. I can say that businesses are most affected in terms of economic wellbeing of the residents.” Key informant 3.

Additionally, another participant from focus group discussion said that:

“I believe that the recent terror attacks here have been the reason as to the low economic development here in Garissa County. First, I must point out that with every terror attack, there is loss of lives, and loss of properties in some cases which creates uncertainty, and fear for every person to indulge in in economic activity that requires physical structures. The closure of businesses usually results to adverse consequence of unemployment.” FGD participant 7.

The analysis results suggest that terror attacks increase the likelihood of the county population to report that business and buying conditions are worse than they were before the attack, hence; significantly lowering the job opportunities. These results are in line with the idea that successful attacks lead to fear and decrease entrepreneur confidence as pointed out by Gatimu (2014). Overall, terror attacks affect the economic well-being of residents through closure of business, and loss of income after closure of businesses in Garissa County.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusions

The analysis revealed that the implications of terrorism on residents are broad ranging from health issues to economic problems. The study concludes that terrorism diminishes the living conditions of the residents in Garissa County. Similarly, terrorism event diminishes the quality of life by creating anxiety, fear, and uncertainties, chasing away investors and entrepreneurs who create employment opportunities, hence reducing income levels. Overall, the social-economic status of the affected region declines hence the living conditions also deteriorates.

5.2  Recommendations

  1. More importantly, the study found that youth radicalization and lack of employment results to high crime rate and recruitment of youths in terrorism groups. Therefore, both county and national government should address the issue of unemployment as it is a catalyst of terrorist activities.
  2. To address the problem of unemployment, the government should create an enabling environment where businesses and entrepreneurship can thrive.

REFERENCES

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