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Determinants of Job Satisfaction: A Review of Empirical Literature

Determinants of Job Satisfaction: A Review of Empirical Literature

Prof. Thomas Katua Ngui
United States International University – Africa, KENYA

ABSTRACT

The commonly held opinion is that “a satisfied worker is a productive worker”. There is a reciprocal relationship between satisfaction and performance; this means that satisfaction causes performance and performance causes satisfaction. When an employee is satisfied with their job they commit their energies and effort towards achievement of organizational goals sometimes at the expense of their personal goals. The purpose of this study is to find out the factors that influence the level of job satisfaction among the workforce. Increased job satisfaction will motivate employees to achieve the organizational goals. A satisfied work force will create a pleasant atmosphere within the organization to perform well (Pushpakumari, 2008).  Low job satisfaction could cause employees to move away from their jobs, search for new jobs, or change their existing jobs and careers. The degree of organizational loyalty of employee is higher when employee job satisfaction increased (Javed, Balouch & Hassan, 2014). It is therefore, very critical for organizations to approach their performance improvement goal from the employee job satisfaction point. For this to happen effectively, it is necessary for the managers to understand the factors that determine job satisfaction among employees. Studies have shown that job satisfaction is influenced by a variety of factors- both internal and external to the organization. This study sought to review literature on the factors that determine or influence job satisfaction. From the study it was found that job satisfaction is an outcome of different factors like pay, the work itself, job security, supervision, leadership styles, relationships with co-workers and opportunities for promotions. The findings of this study will help managers at all levels to play a key role in improving the levels of job satisfaction among employees within their jurisdictions. This in turn will lead to higher performance both at the individual, team and organizational levels.

Key Words: Job security, Job satisfaction; Performance

INTRODUCTION

With increased technological growth and globalization of markets the business environment has become very competitive and complex. This requires organizations to up their game in order to remain competitive and survive in the changed business environment. To succeed in this very turbulent market, most organizations have invested in acquisition of high quality resources that are valuable, unique, non- imitable and rare in order to sustain their competitiveness. Such resources include human, physical, technological and financial resources. Among the identified resources, the human resources have been found to be the best source of sustainable competitive advantage. The success of any organization depends on the satisfaction of its workforce (Mekonin & Teklu, 2021).

Every organization’s success indeed depends on employee satisfaction on job as their effort has been paid off (Khaira, Afifah, Shariff & Sima, 2021). Leaders today believe that impressive human resource is the power factor of an organization. This is because human resources are unique and cannot be copied. Human resource is an active resource which has emotions and can react differently to different situations. Human resource is considered as the most important asset which serves as the engine for providing a sustainable source of energy and service delivery in the organization (Muhammad & Wajidi, 2013). The importance of intellectual capital has increased to the point of being one of the most valuable assets that must be better understood in order to be developed (Ouedraogo & ALeclerc, 2013).  This is largely because the human resource is an active resource that has the capability to activate other resources in pursuit of organizational goals/ objectives. It is also very unique and cannot be copied.

The millennium generation employees (millennials) have different expectations from the job environment compared to the expectations of the previous generation of workers. For this new generation of employees to be productive and to unleash their full potential, they should be satisfied with their job. This requires managers to be very cautious while dealing with the millennials and also to understand their needs/ expectations in order to fully benefit from their skills and knowledge. Job satisfaction is a result of employees’ perception of how well their job provides those things which are viewed as important (Ndulue & Ekechukwu, 2016). If the human resource or employees are happy and contended with the moves and actions of the employer, they do their best for the best of the organization (Khan, Nawaz, Aleem & Hamed, 2012). A satisfied work force will create a pleasant atmosphere within the organization to perform well (Pushpakumari, 2008).

There is a reciprocal relationship between satisfaction and performance; this means that satisfaction and performance influence each other. Increased job satisfaction will motivate employees to achieve the organizational goals. When employees perform well and achieve the organizational goals they are also likely to be motivated by the improved performance which in turn leads to higher job satisfaction. The factors that contribute to the positive morale and attitude also result in a higher degree of job satisfaction (Saranya, 2014). A highly satisfied work force is absolutely necessary for achieving a high level of performance in an organization. Satisfied workers tend to extend more effort to job performance, then work harder and better (Pushpakumari, 2008). Job satisfaction is an important factor for improving effectiveness and also a person’s satisfaction in a company. Job satisfaction is achieved from situations a person experience in his job, so factors such as management method, organization policy and structure, job conditions and type of relation with coworkers are important (Weiss, 2002).

Many studies have been done on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance, for example, Khan, Nawaz, Aleem and Hamed, (2012); Revenio Jr. (2016); Ndulue and Ekechukwu (2016) and Bakotic, (2016) have all done studies on this topic. However, due to the changing nature of the work environment as a result of advancement in technology and the changed expectation of the current millennial employee, this topic remains a topic of interest and requires continuous research in order to meet the psychological needs of the new category of employees whose expectations are quite different from those of the previous generation of workers. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on the factors that influence level of job satisfaction among the workforce and its effects on performance.

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response towards various facets of one’s job (Ndulue & Ekechukwu, 2016). Cranny, Smith and Stone (2014) defined job satisfaction as employees’ emotional state regarding the job, considering what they expected and what they actually got out of it. According to Willem, (2007) job satisfaction shows the relation between human expectations and advantages taken from job. Vroom (1964) as cited in Revenio Jr. (2016) defines job satisfaction as an “effective orientations on the part of the individuals towards work roles which they are presently occupying”. Job satisfaction is a positive emotional state that arises from the employee’s work or practical experience, and results in job satisfaction from the realization of the extent to which the employees work provides the things that he or she considers important (Hareem, 2013). According to Spector (1997) job satisfaction shows peoples emotion about their job generally or about some parts of it (i.e. organization, job, supervisory, coworkers, salary and income and promotions). Job satisfaction describes the positive or negative attitude of a person regarding his employment and work environment (Weiss, 2002; Greenberg, 2008). This could be both psychological as well as physiological factors (Revenio Jr., 2016).

Satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept (Revenio Jr., 2016) that is influenced by both internal and external environmental factors. Work environment is an important determinant of job satisfaction of employees (Herzberg, 1968; Spector, 2008).  Existing literature and research results show that job satisfaction is influenced by a variety of factors- both internal and external to the organization. The organizations have a level of control over the internal factors, however, they have very limited or no control of the external environmental factors that influence job satisfaction. Different factors within the working environment such as wages, working hours, autonomy given to employees, organizational structure and communication between employees and management may affect job satisfaction (Lane, Esser, Holte, & Anne, 2010). Therefore, the organization should strive to improve on the factors that they have control over in order to increase the level of job satisfaction. At the same time they should try as much as possible to support those responsible for the external environment to improve it. This may call for initiatives that are similar to the existing public-private partnerships.

The results of a study by Dawal and Taha, (2015) showed that job and environmental factors are significantly related to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an outcome of different factors like pay, promotion, the work itself, supervision, relationships with co-workers and opportunities for promotions (Opkara, 2002). Ndulue and Ekechukwu, (2016) have also identified pay, the work itself, promotions, supervision, workgroup, and working conditions as the factors that influence job satisfaction. The level of job satisfaction is affected by intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors, the quality of supervision, social relationships with work group and the degree to which individuals succeed or fail in their work (Armstrong, 2006).

Pay, the work itself, promotions, supervision, workgroup and working conditions have a great influence on the level of an employee’s satisfaction with the job (Luthans, 1985). According to Saranya, (2014) the important factors that contribute to the higher level of job satisfaction are challenging and responsible job, numerous promotional opportunities, impartial treatment by the management, creativity and innovative ideas of job security, attractive salary and perks, freedom in work situation, participative management and welfare facilities like medical, uniform, canteen etc. Smith, Kendall and Hullin (1969) expressed the five aspects that can be used to determine job satisfaction as; being satisfied from job (i.e. interesting tasks and opportunities for learning and training), being satisfied from supervisor (i.e. technical and managing abilities and their considerations about employees), being satisfied from coworkers (technical qualification and support they show), being satisfied from promotion (achieving real opportunity to advance), being satisfied from income (amount of income, its equality and way of paying to staff).

Other researchers who have investigated the factors that affect job satisfaction include Tabassum, Khan, Sherani, and Khan, (2016) who say that the major determinants of job satisfaction are basically nine facets which are pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of works and communication. Purcell, Kinnie, Hutchinson, Rayton, and Swart, (2003) also did a research and found that the key factors affecting job satisfaction were career opportunities, job influence, team work and job challenge. According to Revenio Jr. (2016) leadership style also has a great role in the employee’s level of job satisfaction. Brudney and Coundry (1993) have also explained different variables that influence performance of the employees in the organization. They included factors such as pay, organization commitment, relationship between pay and performance, etc. Working conditions have positive impact on job satisfaction (Guest, 2004; Silla, Gracia & Peiro, 2005). Job satisfaction is adversely affected by factors such as lack of promotion, working conditions, low job security and low level of autonomy (Guest, 2004; Silla et al., 2005).

It is essential for an organization to motivate their employees to work hard for achieving the organizational goals and objectives. According to Jerrell, Coggburn, Battaglio Jr., and Bradbury, (2014) how an organization manages conflict also has a bearing on employee job satisfaction.

Empirical Review

Various studies have been done on the factors affecting job satisfaction. Some of the factors researched about include job security, leadership/ supervision styles, salaries, promotion opportunities among others.  Javed, Balouch and Hassan, (2014) did a study on the determinants of job satisfaction and its impact on employee performance and turnover intentions. The results of the study showed a significant positive association of employee empowerment, workplace environment, job loyalty and job performance with job satisfaction. The results show that employee empowerment has a significant positive relationship and it contributes more than 37% to job satisfaction. Therefore, when an employee is given autonomy in business decisions then his satisfaction level will rise. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. According to the result of the study, job satisfaction has a significant negative relationship with turnover intentions contributing more than 32% to turnover intentions. Whenever there is low level of employee satisfaction in any organization, the employees of that organization will intentionally leave that organization.

Cheginy, Isfahani, Mohseni, Khakian and Khosravizadeh (2014) did a study to investigate the factors influencing job satisfaction among hospital personnel. The results of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and personnel’s perceptions about their work conditions, satisfaction with supervision, satisfaction with coworkers, satisfaction with work nature and satisfaction with salary and advantage. Rukh, Choundhary and Abbasi (2015) did a study on the analysis of factors affecting employee satisfaction in Pakistan. Research findings indicated the significant factors that affect the satisfaction level of employees as pay, promotion, relation with employees, relation with supervisor, work stress and job security. The results further showed that the median group differences existed between responses based on age, work experience, salary and designation (i.e. job position/rank) of employees. Job satisfaction was also positively and significantly associated with job related factors such as pay, promotion, relation with employees, relation with supervisor, work stress and job security. From the study they concluded that job satisfaction of employees was significantly affected by demographic, financial and non-financial factors. Employees who are older than 50 years, with greater experience, and in higher management positions were more satisfied with pay, promotion, work stress, work condition and working environment. The employees’ departments did not play any significant role in affecting satisfaction levels.

Viñas-Bardolet, Velazco and Torrent-Sellens (2013) did a study on the determinants of Job Satisfaction, the Role of Knowledge-based work: An illustration from Spain and found that job satisfaction, depends on worker attributes, financial and non-financial job characteristics. The results also show that net monthly income is a positive and highly significant variable in explaining job satisfaction. Evidence suggests that financial and non-financial (work organisation and work intensity) job dimensions are the most important determinants of knowledge-based workers satisfaction in Spain. Mosadegh Rad and De Moraes (2009) did a study to investigate the specific factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in employees at the Isfahan University Hospitals (lUHs) in Isfahan, Iran. The study also focused on revealing homogeneous demographic characteristics that these employees exhibited, and which affect their satisfaction level. It was found that overall employees were moderately satisfied with their jobs, and more satisfied with the following aspects of their current work situation: supervision, job identity and co-workers. The lowest satisfaction scores were found for benefits, contingent rewards, communication, salaries, work conditions and promotion. Motivating factors included loyalty to employees, job security, good pay, good working conditions, tactful discipline, involvement, recognition and promotion.

Job security is a significant determinant of job satisfaction. Job security provides workers with a much-needed sense of structure (Woods, 2018). The effect of job security on worker job satisfaction is different depending on whether perceived job loss occurs (or not), whether job openings are scarce or whether job openings are plentiful (Artz & Kaya, 2014). In the results of their study Artz & Kaya (2014) showed that three measures of job security increase private sector worker job satisfaction, and reduce worker incentives to quit. Few workers quit when job openings are relatively scarce (during contractions) than when job openings are relatively plentiful (during expansions). People want to know their job is available for as long as they wish to hold it. When job security decreases, satisfaction and performance levels also take a hit. Results of a study by Reisel, Probst, Chia, Maloles and König, (2010) on the effects of job insecurity on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, deviant behavior, and negative emotions of employees show that job insecurity is negatively related to satisfaction and that job insecurity has both direct and indirect effects on work behaviors and emotions.

The work environment has also been researched in relation to job satisfaction. Raziq and Maulabakhsh, (2015) did a study on the Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction and found a positive relationship between working environment and employee job satisfaction. Their study concluded that the businesses need to realize the importance of good working environment for maximizing the level of job satisfaction.  Other results have also shown that there is a positive link between work environment and intrinsic aspect of the job satisfaction. According to Javed, Balouch, and Hassan, (2014) work place environment has a positive relation with job satisfaction and it contributes 16% to job satisfaction. Since it has a positive impact on job satisfaction so it shows that when an employee is given favorable and clean environment then his/her satisfaction level rises. Bakotic and Babic (2013) found that the workers who work under difficult working conditions, are dissatisfied through this work environment.

Promotions are also an important aspect of a worker’s career and life, affecting other facets of the work experience. With regard to promotions some studies have also been done by various researchers. Malik, Danish and Munir, (2012) did a study  to determine the impact of pay and promotion on job satisfaction in higher education institutes of Pakistan and found that pay has significant influence on job satisfaction but the promotion has less influence and partially significant to the job satisfaction. Kosteas (2007) did a study on job Satisfaction and Promotions and found that promotions have a lasting, but diminishing impact on job satisfaction. Kosteas (2007) also find a strong, negative correlation between quits and both job satisfaction and promotion expectations. Promotion has a positive impact on job satisfaction (Nguyen et al., 2003; Teseema & Soeters, 2006). Khan and Mishra, (2013) also did a research on promotion as job satisfaction, a study on Colleges of Muscat, Sultanate Of Oman and the research findings indicate that academic teaching employees where satisfied with the promotion. There was a significant difference in the level of satisfaction. Analysis showed that promotion has a modest and positive effect on job satisfaction.

Mabaso and Dlamini (2017) did a study on the impact of compensation and benefits on job satisfaction and found a positive and significant effect of compensation on job satisfaction (p = 0.263). Moreover, they found that there was no significant effect between benefits and job satisfaction. Therefore, only compensation significantly predicted job satisfaction among academic staff. A study by Usman, Akbar and Ramzan (2013) on the effect of salary and stress on job satisfaction of teachers in District Sialkot, Pakistan found that from the two independent variables (salary and stress) only salary of the teachers was significantly affecting the job satisfaction of teachers. Financial rewards (salary) were found to significantly affect job satisfaction of teachers. Based on the findings of the study by Usman, Akbar and Ramzan (2013) it means that if employees are not given proper salary in time, they would be highly dissatisfied with their jobs and may ultimately start thinking of leaving the profession. This is due to the fact that cost of living is highly increasing in Pakistan. Other results of a study by Muhammed zia Ur Rehman, (2010) found that job satisfaction was significantly related with extrinsic rewards (salary and other benefits). Arian, Soleimani and Oghazian (2018) did a study on job satisfaction and the factors affecting satisfaction in nurse educators and found that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and promotion opportunities and that those professors with a high level of job satisfaction had a higher pay and salary. Job satisfaction of bank officers is significantly dependent upon compensation, promotion opportunities, rewards, relation with boss and coworkers. The study found that compensation is the main factor affecting job satisfaction, and it also has significant relationships with job involvement and promotion. Some evidence that workers who are dissatisfied with their bosses are more sensitive to their compensation in deciding on whether they are satisfied with their job was also established from the study.

An affable relationship between supervisor and employee leads to job satisfaction. According to the Essays, UK (November 2013) an amiable supervisor-employee relationship builds the employee’s morale, which makes him to feel affective about his job, especially when his efforts are recognized and rewarded. This brings him satisfaction in his job. Thus, the employee strives to achieve both organizational and personal goals.

A study by Nidadhavolu, Akhila, (2018) on the impact of leadership styles on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the construction sector in India proved that an organization’s leadership style strongly influences employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The application of transformational leadership style leads to stronger job satisfaction. This finding established that leadership has a major influence on work outcome and job satisfaction in the company. The employees are most satisfied when they see their leaders possess both relation-oriented and task-oriented behaviors. The study also highlighted a laissez-faire leadership style is a consequence of job satisfaction. The findings show that the laissez-faire leadership style could result in low interpersonal relationships, resulting in weak employee job satisfaction and productivity levels. The research findings found that out of the three construction companies chosen for the study, the laissez-faire leadership style had a negative influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the employees of two companies. Whereas, the transformational leadership style had a positive impact on the employees of one company. The study also discovered the negative influence of upper-management leadership style on employees has a negative influence on organization performance.

Saleem, (2015) did a study on the impact of leadership styles on job satisfaction and mediating role of perceived organizational politics. Research findings revealed that transformational leadership has a positive impact on job satisfaction and transactional leadership has a negative impact on job satisfaction. The findings also suggest that, perceived organizational politics partially mediate the relationship between both leadership styles and job satisfaction.

Sarwar, Mumtaz, Batool and Ikram, (2015) also did a study on the impact of leadership styles on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study tested the effects of both transactional and transformational leadership styles of supervisors/ managers on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees. Data was collected from the managers and employees working in IT research and development department in Pakistan. The results of the study revealed a positive effect of both transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but this effect is more in case of transactional leadership.

Chien- Wen Tsai (2008) did a study on leadership style and employee’s job satisfaction in international tourist hotels. Through correlation analysis, this research found that employees are more satisfied under consideration-style-leadership than construction-style-leadership. After controlling for differences in salary, employees appear to prefer consideration-style-leadership. No matter what the leadership style is, employees’ job satisfaction does not relate towards their coworkers. Besides, employees have different perceptions on work, salary, and overall satisfaction depending on their education level and seniority.

Bulitia, Godrick (2006) did a survey of supervision styles and employee job satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya. The findings of this study showed a high correlation between supervision styles and job satisfaction. All the correlated statements between supervision styles and job satisfaction had +1 correlation coefficient. This gave a perfect positive correlation meaning the two variables supervision styles and job satisfaction move together in the completely linear manner. However, based on the study results by Bulitia, Godrick (2006) there is need for line managers to improve the use of supervision styles and relationship with employee job satisfaction in Commercial banks in Kenya. For them to improve and succeed in their supervision styles there should be changes at the individual and organizational levels. At individual level improving line managers’ supervision styles, would involve basic education and specific job related training. They should also be encouraged to enhance their skills through continuous self-learning. At organizational level top management should provide appropriate reinforcements for line managers in learning about and improving their supervision styles (Bulitia, Godrick, 2006).

Ayodele, Ekemode and Kajimo-Shakantu (2020) investigated the job satisfaction levels of real estate firms’ employees and the relationship between employees’ personal and demographic characteristics and their job satisfaction levels. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The result showed that financial consideration/personal accomplishment was the most important factor influencing employees’ level of satisfaction, followed by work environment skill variety/organizational culture, feedback/fairness, work passion and supervision/workload/work-life balance. The results of the analysis also showed that demographic factors such as age, marital status, academic qualification, management level, years spent under the current line manager, remuneration and number of firm branches had a significant relationship with job satisfaction.

Park (2020) did a study to investigate the direct effects of supervisor satisfaction, public service motivation, and job characteristics on job satisfaction and the indirect effects mediated by organizational commitment. The survey data used for the empirical analysis was collected from central government agencies in the Republic of Korea. The study found that all three factors indirectly affect job satisfaction through organizational commitment. Only job characteristics were found to directly affect job satisfaction (Park, 2020).

Another study done by Abdelmoula and Boudabbous (2021) with the aim of identifying the factors that affect the job satisfaction of professional accountants. The study examined the relative effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on job satisfaction among accounting professionals using the principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression methods of data analysis. The results of the study showed that three intrinsic factors, namely achievement, the work itself, recognition, along with four extrinsic ones, i.e., salary, relationship with supervisor and co-workers, working conditions, and the company policy, significantly affect the job satisfaction. However, promotion, growth and recognition do not have a significant effect on job satisfaction.

The study by Hussain and Diaz, (2021) identified factors affecting employee job satisfaction in the University of Karachi using a survey questionnaire data. The study found that a generous rewards and compensation packages lead to job satisfaction and are affected by promotion and job security. Good working relationship with co-workers also contributes to employee job satisfaction. The study also found that good working environment also contributes to employee motivation, and is influenced by better facilities, and training and development. Finally, good supervision provides motivation that enhances the quality of output and employee performance.

Jędrzejczak-Gas and Wyrwa (2020) conducted a study to analyze and evaluate environmental factors shaping job satisfaction in a company from the TSL industry. For the study the correlation between general job satisfaction and particular factors of job satisfaction was examined. The values of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and Kendall’s tau coefficients were also calculated. The results of the study show that the two most important factors necessary to achieve job satisfaction are access to information necessary for proper performance of work and independence in performing the entrusted tasks.

Okuwa (2019) examined the determinants of job satisfaction and job turnover intention of the workers of selected banks in Ibadan. Multiple sampling methods were used to select the sample (purposive sampling method was employed to select 12 banks that have the highest number of branches in Ibadan, while random sampling technique was used to select 20 respondents from each of the bank). The results showed that adequacy of salary, safety in work place, possibility of promotion, and interpersonal relations among the staff were the factors that enhanced job satisfaction. However, long working hours, job insecurity and conflicts between office and family schedules reduced the job satisfaction of the bankers.

Using an explanatory research design with a quantitative research approach Mekonin and Teklu (2021) did a study to investigate the determinants of employee job satisfaction in the case of kirkos sub-city of Addis Ababa city administration. The data for the study was collected using a structured close-ended questions from a sample of 310 randomly selected employees and was analyzed using inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 23.0. Multiple regression and ANOVA analysis techniques were also used to explain the nature and effects between employees’ job satisfaction and (Gender, Age, Academic level, Work experience, Work position, pay and benefit, working environment, promotion opportunity, relation with supervisors, trust in leadership). The study found that there is a significant effect with pay and benefit, working environment, Promotion opportunities, relation with supervisors, work experience, and trust in leadership to employees’ job satisfaction and regression analysis result indicated that 81.6% of the variation on the employees’ job satisfaction can be explained by the composite measure the independent variables.

Senek. et al. (2020) analyzed data from a cross-sectional mixed-methods survey to investigate the Determinants of nurse job dissatisfaction – findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis in the UK . Logistic regression analysis of the data was done in order to determine what impacts job dissatisfaction. The study found that nearly two-thirds of nurses were dissatisfied and demoralized.

Monica, Devi and Mohapatra (2020) did a study on Determinants of Job Satisfaction.  Using a sample of 150 respondents and data collected using questionnaire method the study examined whether job characteristics (JC) and individual characteristics (IC) have an effect on worker’s job satisfaction (JS). The result suggest that job characteristics and self-efficacy are significant predictors of job satisfaction (JS).

Khaira, Afifah; Shariff, and Sima, (2021) did a study on the determinants of employee job satisfaction in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine demographic factors (gender and living areas), education and skills, work environment and compensation as the determinants of employee job satisfaction. Data collected from 132 employees from various sectors in Malaysia was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and the Ordinal Logistic Regression. From the study it was concluded that living area, education qualification and skills and compensation are significant and considered important factors to meet their job satisfaction compared to gender and work environment.

Ranatunga, (2020) did a study to identify the relationship between pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers and work itself of job satisfaction and job performance among employees in classified hotels. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 non–executive employees selected using the convenience sampling method. Frequencies, univariate analysis, Pearson’s correlation, T-test and multiple regression analysis as well as multivariate analysis were used in the study. The study concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between selected factors of job satisfaction and job performance. The results of the correlation coefficient showed that pay, promotion, co-workers, supervision, work itself has a significant positive relationship with job performance and it emphasized that pay and co-workers have a strong relationship with job performance. According to the multiple regression analysis, the model was strongly fitted to the data and 40.6% variance of job performance was explained by pay, promotion, co-workers, supervision and work itself of job satisfaction.

Parveen, Maimani, and Kassim (2016) did a study to examine the effects of demographic characteristics on the QWL dimensions and satisfaction, and the relationships between the QWL dimensions and satisfaction, and between satisfaction and retention among nurses and other health care professionals Saudi Arabia.  A sample of 360 nurses and other health care professionals was collected in Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia and the data collected was analysed using multivariate analysis of variance and structural equation modeling were used to test the hypotheses. The results of the study show that there is a significant difference between demographic and QWL dimensions and satisfaction. Satisfaction with personal growth and salary package were found to have significant positive impacts on overall retention.

Jigme, and Namgyal, (2021) did a study to determine the relationship between the determinants of job satisfaction such as work environment, pay and allowances, promotion, training and development, and job satisfaction in the Bhutanese context. Data from a sample of 76 civil servants were collected through a questionnaire survey and Google form and analyzed using SPSS 23. The Pearson correlation analysis was performed to find out the relationship between the independent variables (determinants of job satisfaction) and a dependent variable (job satisfaction). Linear regression and multiple regression analysis were also performed to understand the strength and types of relationship. The results of Pearson correlation and regression analysis indicate that the work environment (rp = 0.603, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.364, B = 0.460), and training and development (rp = 0.583, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.340, B = 0.383) have strong significant positive relationships with job satisfaction. However, other determinants such as pay and allowances (rp = 0.436, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.190, B = 0.283) and promotion (rp = 0.395, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.156, B = 0.288) have moderate relationships with job satisfaction. The result for multiple regression analysis shows that all the determinants have a strong correlation (R = 0.624, R2 = 0.481, p < 0.01) with job satisfaction and these determinants determine 48.1 percent of the total satisfaction level perceived by the employee. The findings indicate that the work environment is the strongest predictor of job satisfaction as compared to other determinants.

Mensah, Amrago, Asare, Yeboah and Donkor (2020) did a study to investigate the factors affecting job satisfaction amongst workers of the poultry sub-sector: a test of equity theory in the Dormaa Municipality in the Bono Region of Ghana. The multistage sampling technique was employed in collecting data from 100 poultry workers with the aid of a structured questionnaire. The logit model was employed in modeling the factors affecting job satisfaction. The empirical findings reveal that occupational level, pay, and relationships with co-workers were the statistically significant determinants of job satisfaction.

Subarto, Solihin, and Qurbani, (2021) did a study on the determinants of job satisfaction and its implications for the lecturers performance. The purpose of the study was to examine the positive effects of leadership style, work environment, and organizational climate on lecturer performance through Pamulang University’s job satisfaction.  The quantitative research method was used and data was collected using survey questionnaires distributed to a sample of 135 respondents selected using a proportional random sampling. Statistical analysis was done using the partial least squares (PLS). From the results of the analysis it was found that leadership style, work environment, and organizational climate have an impact on job satisfaction. Leadership style, work environment, and organizational atmosphere also affect the performance of lecturers. Job satisfaction affects the performance of lecturers and can mediate the influence of leadership style, work environment, and organizational climate on lecturer performance.

CONCLUSION

From this study it is concluded that the factors that contribute to the positive morale and attitude also result in a higher degree of job satisfaction (Saranya, 2014). The review has shown that the major determinants of job satisfaction are basically nine facets which are pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of works and communication. Job Satisfaction is thus derived from and is the result of many interrelated factors which cannot be completely isolated from one another for analytical purposes. Job Satisfaction is the essential component for employee motivation and encouragement towards better performance (Vroom, 1964). A highly satisfied work force is absolutely necessary for achieving a high level of performance in an organization. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly and responsive which attracts customers while dissatisfied employees can lead to customer dissatisfaction (Mahmud, Hasan, and Asif, 2014). It is therefore necessary for organizations to ensure that the above determinants are provided at the required levels to ensure optimum satisfaction of employees. Of all the major job satisfaction areas, satisfaction with the nature of the work itself—which includes job challenge, autonomy, variety, and scope—best predicts overall job satisfaction, as well as other important outcomes like employee retention (Fried & Ferris, 1987; Parisi & Weiner, 1999 as quoted in Ram, (2013).

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