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Drug Use/Abuse and its’ Effect on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.

Drug Use/Abuse and its’ Effect on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.

Nwokorie Chinedu Nehemiah

Department Of Sociology, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.805098

Received: 02 May 2024; Revised: 10 May 2024; Accepted: 14 May 2024; Published: 12 June 2024

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine drug abuse/abuse and academic performance of students in Imo State University Owerri. The study specifically examines the extent drug abuse impact on students reading culture; determine the extent drug abuse impact on student’s failure rate in exams and investigate the extent drug abuse impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. Relevant literatures were reviewed as authoritative backup to the study. We adopted the social cognitive theory as our theoretical framework. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. Questionnaires were used for data collection and was analysed using the frequency counts and percentages. Also interview was used for further insight to the study. The sample sixe for the study is 380 students of Imo State University. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that there is a significant impact of drug abuse on students reading culture in Imo state University. The study also revealed that: drug abuse has to a very high extent impacted on students reading culture; drug abuse has to a very high extent impacted on student’s failure rate in exams and drug abuse has to a high extent impacted impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended among others that: government should prevent the cultivation/sales of Indian Helm and other deadly herbs that encourage drug abuse; counseling education should be introduced in campuses to save those who have already been engaging in the act; government should strictly enforce its existing laws against drug abuse through its regulatory agencies.

Keywords: Drug Abuse, Academic Performance, Undergraduate Students

INTRODUCTION

Drug abuse is defined as the use of drugs for purposes other than medical treatment, resulting in negative consequences for the user. Socially, cognitively, or physically in a bad way Kerochio, (2015). An individual’s increased inclination to participate in confrontations with friends, instructors, and school activities may represent the social influence. While Kalunta (2015) defines a drug as any thing other than food or water that affects the way individuals feel, think, see, and act, cognitive consequences refer to the individual’s lack of concentrate on academic tasks and memory loss. It is a drug that affects physical, mental, and emotional functioning owing to its chemical makeup. Chewing, eating, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin, or injection are all ways for it to enter the body. Drug addiction is defined by the World Health Organization (W.D.E, 2017) as “permanent, excessive drug use that is inconsistent with or connected to approved medicinal practices.”

Drug abuse among the world’s young has become a severe issue that affects everyone. Addiction sends many individuals, particularly young people, on a downward spiral of despair that may be lethal in certain situations. They vary from drug-sniffing street kids and adolescent ecstasy users to hardened heroin and cocaine users (NACADA, 2015). Wages are lost as a result of drug usage. Property devastation in schools, rising health-care expenditures, and shattered families As parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers, and employees, we are all affected by this issue. Nigeria’s national government has launched an intensive push to combat drug and substance misuse. As a result, the (NDLEA) was founded to enforce, manage, and remedy misuse by stakeholders, as well as advising communities on the vice. At the grassroots level, chiefs and their aides drove the campaign, which addressed parents and students. Drug misuse was becoming a tragedy in both rural and urban settings in 2017, according to Kithi, location head Muss Kipchumba, as barons targeted school pupils. Drug addiction has taken a toll on the young; elderly people were also succumbing to substance misuse via excessive alcohol consumption. Raising public awareness about the dangers of drug abuse has become one of Nigeria’s top concerns.

The worldwide epidemic of drug use, abuse, and other substance misuse seems to be threatening educational institutions all over the globe. They seem to be overburdened by the monster of drug and substance misuse, despite the fact that their goal is to impart information, ideas, values, and standards (Mclean and Ellrod, 2018). Cocaine, Indian hemp (marijuana), Kuber, cigarettes, codeine, and petrol sniffing are all regularly misused narcotics that are hurting school systems and students’ academic performance, particularly in higher institutions (Universities) across the globe. Drug misuse has been noted as a severe barrier to efficient teaching, school administration, and learning processes in the Nigerian educational system, according to Ajayi and Ekundayo (2018).

Because of financial issues and cultural norms prevalent in this age range, drug misuse most often starts in early adolescence (Kandel & Chen, 2015). Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs are used in that order. University students are increasingly using prescribed drugs, particularly narcotics, which are used to treat severe pain, and stimulant medications, which are used to treat conditions such as attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy (Turner, 2018).  As a result, youths who are expected to be tomorrow’s leaders have turned to drug use. This behavior has an effect on the pupils’ growth, and the predicted output of these students’ academic results may suffer as a result of their drug addiction persistence (Turner, 2018). Drug misuse is a big issue in schools, according to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). For example, around 20% of students in Abuja, Nigeria, had used a psychoactive substance at least once in their life (Alemika, 2018). Therefore, the researcher sought to examine drug abuse and academic performance in Imo State University Owerri.

The Challenging Problems of the Study

In Nigeria, drug use/abuse is a widespread occurrence among students in higher institutions. Parents, peer groups, and society as a whole have all been blamed for the growing rise of drug use. Acts of vandalism, weapon carrying, alcohol abuse, rape, examination malpractices, school violence, strikes, bullying, cultism, truancy, and school drop-outs, as well as other anti-social conduct, are all common in universities, which may be as a result of drug use/abuse.

Drug abuse among students has become a pressing issue with significant implications for academic performance. Despite extensive research on the topic, there appear to remain a gap in understanding the nuanced relationship between drug abuse and academic achievement, particularly concerning: students reading culture, success rate in exams and their level of concentration in Imo state University.

Specifically, drug abuse may impact on the reading habits of students in Imo State University Owerri. Persistent abuse of drugs may likely lead to loss of memory and judgment. Many undergraduate students who engage in drug abuse tend to be forgetful of what they read and can hardly focus particularly in their studies. These students can hardly read their books since they operate in altered state of mind. Furthermore, drug abusers could have increased difficulty of coursework over time. They can also develop learning disorder that makes it difficult to study, organize, and/or understand the course material. Having a mental illness, such as depression or anxiety, that reduces motivation and concentration.

Through a comprehensive analysis, this research seeks to provide insights into the complex interplay between drug abuse and academic performance, offering valuable implications for policymakers, educators, and healthcare professionals in developing effective prevention and intervention strategies. Hence, the study addresses the following research questions.

Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of the study is to examine drug abuse and academic performance of students in Imo State University Owerri. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To determine the extent drug abuse impact on students failure rate in exams in Imo state University.
  2. To investigate the extent drug abuse impact on students level of concentration in Imo state University

Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared to guide the study

  1. To extent does drug abuse impact on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University?
  2. To what extent does drug abuse impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University?

Overriding Significance of the study

The findings of this study will contribute to the academic literature on drug use/abuse and academic performance, adding to the existing body of knowledge and providing valuable insights for future research endeavors. It will be relevant to other researcher on the effect of drug use/abuse among undergraduate students, by advancing scholarly understanding in this field, the study contributes to ongoing efforts to address the complex interplay between substance abuse and educational outcomes.

This study is significant to the ministry of education as it will make them see the causes of drug abuse and also help them devise strategy to curb the menace of drug abuse. Findings from this study can inform the development of policies and initiatives aimed at safeguarding the academic environment and promoting a culture of integrity within educational institutions. Policymakers can use empirical evidence to implement measures that deter students from engaging in the menace of drug abuse,

SOME CONTENDING LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL ISSUES ON DRUG USE/ABUSE AND ACAADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Concept of Drug Abuse

Today, there is rising worry throughout the globe about the increasing number of young people who use substances that the law does not allow or ban. One of the most serious issues in educational institutions is the presence and intensity of drug usage. This has an impact on a variety of areas of learning, including student performance.

Chemical that alter mental, emotional, and behavioral functioning are known as drugs AECN (2000).  The usage of illegal substances has grown in recent years, according to the World Day report (2015). According to the research, a prominent global trend is the rising availability of a wide range of medications. According to a research issued by the United Nations Drug Control Programme (2015), 4.8 percent of the world population uses drugs, but the disturbing reality is that those addicted are the young, according to the UN Drug Control Programme executive director (2015).

Drug Abuse

Herbs, leaves, and plants have been utilized to treat and manage ailments since the dawn of time. The use of properly prescribed medications has been a boon. “Chronic use of drugs may cause substantial, often irreparable harm to teenagers’ physical and psychological development,” according to Falco (1988), as stated by Balogun (2016). Depending on how medications are used, they might be useful or dangerous.

Drug usage may be traced back to pre-colonial times, when societies drank and consumed alcohol and other narcotics as part of their customs. The use of narcotics was carefully governed by the virtues and ideals of the communities. In general, alcohol, tobacco, and other substances were reserved for the elders, who were almost always male seniors. Because of solid social institutions, drug use as a societal issue was very uncommon.

Strong familial relationships that went across many social organizations helped to maintain legal levels or the absence of drug usage. To dissuade drug abuse, traditions and taboos were upheld. Drugs have been used by humans for thousands of years in various forms. Wine has been used since the time of the early Egyptians, since 4000 B.C., and medicinal marijuana usage in China dates back to 2737 B.C. The active ingredients of medications were not extracted until the nineteenth century A.D. There was a period when several of these newly found chemicals, such as morphone, landaium, and cocaine, were wholly uncontrolled and readily given by doctors for a broad range of diseases. During the American Civil War, morphine and hypodermic needles were widely distributed, and injured soldiers went home with their supplies. Opium dens grew in popularity. In the early 1900s, the United States had an estimated 250,000 addicts.

Some of the Drugs commonly Abuse by Students

Alcohol

Alcohol is the most abused psychoactive substance in the United States, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2018), with roughly 90% of pupils taking it before graduating from high school. Alcohol is also the most widely misused substance in Nigeria, according to a research by NAFDAC (2018), with around 61 percent of the population abusing it. According to the same research, 40.9 percent of pupils in Nairobi Province and 26.3 percent in Central Province abuse alcohol. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, according to Perkinson (2002), and it dulls the brain, making learning harder. According to NAFDAC (2018), the most frequent forms of misused medications in Nigeria are as follows:

Stimulants:

These are medications that stimulate the central nervous system by acting directly on it. Users first report good outcomes, such as increased energy. These are mostly derived from the caffeine molecule.

Hallucinogens: 

These are drugs that help the brain’s sensory processing unit work correctly. As a consequence, distorted perception, anxiety and euphoria, sadness, and internal joy emerge. Marijuana is generally used to make these. Take, for example, LSD.

Narcotics:

These drugs are extremely addictive and give pain relief while also promoting sleep. They’re found in heroin, codeine, opium, and other narcotics.

Sedative:

These are some of the most often used and misused substances. This is partly owing to the assumption that they alleviate stress and anxiety, and that some of them promote sleep, reduce tension, induce relaxation, or help users forget about their troubles. Valium, alcoholic promotatazine, and chloroform are used to make them.

Miscellaneous:

This is a class of volatile solvents or inhalants that provide the user euphoria, emotional dis inhibition, and constant thinking distortion. Glues, spot removers, tube repair, fragrances, chemicals, and other similar items are the most common suppliers.

Tranquilizer:

They are mostly generated from Librium, Valium, and other sedatives and are thought to create calmness without causing drowsiness. They are mostly generated from Librium, Valium, and other sedatives and are thought to create calmness without causing drowsiness.

Causes of Drug Abuse

Peer Pressure

Peer pressure, in which each student desires to align himself with his or her drug-using classmates. Drug addicts, like other individuals, seek approval for their behavior from their friends, whom they try to persuade to join them in their habit as a method of gaining acceptability, according to the United Nations, (2018).

Gatonye, (2016) discovered that peer pressure has a detrimental or positive influence depending on the quality of the peer group while performing an evaluation on substance and drug addiction in Nigeria schools. Unfortunately, the same social pressure that keeps a group of people following a set of rules may also lead a vulnerable person down the wrong road.

According to a study conducted by Kyalo and Mbugua (2017) on narcotic drug problems in Kenya’s Muranga South District, a case study of drug abuse by students in secondary schools, the majority of drug users have friends who use drugs, and they gang together even at school to plan how to get the drugs. Because all of this is done in secret, it takes up the majority of their study time.

Muma, (2018) did research on the impact of drug misuse on discipline among secondary school students in the Nakuru municipality and found that there is a substantial link between the subjects’ drug use and their friends’ drug use. According to him, if a teenager hangs around with other adolescent drug users, the likelihood of drug usage increases much more.

Another study of teenagers in Southern Nigeria discovered that drug-using pupils got their drugs through drug-using classmates in the same or nearby schools.

Imbosa, (2016) conducted an analysis of tactics utilized in treating drug usage issues, utilizing a case study of Nairobi provincial boys secondary schools, and found that pupils who reported taking drugs used more drugs than their abstinent peers. In his study “Youth in Peril: Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Kenya,” Kiiru (2015) confirms these findings, arguing that peer pressure influences youths to use substances under the false impression that some drugs stimulate appetite for food, increase strength, and provide wisdom as well as courage to face life.

Parental or Family Influence and Drug Abuse among Students.

Many adolescents are encouraged to imitate their parents’ drug-using behavior, to the point that some students become worse than their parents; much has been said and written on the link between the family environment and drug usage. The family, particularly the parents, are the child’s primary socializing agents, molding them from an early age.

According to Muchemi (2015), a child’s initial norm of behavior is formed by the lessons of parents and other adults in the environment. He went on to say that if a youngster notices a disconnect between his or her parents’ “teachings and behaviors,” it will develop uncertainties, which will continue throughout adolescence, leading to deviant behavior.

Shoemaker (2018) conducted a research on delinquency theories, which included an investigation of the causes of delinquent behavior in New York and the link between delinquency, such as alcohol and marijuana misuse, and slack, inconsistent, or harsh parental punishment. The way parents and children interact, as well as the overall climate in the house, are all linked to juvenile delinquency. Furthermore, having a parent with a drug issue raises the likelihood of the child getting the same problem. Other research focused on family difficulties and the impact of drug usage on young people.

In Nigeria, Darcis (2016) conducted a Rapid Situation Analysis (RSA) research and discovered that being a man in an unstable home was linked to a higher likelihood of drug misuse. Clinical studies on drug use among students and out-of-school kids in metropolitan regions of Nigeria supported this notion, showing that cannabis abusers likely to be young males, especially students who were deprived of parental supervision and warmth as children.

According to a NACADA study released in 2018, young people aged 10 to 24 who had parents who used or sold alcohol and other drugs were more likely to misuse these substances. According to Field, (2016), preventing poor children from becoming poor adults; a report of the independent review on poverty and life chance, youngsters, particularly students who sell on behalf of their parents, are sometimes exposed to drug usage in the future.

Adolescents with substance-abusing parents had a higher risk of parental and family difficulties than adolescents whose parents do not misuse substances, according to Kikuvi (2019). This may lead to a lack of bonding between parents and children, which can lead to a lack of dedication to extracurricular activities and, in some cases, teenage drug use. Imbosa (2016) adds that kids who lack parental support are more likely to seek help and understanding elsewhere. The lifestyle of a drug misuse sub-group attracts many people who want love, compassion, and support.

Mass Media

Through television, radio, newspapers, and the internet, society is continually assaulted with mass media messages. Although news organizations have a limited amount of room to devote to problems, illegal substances are certainly noteworthy. Despite the fact that the media was designated almost 10 years ago as a “new battlefield” for the alcohol and other drug industry, according to Imbosa (2016), understanding of the nature of news media reporting remains limited. How much room is given to drugs, how concerns are handled, and who talks and who does not speak are all factors to consider. Even less is known about the effects of the news media on drug attitudes, especially among young, who are the most prone to use illegal substances.

Media coverage of violence, body image, and cigarette smoking has been shown to have a potentially dramatic and even deadly impact on attitudes and behavior in other domains. We also know that, contrary to popular belief, youngsters continue to be avid users of conventional news sources like newspapers and television news.

In both rich and developing nations, social pressure from the media and peers is a universal risk factor for drug addiction among teenagers. Imbos (2016). This is particularly frequent in metropolitan areas, where advertising on radio, television, and billboards is widely distributed. Young people in cities are more likely than their peers in rural regions to be exposed to pictures advertising cigarettes and alcohol. Muma, (2018) agrees with this theory, claiming that external forces, particularly the media, have a role in juvenile drug usage. The amount of time individuals spend watching television, he claims, has a harmful impact on their conduct.

Availability of the Drugs

Drug availability and affordability are linked to drug misuse. Kaylo (2017) observed in his baseline study on “children in risk; alcohol and drug misuse in Kenya” that the availability of illicit drugs like heroin, cocaine, and mandrax, as well as legal substances like cigarettes and alcohol, might lead to drug addiction. The easy availability of most drugs seems to be the most crucial factor in Kenyan youth’s widespread substance use and addiction. For example, pharmacists sell medications (drugs) without requiring a prescription from a doctor. Drug peddlers in Nairobi have been warned of citizen arrests.

According to Kikuvi (2019) also noted that addicts have been reported going to pharmacies to get Roche, a medicine that should only be supplied on prescription in Lamu town. Kikuvi (2019) discovered that commonly used chemicals are cultivated, processed, and given openly to children and teenagers. Among students from the underprivileged community, cheap and filthy alcohol such as changaa is widely accessible.

According to Fieldl., (2016), when performing a research on the prevalence and cure for drug misuse and indiscipline in Kenya’s Kisumu County learning institutions, it was discovered that the majority of the students at the study used illicit substances since they were readily available. It was also noted that the availability of illicit substances aided the interests of those who stand to profit financially from their sale. According to the study, if drugs are readily available, students may choose to misuse them despite regulatory norms prohibiting drug usage.

Drug accessibility was identified to be one of the primary contributing elements of drug misuse in Kenya, according to a survey conducted by the National Agency for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse, NACADA, (2018) on a fast situation assessment of the condition of drug and substance abuse in Kenya. Traditional liquor is the most common sort of alcohol, followed by wines, spirits, and changaa. Changaa was reported to be the most accessible region in Western Kenya, followed by Nyanza and Northern Eastern Kenya. Traditional liquor was found to be most available in the Coast, Western, and North Eastern regions, with traditional liquor being least accessible in the North Eastern. Nairobi had the best access to wines and spirits, followed by Central, while North Eastern had the worst availability. In Nyanza, Kuber was judged to be the most accessible, followed by Nairobi, while Central was the least accessible. Nairobi has the greatest access to Miraa (khat), while Nyanza had the least. Bhang was found to be easy to get in Nairobi and difficult to obtain in the North Eastern region.

The Coastal area had the highest access to cocaine and heroin, while the North Eastern region had the least. The drop in the age at which respondents reported their entry into drugs is of considerable concern in NACADA’s (2018) report. This was seen in the groups of rural, male, in school, and low socioeconomic level. For example, NACADA (2018) found that up to 50% of families in Bungoma East Sub-County are active in making, purchasing, and reselling brews, increasing children’s access to alcohol.

Type of School

According to a study conducted by Imbosa (2016) in Nairobi schools, drug usage was more prevalent among pupils who attended day schools rather than boarding institutions. The discrepancy might be attributable to the fact that boarding school pupils were tightly supervised, while day scholars were exposed to the material via their own neighborhoods and communities, according to the poll.

Muma (2018) conducted a study in Kenyan schools and discovered that the sort of education pupils get has an impact on their drug usage. Kenyan youngsters who had attended day schools rather than boarding schools were more likely to experiment with common drugs, according to him. He cited the following reasons: boarding school students are more strictly supervised, while day school students are often exposed to drug addiction as they travel to and from school on a regular basis. Koech (2016) discusses how to start a campaign to combat escalating drug usage. According to Koech (2016), school proximity (connection to school activities, aims, and aspirations) was a significant driver of drug use. Those who are more involved in school are less likely to take drugs. Drug abuse is not just confined to day schools where students can easily access drugs because they are not confined within the school premises, according to a study conducted by Darcis (2016) on factors contributing to drug abuse among secondary school students in Central, Kirinyaga division, Kirinyaga District, Kenya. Boarding school students use alcohol in the same way as day school students do. Similarly, a research on the sociology of education in Nigeria by Darcis (2016) found that the proportion of pupils who drink alcohol in day schools is greater than in boarding schools. This is due to the fact that they are not restricted to the school grounds.

Muchemi, (2015) says that there is a substantial association between drug misuse and the kind of school a student attends in a research conducted to establish methods for prevention and intervention of drug addiction in Nigeria. He said that mixed-gender schools had a higher rate of drug misuse than girls-only or boys-only institutions. He also discovered that mixed schools had inherent issues relating to student drug misuse. Boys’ schools had significant drug misuse issues, while girls’ schools did not. This suggests that since the girls and boys were in the same school, the effect of their friends was greater.

Age

Muchemi (2015) asserts that young people are individuals in development and change, and that during this period they experiment with newly discovered aspects of their physical and emotional selves, according to a study on distress and academic achievement among affluent adolescents; a study of externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors and school performance. During this time, young people are more prone to use drugs and get hooked.

“Adolescence is a phase of adaptation,” according to Field(2016), an English psychoanalyst. Every teenager is troubled.” The problems that teenagers face in a changing society have been identified by sociologists, anthropologists, and others. Adolescence is widely accepted and understood in many societies as the time when a young person develops his or her own identity, usually through meaningful conflict with his or her parents or older generation. It has been claimed that adolescence is a phase of health antagonism on the part of young people who are finding themselves in the face of older values and customs. According to Field (2016), the kids’ aggressive and deviant conduct at this period may give a remedy for him. In the United States of America, drug use often starts in adolescence, and the average age of commencement is 13-15 years, with the majority of adult addicts starting in their teens.

From the mid-1970s until the twenty-first century, Muchemi (2015) performed a monitoring research that tracked teenage drug use preferences among American eighth grade students each year. According to this poll more than half (54%) of American high school graduates admitted to taking illegal drugs at some point in their lives in 2000.

According to the NACADA (2018) survey on the rapid situation assessment of the status of drug and substance abuse in Kenya, it is concerning that the age at which respondents revealed their initiation into drugs is decreasing. The data for those aged 10-14 years olds showed an increase from 0.3 percent in 2007 to (1.1) percent in 2012 for those reporting ever using bhang. This rise was seen in the categories of rural, male in school, and low socioeconomic status.

Social Economic Factors

Poverty is a common trait among social outcasts, especially drug addicts. This is what is referred to as an economic explanation for aberrant behavior. When the kids do not perceive any possibility of job, even with schooling, the economic situation becomes much worse. “Now, with formal education everywhere, and for practically everyone, the link between schooling and future career is at best not very straightforward, and at worst entirely inexplicable,” says a sociologist. Slums in cities and towns are thought to produce the highest proportion of juvenile drug addicts. This is evident in Kenyan cities and towns, especially Nairobi, where slums such as Mathare, Kibera, Mkuru, and Majengo are known to house a huge number of drinkers and drug addicts.

However, according to Kaylo (2017), drug misuse among young people in some geographical locations or from certain socioeconomic backgrounds does not persist. It has an impact on the whole country, both in urban and rural regions. The issue affects people of all social classes. People are impoverished and miserable not just in slums or low-income regions, but even in families that live in better-controlled environments with better-controlled children.

Children from well-to-do homes, who have all they need, use drugs for the sheer joy of it. According to Gatonye (2016), who conducted a research on drug abusers and parental awareness on variables predisposing the young to drug and substance misuse in Nairobi province, addiction develops when substances are used for fun and enjoyment over a lengthy period of time. According to the literature examined in this section, while studies have been conducted to determine the reasons of drug misuse in Kenya, much of the work has been done in urban and pre-urban regions, with little work done in rural areas, particularly Masaba North Sub County. As a result, it is essential to do the research and determine the true reasons, which may be specific to the Sub County.

Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse

According to Kandel, (2015) the following are signs and symptoms of drug abuse. They are:

Signs of Drug Used and Drug Paraphernalia

1. Possession of drug paraphernalia such pipes, rolling papers, and tiny decongestants

2. Drugs, unusual plants or bolts, and leaf seeds in ashtrays or clothes pockets are all prohibited.

3. Drug odors, incense odors, and other masking fragrances

Identification with Drug Culture

1. Drug related magazines, slogans on clothing

2. Hostility in discussing drugs

Signs of Physical Deterioration

1. Memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in concentration.

2. Poor physical coordination, slurred or incoherent speech; unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and grooming

3. Bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils.

Changes in Behaviour

1. Distinct downward performance in school place of work.

2. Increased absenteeism or tardiness.

3. Chronic dishonesty, lying; cheating and stealing.

4. Trouble with the police and other law enforcement agencies

5. Change of friends, evasiveness in talking about new ones.

Effects of Drug Abuse

1. Alcohol-related problems includes:

a. Physical problems e.g liver cirrhosis, pancreatic, peptic ulcer, tuberculosis, hypertension, neurological disorder.

b. Mental retardation for the fetus in the womb, growth, deficiency, delayed motor development.

c. Craniofacial abnormalities, limbs abnormalities and cardiac deficits.

d. Psychiatric e.g pathological drunkenness, suicidal behaviour

e. Socially-broken homes, increased crime rate, sexual offences, homicide and sexually transmitted diseases.

2. Tobacco: Causes stimulation of heart and narrowing of blood vessels, producing hypertension, headache, loss of appetite, nausea and delayed growth of the fetus. It also aggravates or causes sinusitis, bronchitis, cancer, strokes, and heart attack.

3. Stimulants: Lethargy, irritability, exaggerated self-confidence, damage nose linings, sleeplessness, and psychiatric complications.

4. Inhalants: Causes anemia, damage kidney and stomach bleeding.

5. Narcotics: Causes poor perception, constipation, cough, suppression, vomiting, drowsiness and sleep, unconsciousness and death.

Concept of Academic Performance

Without a question, academic performance is the most essential component of education. In this aspect, it is expected that schools would have an influence on kids’ learning, socializing, and even occupational preparedness. Despite the emphasis on a broad knowledge of educational objectives, academic accomplishment remains crucial. Students’ academic success is a term that comes up often in debates concerning higher education. Academic performance is a multifaceted construct made up of a learner’s talents, attitudes, and actions that aid in classroom success (Hijazi & Naqvi, 2016). It is an acceptable and remarkable level of accomplishment as students go through and conclude their educational experience (Tinto, 2016).

The consequences of this notion are shown by research, which demonstrates that the vast majority of students who drop out do so due to low academic performance alone. Although the importance of academic achievement is seldom questioned, reaching an agreement on how to assess it has proven challenging. Policymakers, measurement specialists, and educators are still at odds on how to evaluate children’s academic success (Elliot, 2017). Researchers have utilized a variety of methods to evaluate academic success, including report card grades, grade point averages, standardized test scores, teacher evaluations, other cognitive test scores, grade retention, and dropout rates. Student academic performance, on the other hand, is defined in this study as a student’s ability to complete a specific class assignment in a school setting.

Influence of Drug Abuse on Academic Performance

The social environment, according to (Goodman, 2016) has a significant impact on health and social outcomes. Marijuana use and related problems are explained in this article as the result of a complex interaction between the individual and the environment, in which social institutions or structures can influence the environment in ways that influence drug use and related problems. Given that the majority of marijuana use begins during the adolescent stage, particularly for “gateway” drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes, it is critical to address this social problem. Alcohol and cigarettes are referred to as “gateway” drugs because they are frequently used before other drugs are tried (NACADA, 2015). Student drug abuse can result in a significant drop in academic performance, an increase in truancy reports, and expulsion from school.

It can also lead to addiction, as well as an increase in drug desire, which disrupts normal life processes and increases appetite and libido. Other vices, such as stealing, fighting, and gambling, may be caused by drug abuse due to a change in the abuser’s brain chemistry. Drug tolerance develops when a drug is used repeatedly over a long period of time, a physiological reaction in which the body requires increasingly larger doses to achieve the same effects. Cross-tolerance occurs when a person’s tolerance for one drug increases their tolerance for another.

Influence of Drug Use on Students Interest in Learning

Drug users have a diminished interest in class work and a bad attitude, leading many to drop out before finishing their education. According to Balogun (2016) drug users have a lower motivation to complete tasks, as well as a lower capacity to accomplish tasks that need a high level of focus and attention, which interferes with learning. They are uninspired, indifferent, and uninterested in achieving any goals or ambitions. Students who are on drugs are tardy and tired when they arrive at school.

Impacts of Drug Use on Class Attendance

Students who use substances during college spend less time studying and miss more classes, reducing their exposure to the classroom learning environment and the beneficial experiences of interacting with faculty and other students. Longitudinal research has found that students who use alcohol and drugs are more likely to have a disrupted college experience and to drop out. Excessive drinking and drug use can have negative academic consequences, which can be exacerbated by mental health issues. Binge drinkers are more likely to miss classes and fall behind in their studies (Wechsler et al, 2015). The number of drinks consumed is positively correlated with the number of missed classes (Alcohol Edu 2018-2019). Absenteeism from disliked classes was linked to the frequency of alcohol consumption.

Impacts of Drug Abuse on Time Spent Studying.

Alcohol consumption has a negative impact on study hours under all definitions of drinking (binge, frequent binge, drunkenness, and frequent drunkenness). Drinking alcohol more frequently has a greater negative impact on study time, with frequent drunkenness having the greatest impact. Heavy episodic alcohol consumption and time spent on academics are linked.

Empirical Review

Oshiokoya ,et al (2016) conducted a study titled “Drug use among secondary school children in Central Delta State, Nigeria”. The study was a survey study among a total of 124 secondary schools with a population of 81,000 students. Sixteen schools were randomly selected to participate in the study. The sample population for study comprised male and female students from 16 secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria, and 640 students participated. The research design used for the study was a survey design. A well-structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection; the reliability of the instrument was tested using a test-retest method. The questionnaire was administered in each of the 16 secondary schools and was collected immediately to enhance the rate of returns. Frequency distributions were used to calculate the percentage of responses for each question. Using the Pearson Product moment correlation, the coefficient of reliability was found to be 0.72. This value indicated the reliability of the instrument. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between students of high and low academic performance in terms of their drug use. Fifty percent (50%) of students with a high academic rating regularly took alcohol, Indian hemp and kola nuts, compared with 54 per cent of low academic performance peers. The past study is relevant to the present study in the sense that it was conducted on secondary school students. The findings focused on the students‟ academic performances. The study also employed the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) to find the correlation differences between drug abuse and students’ behaviour, which was the intent of this present study to make use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). The study employed questionnaire as an instrument for collecting data and the present study employed the use of questionnaire as an instrument for data collection.

Another study was carried out by Afolayan &Afolayan (2020) titled; A Study of some Causative Factors of Substance Abuse among Selected Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria. The researcher used descriptive survey method for the study. The sample of the study comprised four hundred and eighty students (480) selected through multi-stage sampling from secondary school students in Ibadan. A self-designed Adolescent Drug Habit Inventory was used to collect data for the study. Three null hypotheses were raised and Chi-square statistic was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The results of study showed that there was a significant difference in the involvement of junior and senior students in substance abuse, but there was no significant difference in the causes of abuse. The findings also showed that causes of substance abuse were numerous which included family neglect by parents to house helps, influence by peers This study is of immense benefit to the present study in that it was carried out to investigate substance abuse among secondary school students, which is the same age bracket that the present study wants to investigate. Although this study employed Chi-Square statistics, the present research study did not use the same statistical package to test the null hypotheses. The instrument that was used in gathering the data was adolescent drug habit inventory, but the present study used questionnaire in gathering the necessary data. Furthermore, the former study was looked at causative factors of substance, while the present study looked at effects of these causative factors of substance abuse on secondary students. Despite the differences, the present study has benefited from the literature reviewed as it was not only restricted to the causative factors of substance abuse amongst secondary school students.

Another study was carried out by Kiiru (2018) titled the Social and Academic Implications of Drug Abuse among Undergraduates: A Case Study of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria. The population consisted of 1400 the undergraduate students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, for the 2009 academic session. The sample comprised 180 undergraduates of the University. Of the sample, 140 were males, and 40 females. The subjects were randomly selected. The instrument was a validated – teacher-made test, comprising a 35-item supply-response test. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on the area of concern to the study – academic and social pursuits. The sampling technique employed in drawing the sample from the population was stratified random sampling. The data collected were presented in tables and subjected to chi-square statistic. The findings indicated poor social adjustment on the part of the user characterized by elevated by situational hostility, low level of academic adjustment and that most substances abused by students were marijuana, cigarettes cough syrups, locally made gin, beer, kola-nuts and cocaine but the later was not widely abused unlike the other ones.

The present study is related to the past study in that it was conducted on students and it was out to establish the emotional and academic effects of drugs on students. Also the study employed the use of questionnaire as the data gathering instrument which this present study intends to employ. The study covered a wider student population and the findings can be generalized to other Universities in the country as they have similar characteristics, but the magnitude of drug abuse among students varied from region to region.

Theoretical Review

Social cognitive learning theory

This theory was propounded by Bandura (1986). He noted that behavior is determined by the persons thought processes, the environment and attitude. This means that individuals determine their own behavior while being influenced by the environmental factors and their own behavior. Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory tends to focus more on cognitive expectances, vicarious learning and self-regulations as explanatory mechanism of drugs and substance abuser. For example, individuals who believe that alcohol will make them more attractive, less inhibited better lovers and more fun to be around, will be more prone to use alcohol. Bandura (1986) contended that behavior is largely regulated by cognitive factors such as perception of an issue and the pattern within the environment. This theory relevant to this research as it emphasizes the role of observational learning with regard to the presence and influence of models. The theory claims that role modeling does not only affects behaviours but that it also leads to the development of thoughts and emotions that shape behavior. Students who get engaged in the behavior of drugs and substance abuse, have most likely learnt the behavior from their environment. These students have decided to get into the behavior of drugs and substance abuse more often than not out of choice

The modified social stress theory

For understanding drug use and abuse also guides this study. The model was developed by Rodes and Jason (1988) and modified by World Health Organization/Progamme on Substance Abuse (WHO/PSA) to include the effects of drugs or substances, the personal response of the individual to drugs and additional environmental, social and cultural variables. The theory maintains that there are factors that encourage drug abuse called risk factors. Factors that make people less likely to abuse drugs are called protective factors. The key to health and healthy families is increasing the protective factors while decreasing the risk factors. According to this model, if many risk factors are present in a person‟s life, that person is more likely to begin, intensify and continue the use of drugs, which could lead to drug abuse. The model identifies risk factors as stress (which could be due to the school or home environment, and adolescent developmental changes) and normalization of substance use which could be seen in terms of legality and law enforcement; availability and cost of drugs; advertising, sponsorship and promotion through media, as well as the cultural value attached to various drugs. In addition, there is also the experience derived from the use of drugs, which could be positive or negative.

Drugs which produce positive effects are likely to be abused. The model also showed that the more protective factors are present, the less likely the person is to become involved with drugs. Protective factors are identified as: attachments with

people such as family members, peers and institutions such as religion and school. In addition are skills, which refer to physical and performance capabilities that help people succeed in life and reduce incidents of drug abuse. Availability of resources, within the person or the environment, which help people meet their emotional and physical needs, are said to reduce dependence on drugs. Examples include positive role models, religious faith, anti-drug campaigns plus guidance and counseling services. According to this model, it is easy to understand the drug problem better if both risk and protective factors are considered at the same time. Probability of drug abuse is determined by these factors. The framework is useful as a way of planning interventions to prevent or treat problems related to drug abuse. Once the risk factors are identified, work can begin on reducing the risks and strengthening the protective factors. Although Rodes and Jason‟s theory could explain why the youth in schools do or do not abuse drugs, it is not exhaustive. In addition to the above risk and protective factors there could be others which contribute to the present scenario of drug abuse in families, schools and communities, as suggested in the literature review. The presence of risk and protective factors is context dependent and the proportions of their contribution depend on intensity in given situations. Therefore, the actual state of affairs needs exploration for factors unique to Machakos district in Kenya, where the investigation was carried out. This model therefore guided the study by way of examining the drug problem in secondary schools in the district and to analyzing the strategies used to address the problem, but where it proved inadequate other models were taken into account.

Opponent Processes Theory of Emotion 

Opponent Processes Theory of Emotion by Solomon (1980) states that every process that has an affective valence i.e. is pleasant or unpleasant, is followed by a secondary, “opponent process”. This opponent process sets in after the primary process is quieted. With repeated exposure, the primary process becomes weaker while the opponent process is strengthened. The most important contribution is Solomon’s findings on work motivation and addictive behavior, though it does not fit the “economist’s standard model” and how there are growing suspicions that addiction is a much broader phenomenon than first believed. According to opponent-process theory, drug abuse and addiction is the result of an emotional pairing of pleasure and the emotional symptoms associated with withdrawal. At the beginning of drug or any substance use, there are high levels of pleasure and low levels of withdrawal. Over time, however, as the levels of pleasure from using the drug decrease, the levels of withdrawal symptoms increase, thus providing motivation to keep using the drug despite a lack of pleasure from it The theory was based on a study Solomon conducted in 1974, in which the researcher analyzed the emotions of skydivers. It was found that beginners have greater levels of fear than more experienced skydivers, but less pleasure upon landing. However, as the skydivers kept on jumping, there was an increase in pleasure and a decrease in fear.

A similar experiment was done with dogs. Dogs were put into a so-called Pavlov harness and were shocked with electricity for 10 seconds. This shock was the stimulus of the experiment. In the initial stage (consisting of the first few stimuli) the dogs experienced terror and panic. Then, when they stopped the stimuli, the dogs became stealthy and cautious. The experiment continued, and after many stimuli, the dogs went from unhappy to joyful and happy after the shocks stopped altogether (Solomon 1978). In the opponent-process model, this is the result of a shift over time from fear to pleasure in the fear-pleasure emotion pair. Beyond addictive behavior, opponent-process theory can in principle explain why processes (i.e. situations or subjective states) that are aversive and unpleasant can still be rewarding. For instance, after being exposed to a stressful situation, human participants showed greater physiological signs of well-being than those in the control condition. Accordingly, opponent-process theory can also help to explain psycho-pathological behavior such as non-suicidal self-injury. The theories are related to this work because they provide foundational explanation as regards to how emotion and behaviour can lead to certain behaviours in humans, most especially student

Theoretical Framework:

We adopted the social cognitive theory as our theoretical framework. Applying the Social Cognitive Learning Theory to the research topic of “Drug Abuse and Academic Performance of Students” can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms and potential interventions related to this issue. The Social Cognitive Learning Theory, proposed by Albert Bandura, emphasizes the role of observational learning, imitation, and modeling in shaping behavior. Individuals learn by observing others’ behaviors, experiences, and consequences.

 In the context of drug abuse and academic performance, students may observe peers who engage in substance abuse and perceive it as a normative behavior. This observation can influence their attitudes and likelihood of engaging in similar behaviors. Research can investigate how exposure to drug use within social circles impacts academic performance through observational learning processes. According to Social Cognitive Learning Theory, individuals are more likely to imitate behaviors they observe if they perceive the model as similar to themselves or as having desirable attributes. In the case of drug abuse and academic performance, students may imitate the behavior of peers or role models who use drugs, especially if they perceive them as successful academically. Research can explore how modeling influences students’ decisions regarding substance use and how these decisions subsequently affect their academic performance. Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy, which refers to individuals’ beliefs in their ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish tasks. Students with low self-efficacy regarding academic achievement may be more vulnerable to the influence of drug-abusing peers and may resort to substance use as a coping mechanism or to fit in socially. Research can investigate the relationship between self-efficacy, drug abuse, and academic performance, exploring how interventions aimed at enhancing self-efficacy may mitigate the negative effects of substance abuse on academic outcomes.

Social Cognitive Learning Theory emphasizes the bidirectional relationship between individuals, their environment, and their behavior. In the context of drug abuse and academic performance, research can examine how environmental factors such as peer influences, family dynamics, and school culture interact with individual characteristics to shape both drug use patterns and academic outcomes. Understanding these dynamic interactions can inform the development of comprehensive interventions targeting multiple levels of influence. By applying the Social Cognitive Learning Theory to the research topic of drug abuse and academic performance, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors that contribute to this complex issue. This understanding can inform the development of targeted interventions aimed at promoting positive behavior change and improving academic outcomes among students affected by substance abuse.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Scope of the study

The study focuses on drug abuse and academic performance of students. It is also limited to Imo State University Owerri. It is also limited to Imo state university. The research covers the eighteen (18) departments from the faculty of social sciences, Faculty of Business Administration and Faculty of Education. They includes; Social Sciences (6 Departments): Sociology, Psychology, Mass Communication, Economics, Public Administration, and Political Science; Faculty of Business Administration (6 Departments): Accountancy, Banking and Finance, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Insurance and Actuarial Science, Management and Marketing;  Faculty of Education (6 Departments): Physical Science Education, Life Science Education, Language Education, Social Science Education, Arts Education, Library and Information Science.

Area of the study           

Imo State University Owerri is located at Owerri city, the capital of Imo State. Imo State University Owerri colloquially called “IMSU” was established in 1981 through law No. 4 passed by the Imo State House of Assembly (Wikipedia, 2021). IMSU was temporary accommodated within the campus of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education from May to December 1992. The University later moved to its own premises of four building within the Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) at the Lake Nwaebere Campus at the relocation of FUTO to its present day permanent site of Ihiagwa near Owerri. The first batch of students was allocated to IMSU by Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) in February 1993. The National Universities Commission also formally approved the re-establishment of the University in 1992 at the Lake Nwaebere Campus (Wikipedia, 2021). IMSU has fourteen faculties and 63 academic programmes that have been duly approved by the Nigeria University Commission.

Recently, the infiltration of abhorrent societal ills like internet scam has equally made in-roads our institution of higher learning. IMSU as part of larger society has witnessed the activities of internet scammers operating both as students and fraudsters using the cyberspace.

Research Design

The survey research design was adopted for the study. This is to enable the researcher obtain valuable information using a mix of descriptive, explanatory and exploratory design. The descriptive mix helps to present data pertaining to socio-demographic profiles of the respondents, and core issues on how drug abuse affects academic performance of students in Imo State University. Data proceeding from all these helped the researcher to answer crucial research questions and explain relationship. On the explanatory mix, the researcher used simple percentages and correlation analytical tool (chi-square) to predict relationship while the exploratory mix of the design used interviews to elicit valuable and hidden information from the respondents concerning the issue understudy.

Population of the Study

The target populations of this study are the three (3) faculties as mentioned below: Education, Social Sciences and Environmental Sciences. They have an estimated population of two thousand four hundred (2400) students. This was arrived based on one hundred and fifty (150) students admitted per session multiplied by the total numbers of departments sampled.

Sample Size

A sample size is a subset containing the characteristics of a larger population. Due to the large size of the target population, the researcher used a sample size of 450 students. We used the rule of thumb to choose six (6) departments from the three (3) selected faculties. This was distributed proportionately to all the 6 departments. That is 75 questionnaire for these departments (Accountancy and Banking and Finance; Sociology and Political Science and Physical Science Education and Life Science Education)selected from the faculties in brackets (Business Administration, Social Sciences and Faculty of Education) respectively. However, only 285 questionnaires were fit to be used for analysis. This put the actual sample size at 285 being returned questionnaire.

Sampling technique

A multistage sampling technique was used in this survey. The first stage involves selecting three Faculties (Business Administration, Social Sciences and Faculty of education) from the study area which is Imo State University Owerri. The second stage involves selecting two departments each from the selected faculties so that each faculty will be represented. The next stage involves selecting 100, 200, 300 and 400 Level students from each selected departments. Due to the sensitive nature of the study, we used snow-balling technique to get to our subject. Firstly some known internet fraudsters were contacted by the researcher and they helped to inform their other colleagues in the illicit business.

Technique for Data Collection

The techniques that was used for this study was questionnaires and interviews. It involves administering structured questionnaire to gather quantitative data on student experiences and perceptions on the issue under study. Also interviews were conducted with some students to gain qualitative insight on internet crime and academic performance of students.

Revaluation of Research Instruments

The instrument was subjected to face validity.  The researcher constructed the questionnaire for the study and submitted to the project supervisor who used his intellectual knowledge to critically, analytically and logically examine the instruments relevance of the contents, statements and then made the instrument valid for the study.

Techniques (Methods) of Data Analysis

The responses were analysed using frequency counts and percentages, which provided answers to the research questions. The hypothesis test was conducted using the Pearson Chi-Square statistical tool, SPSS v.23. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. A co-efficient value of 0.68 indicated that the research instrument was relatively reliable. According to (Taber, 2017) the range of a reasonable reliability is between 0.67 and 0.87.

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

Table 1.1  Questionnaire Retrieval Data

No of Questionnaire distributed 450
No of Questionnaire Returned 400
No of Valid 380

Source: Field survey, 2024

A total of four hundred (450) questionnaires were administered to respondents and 400 were returned of which only three hundred and eighty (380) were validated.  The above table shows that we have a high response rate of 84.4%. This means that many of the respondents attended to the research.

Table 1.2 Gender of Respondents

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 190 50
Female 190 50
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data collected from table 12 reveals that all the respondents were evenly represented in term of sex. This is because this study sought to present a balance view of the issue under investigation.

Table 1.3: Age of Respondents

Age Frequency Percentage (%)
17-20 years 132 34.7
20-25 years 153 40.3
30-35 years 50 13.2
36 years and above 45 11.8
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.3 shows that the 17-20 age groups constitute 132 responses, which accounts for approximately 34.7% of the total responses. This suggests that there is a moderate level of participation from individuals in this age bracket. It might indicate that younger respondents are somewhat engaged but not as much as the older age groups. With 153 responses for year 20-25, this age group has the highest number of respondents, making up about 40.3% of the total. It indicates a significant interest or involvement from individuals aged between 20 and 25 years. This age group could be a key demographic for the study or survey, potentially indicating a strong connection to the subject matter. The 30-35 age group follows closely behind with 50 responses, representing approximately 13.2% of the total. This suggests a substantial presence of respondents in their early thirties, indicating a noteworthy interest or relevance of the topic to individuals in this age bracket. Lastly, individuals aged 36 and above contributed 45 responses, making up around 11.8% of the total. While this group has the fewest responses among the provided age categories, it still represents a notable portion of the respondents. This might suggest that older individuals are also engaged or affected by the topic, albeit to a lesser extent compared to younger age groups. Notably, individuals aged 20-25 constitute the largest cohort, followed closely by those in their early thirties. This suggests a strong interest or relevance of the survey topic among young adults and individuals in their early career stages. Understanding these demographic patterns can help tailor interventions or educational programs to target specific age groups effectively.

Table 1.4: Educational Level of Respondents

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
100 Level 78 20.5
200 Level 190 50
300 Level 70 18.4
400 Level 42 11.1
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.4 shows the distribution of responses among different educational levels of the respondents. Among the 380 responses, the majority (50%) were from students at the 200 level, indicating a significant representation from this group. This could imply that students in their second year of study were more actively engaged or accessible for the survey compared to students at other academic levels. Following that, 300 level students comprised 18.4% of the responses, indicating a substantial but lesser representation compared to the 200 level. This suggests that students in their third year also participated, although to a lesser extent. Students at the 100 level contributed 20.5% of the responses, indicating a comparatively lower participation rate. This could be attributed to factors such as unfamiliarity with surveys or lower engagement levels among freshmen students. Lastly, 400 level students had the lowest representation with only 11.1% of the responses. This could indicate that final year students were relatively less involved or accessible for the survey, possibly due to higher academic demands or engagement in other activities related to completing their degree requirements.

Research Question 1: To extent does drug abuse impact on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University?

Table 1.8: Whether respondents agree that drug abuse has on student’s success rate in exams in Imo state University.

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 167 43.9
Agree 129 33.9
Disagree 50 13.2
Strongly Disagree 34 8.9
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.8 shows that 77.8% of the responses fall under “Strongly Agree” and “Agree,” it indicates a significant consensus among the respondents that drug abuse has an impact on student’s success rate in exams in Imo state University. The relatively smaller percentages (22.2%) for “Disagree” and “Strongly Disagree” suggest that there’s a minority view or disagreement regarding this influence. Overall, the majority opinion aligns with the idea that there’s a correlation between drug abuse and students success rate in exams in Imo state University.

Table 1.9:Ways drug abuse has on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University?

Statement SA A D SD
Drug abuse can exacerbate feelings of anxiety and stress, which are common during exam periods 150 (39.5%) 108 (28.4%) 70 (18.4%) 52 (13.7%)
Students engage in academic misconduct, such as cheating or plagiarism, as a result of the pressure to perform well in exams combined with the effects of drug abuse 155 (40.8%) 121 (31.8%) 65 (17.1%) 39 (10.3%)
Drug abuse impair cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and concentration, making it difficult for students to retain information and perform well on exams 161 (42.4%) 115 (30.3%) 70 (18.4%) 34 (8.9%)

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in Table 1.9 shows the ways drug abuse has on student’s success rate in exams in Imo state University. Option 1 suggests that a significant portion of respondents strongly believe that drug abuse can exacerbate feelings of anxiety and stress, which are common during exam periods. Additionally, a substantial number also agree with this statement. However, there is a notable minority who disagrees or strongly disagrees, indicating some skepticism or disagreement with this viewpoint. Similarly, a considerable portion of respondents in option 2 strongly agree or agree that students engage in academic misconduct, such as cheating or plagiarism, as a result of the pressure to perform well in exams combined with the effects of drug abuse. However, there is a slightly higher proportion of respondents who disagree or strongly disagree compared to Option 1. Option 3 suggests that while there is still a notable portion of respondents who agree that drug abuse impair cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and concentration, making it difficult for students to retain information and perform well on exams. A significant number of respondents disagree or strongly disagree with this statement, indicating a divergence in opinion regarding the impact of drug abuse on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University.

Table 1.10: The extent drug abuse has on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University?

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
Very High Extent 171 45
High Extent 100 26.3
Moderate Extent 59 15.5
Low Extent 50 13.1
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.10 shows that the overwhelming majority of respondents (45%) believe that drug abuse has to a very high extent impacted on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University. Following closely, 26.31% of respondents still acknowledge a high extent of influence. This indicates that even though not as dominant as the very high extent, there is still a substantial acknowledgment of the impact of drug abuse on student’s success rate in exams in Imo state University. Moderate extent, accounting for 15.5% of responses, suggests that there is a significant portion of the respondents who believe that while the influence exists, it is not as pronounced as the previous categories.  Finally, the low extent category, with 13.2% of responses, suggests that there is a minority viewpoint indicating that drug abuse has an impact on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University. This perspective might suggest that other factors outweigh the influence of drug abuse on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University.

Research Question 2: To what extent does drug abuse impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University?

Table 1.11: Whether respondents agree that drug abuse has impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University.

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 152 40
Agree 164 43.2
Disagree 44 11.6
Strongly Disagree 20 5.3
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.11 shows that the majority of respondents represented by 83.2% gave positive responses (SA+A) that drug abuse has impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. This suggests that there is a widespread belief among the respondents that such expectations have a significant impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. Conversely, 16.8% answered in the negative. A student interviewed said this: it is very hard for drug abusers to concentrate. My roommate suffers from drug addiction and he hard go to class and often times sleep in class. He is finding tough to concentrate to his studies.

Table 1.12: Ways drug abuse has on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University?

Statement SA A D SD
Drug abuse impair attention and focus, making it challenging for students to concentrate on academic tasks 171 (45%) 90 (23.7%) 70 (18.4%) 49 (12.9%)
Drug abuse makes students struggle to retain information and concentrate during lectures or study sessions 145 (38.2%) 101 (26.6%) 75 (19.7%) 59 (15.5%)
Drugs can cause mood swings, anxiety, and depression, which can interfere with students’ ability to concentrate and maintain focus on their studies 147 (38.7%) 121 (31.8%) 80 (21.1%) 32 (8.4%)

Source: Field survey, 2024

The data in table 1.12 shows the ways drug abuse has on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. From the findings, the highest percentage of respondents (45%) in option 1 strongly agrees that drug abuse impair attention and focus, making it challenging for students to concentrate on academic tasks. Option 2 also garnered significant support, with 38.2% strongly agreeing and 29.5% agreeing that drug abuse makes students struggle to retain information and concentrate during lectures or study sessions. While still supported, option 3 had the lowest percentage of strong agreement (38.7%), indicating that drugs can cause mood swings, anxiety, and depression, which can interfere with students’ ability to concentrate and maintain focus on their studies. Those interviewed also affirmed that drug abuser lack concentration to their studies.

Table 1.13: The extent drug abuse has on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University?

Options Frequency Percentage (%)
Very High Extent 119 31.3
High Extent 198 52.1
Moderate Extent 40 10.5
Low Extent 23 6.1
Total 380 100

Source: Field survey, 2024

Table 1.13 shows that an overwhelming majority of respondents (52.1%) believed that drug abuse has to a high extent influences students level of concentration in Imo state University while 31.3% of respondents rated the influence of drug abuse as very high. This indicates that a substantial proportion of respondents consider drug abuse to have an even stronger influence beyond just being high. On the other hand, only a small percentage of respondents perceive the influence to be at a moderate extent (10.5%) or low extent (6.05%). This suggests that the majority of respondents see drug abuse as having a notable impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University, with relatively few considering the influence to be moderate or low.

DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS

1. Drug abuse has to a very high extent impacted on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University.

2. Drug abuse has to a high extent impacted impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University.

Findings also revealed that drug abuse has to a very high extent impacted on student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University. The research findings presented in tables 1.8 1.9 and 1.10, supported by the Chi-Square test, indicated that there is significant relationship between drug abuse and student’s failure rate in exams in Imo state University. Our finding suggests that a significant portion of respondents strongly believe that drug abuse can exacerbate feelings of anxiety and stress, which are common during exam periods; engage in academic misconduct, such as cheating or plagiarism, as a result of the pressure to perform well in exams combined with the effects of drug abuse and impair cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and concentration, making it difficult for students to retain information and perform well on exams. The study by Kiiru (2018) equally concurred with ours that drug abuse lead to low level of academic adjustment. The overall effect is often failure in exams.

Our study revealed further that drug abuse has to a high extent impacted on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. The research findings presented in tables 1.11 1.12 and 1.13, supported by the Chi-Square test, indicated that there is significant relationship between drug abuse and student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. We specifically found that drug abuse impair attention and focus, making it challenging for students to concentrate on academic tasks; makes students struggle to retain information and concentrate during lectures or study sessions and can cause mood swings, anxiety, and depression, which can interfere with students’ ability to concentrate and maintain focus on their studies. Balogun (2016) also affirmed in his study that drug users have a lower capacity to accomplish tasks that need a high level of focus and attention, which interferes with learning. They are uninspired, indifferent, and uninterested in achieving any goals or ambitions

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion

This study was carried out to examine drug abuse and academic performance of students in Imo State University Owerri. The study specifically examines the extent drug abuse impact on students reading culture; determine the extent drug abuse impact on student’s failure rate in exams and investigate the extent drug abuse impact on student’s level of concentration in Imo state University. Relevant literatures were reviewed as authoritative backup to the study. We adopted the social cognitive theory as our theoretical framework

The study adopted the survey research design. The sample size for the study is 380 students from 100l to 400l from selected departments Imo state University. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypotheses were tested with Pearson Chi-Square.

Recommendations

Based on the research findings the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Government should prevent the cultivation/sales of Indian Helm and other deadly herbs that encourage drug abuse.
  2. Parents and guardians should endeavour to monitor their children and wards so that they do not engage in drug abuse.
  3. School security should be heightened and regular check should be carried out.
  4. Counseling education should be introduced in campuses to save those who have already been engaging in the act.
  5. Government should strictly enforce its existing laws against drug abuse through its regulatory agencies

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