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Employee Attitude and Job Motivation as Influencers of Employee Commitment Among Selected Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City

Employee Attitude and Job Motivation as Influencers of Employee Commitment Among Selected Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City

Arah Me P. Hernandez, Dr. Presentacion C. Acosta

University of the Immaculate Conception, Bonifacio St., Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.803116

Received: 26 February 2024; Revised: 06 March 2024; Accepted: 11 March 2024; Published: 12 April 2024

ABSTRACT

Employee commitment is crucial for the prosperity of the organization. The study aimed to determine the influence of employee attitude and job motivation on employees’ commitment among Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City. A descriptive-correlational design was utilized in the study with a purposive quota of 200 respondents from among the 10 selected multi-purpose cooperatives in Davao City. Mean, Standard Deviation, Pearson R, and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyze the gathered data. Research findings unveiled that the level of employee attitude toward multi-purpose cooperatives in Davao City is often manifested. The cooperative may instigate and cultivate activities and practices to enhance employee engagement and satisfaction. In addition, the level of job motivation is often manifested. The company cooperative may sustain and improve the procedures concerning employee motivation. Moreover, the level of employee commitment of cooperative personnel is often evident. The study suggests implementing flexible working arrangements and utilizing task management tools to improve and elevate the working conditions among employees. Further, employee attitude and job motivation significantly correlate with employee commitment. Also, the combined influence of employee attitude and job motivation can explain 71.6% of the variation in employee commitment.

Keywords: Business management, employee engagement, intrinsic motivation, descriptive-correlational design, Davao City, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

Businesses over recent years have been confronted with many problems relating to employee commitment. In Nepal, employee work satisfaction and engagement inconstantly ensure workers’ commitment to their institution (Gautam, 2017). Also, the issue of retaining highly efficient and committed employees has become a significant concern for business leaders. Darby and Morrell (2019) stated that the lesser extent of employee commitment may result in employee resignation. This will affect the productivity and quality of services being offered. In West Africa, personnel in an organization are willing to execute their tasks ethically, complying with social and environmental requirements, which may positively impact the environment, industry, and society. Moreover, employee commitment is essential for the organization to enhance its service for bettering its associates, society, and the economy, leading to better performance, economic advantage, and continuous development (Collier, 2018).

In the Philippines, several studies have identified employee commitment (Ali, 2014). Based on the study of Berry et al. (2012), employees with a sense of employee commitment are less likely to engage in withdrawal behavior, such as lateness, absenteeism, and turnover. These employees are more willing to accept change (Irefin & Mechanic, 2014). According to Cherian and Jacob (2013), a higher degree of employee commitment promotes higher performance. In the research of Andavar et al. (2020), it was demonstrated that individuals less committed to the organization are more likely to perceive themselves as an unimportant member. This worker’s perception could lead to employee turnover. An enticing job offer from another employer validates their retraction (Irefin & Mechanic, 2014).

In Davao City, companies face difficulties maintaining efficiency and creating a committed workforce (Andavar et al., 2020). Employee commitment affects the company’s operation and influences social values (Calamba, 2019). In addition, employees committed to their organization manifest a solid aspiration to stay affiliated with the employed organization (Elloy, 2012). Research findings revealed that highly committed individuals will see themselves as an organization member (Moorhead & Griffin, 2012). Furthermore, personnel with an increased degree of loyalty would support the firm’s development and ward off company defamation, increasing competitive advantage (Onia, 2021). Committed employees also agree with the paradigms and goals of the firm (Choong et al., 2012).

Various research has shown the correlation between the workers’ attitude and commitment to the company. The decreased levels of employee attitude and motivation can adversely impact their commitment to the organization. In addition, Ismail and Lu (2014) noted that the non-involvement and engagement of employees in the company’s processes may result in poor employee commitment because they are not given a chance to utilize their knowledge and initiative in resolving work problems. As stated by Leite et al. (2014), the attitude of personnel, whether direct or indirect, contributes to shaping their commitment levels. According to research conducted in education institutions in Indonesia, employees with an intensive degree of job motivation equivalently obtain an intensive degree of commitment (Azzam & Harsono, 2021). Additionally, it was indicated in the study of Blanco and Sison (2020) that employees exert more significant effort in fulfilling their tasks and obligations driven by their motivation and attitude.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the level of employee attitude, job motivation, and employee commitment among selected Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

A. What is the level of employees’ perceived attitude towards work in terms of:

  1. Employee Engagement; and
  2. Employee Satisfaction?

B. What is the level of employees’ job motivation in terms of:

  1. Intrinsic Motivation; and
  2. Extrinsic Motivation?

C. What is the level of employees’ commitment in terms of:

  1. Top Management;
  2. Compensation and Benefits;
  3. Career Development Opportunities;
  4. Working Conditions; and
  5. Organizational Commitment?

D. Is there a significant relationship between:

  1. Employee Attitude and Employee Commitment; and
  2. Job Motivation and Employee Commitment

E. Do Employee Attitude and Job Motivation significantly influence Employee Commitment?

Theoretical Framework

The concept of this study is grounded in the Three Component Model of Commitment (TCM). The Three-Component Model of Employee Commitment Survey assesses three types of employee commitment to an organization: desire-based, obligation-based, and cost-based. Desire-based commitment is associated with the individual’s inclination or willingness to remain employed in a company. Obligation-based commitment is linked to an individual’s sense of responsibility towards the organization. Cost-based commitment is associated with the perceived consequences or costs of leaving the firm and the employee’s perceived need to remain in a company.

Moreover, the study is guided by a proposition of Bishop and Scott (2000), which highlights the significant impact of employee attitude on employee commitment. This finding indicates a strong and acknowledged interconnection between these concepts. This also signifies that if an organization wants to improve its competitive advantage through human resources, employees’ commitment must be the center of attention. In addition, Meyer et al. (2004) suggest that employees’ job motivation is significantly related to employee commitment. Motivated employees play a vital role in providing companies with essential competitive advantages and have a greater impact on fostering employee commitment. Personnel in an organization who are more motivated and satisfied in performing their tasks tend to have a higher degree of employee commitment.

Conceptual Framework

Presented in Figure 1 is the framework of the study, which showed the interrelationship among variables. The first independent variable is employee attitude, which involves two indicators: employee engagement and satisfaction. The second independent variable is job motivation, which includes intrinsic and extrinsic indicators. The study’s dependent variable is employee commitment, with indicators of top management, compensation and benefits, career development opportunities, working conditions, and organizational commitment.

Conceptual Framework of the Study

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains a discussion of the methods employed in this study. Specifically, it presents the research design, the research locale, the respondents of the study, the data-gathering procedure, the statistical tool, and the ethical considerations of this undertaking.

Research Design

This study utilized a descriptive-correlational design. The descriptive approach was used to identify and obtain information on characteristics of a particular issue, like community, group, or people, and then make adequate and accurate interpretations of the data being gathered. A descriptive approach was used to ascertain the level of employee attitude and job motivation and how these variables influenced employee commitment.

On the other hand, the correlational approach refers to the tendency for the corresponding observations to indicate two or more series that differ from each other in connection to their respective averages and series. The correlational approach best suits this study because it examines the relationship between employee attitude, job motivation, and employee commitment.

Research Respondents

The purposive-quota sampling method was used to select 200 respondents from among the 10 selected multi-purpose cooperatives in Davao City. Purposive-quota sampling is a non-random sampling technique that involves selecting participants based on specific characteristics or traits directly related to the research question. The selection of respondents for this study was based on a set of criteria, which included a minimum work experience of six months, permanent employment status, and representation from all levels of the organization. The selected cooperatives must be operational for at least one year. The approximate quota for each company will be 20 respondents.

Research Instrument

The research instruments of this study have three parts and used an adapted survey questionnaire from various sources. Further, a 5-point Likert design was used in which 5 is the highest and 1 is the lowest.

Part 1 was adapted from Nyuur et al. (2021) with the Cronbach Alpha results of .900. This adapted research instrument has two indicators. The results were interpreted using the matrix below:

Mean Interval Description Interpretation
4.20 – 5.00 Very High Employee attitude is always manifested.
3.40 – 4.19 High Employee attitude is often manifested.
2.60 – 3.39 Moderate Employee attitude is fairly manifested.
1.80 – 2.59 Low Employee attitude is rarely manifested.
1.00 – 1.79 Very Low Employee attitude is not manifested.

Part 2 was adapted from Altindis (2011) with the Cronbach Alpha results of .901. This adapted research instrument has two indicators. The results were interpreted using the matrix below:

Mean Interval Description Interpretation
4.20 – 5.00 Very High Job motivation of employees is always manifested.
3.40 – 4.19 High Job motivation of employees is often manifested.
2.60 – 3.39 Moderate Job motivation of employees is fairly manifested.
1.80 – 2.59 Low Job motivation of employees is rarely manifested.
1.00 – 1.79 Very Low Job motivation of employees is not manifested.

Part 3 was adapted from Mudassar Abbasi (n.d.) with five subscales namely: top management, compensation and benefits, career development opportunities, working conditions, and organizational commitment. The results were interpreted using the matrix below:

Mean Interval Description Interpretation
4.20 – 5.00 Very High Employee commitment is always evident.
3.40 – 4.19 High Employee commitment is often evident.
2.60 – 3.39 Moderate Employee commitment is fairly evident.
1.80 – 2.59 Low Employee commitment is rarely evident.
1.00 – 1.79 Very Low Employee commitment is not evident.

Data Collection

The researcher followed specific steps in conducting the study. Data collection started upon receipt of a Certificate of Clearance from the UIC-Research Ethics Committee. And also the approval of the dean of the Graduate School. Once approved, the researcher composed another letter addressed to the heads of the Multi-Purpose Cooperatives’ human resource officers, requesting permission to survey their employees across different branches.

As soon as the request letter from the heads of MPC human resource officers was approved and granted, the researcher coordinated with the key persons in each cooperative branch for faster survey administration. The gatekeepers of the researcher were the branch managers. The researcher oriented the respondents with the study’s objectives, and informed consent was given to whether they would participate. Completed questionnaires were retrieved by the researcher’s gatekeepers and forwarded to the researcher. The data gathered was tallied, analyzed, and interpreted using the appropriate statistical tools.

Statistical Tool

Data gathered from the survey were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted. The following statistical tools were used:

Mean or average. This tool was employed to determine the level of employee attitude, job motivation, and employee commitment.

Standard deviation. This instrument measures the consistency of the responses from the respondents.

Pearson R. This technique was employed to correlate employees’ attitudes, job motivation, and employee commitment.

Multiple Regression Analysis. This was used to determine the influence of employee attitude and job motivation on employee commitment.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data. The first part describes the level of attitude, job motivation, and commitment among employee respondents. The second part presents the relationship of employee attitude and job motivation to employee commitment.

Summary on the Level of Employee Attitude

Presented in Table 1 is the summary of the results on the level of employee attitude. The indicators, namely, Employee Engagement and Employee Satisfaction, received a descriptive ” High ” result. The mean scores range from 4.18 to 4.19, indicating a high level of employee attitude. The standard deviation (SD) ranges from 0.79 to 0.80, which implies that items are homogenous. This result suggests that employees in multi-purpose cooperatives expressed satisfaction with their professional activities and took pride in being part of the company. The overall mean score of 4.18 signifies that employees in cooperatives are often manifested.

Table 1. Summary on the Level of Employee Attitude

Indicators Mean SD Description
1. Employee Engagement 4.18 0.80 High
2. Employee Satisfaction 4.19 0.79 High
Overall 4.18 0.65 High

The result of the high level of employee attitude is consistent with the study of Barakat et al. (2016), which stated that when employees exhibit high levels of work satisfaction, it presumes that they have a good attitude toward their job and show a high level of enthusiasm toward their work.

In addition, Osborne and Hammoud (2017) emphasized the importance of empowering employees and fostering strong relationships between managers and employees. By doing so, management can offer valuable feedback to enhance employee engagement.

Summary on the Level of Job Motivation

Demonstrated in Table 2 is the summary of the results on the level of job motivation among employees of selected multi–purpose cooperatives in Davao City. The indicators, namely, Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation, received a descriptive equivalent of “Very High” or “High”. The mean scores range from 4.06 to 4.22, indicating a high level of job motivation. It can be noted that the standard deviation (SD) ranges from 0.73 to 0.85, which signifies inconsistencies in the responses of the respondents. This result suggests that employees in multi-purpose cooperatives exhibit strong work ethics, and the management values efficiency. The overall mean is 4.14, this indicates that the level of employees’ job motivation is often manifested.

Table 2. Summary on the Level of Job Motivation

Indicators Mean SD Description
1. Intrinsic Motivation 4.22 0.73 Very High
2. Extrinsic Motivation 4.06 0.85 High
Overall 4.14 0.60 High

The result of the high level of job motivation among employees is consistent with the study of Abbah (2014), which stated that when employees are motivated in the workplace, they are more productive and competent in their respective work, yielding a better outcome. The result of the very high level of intrinsic motivation is congruent with the study of Morris et al. (2022), which emphasized that an elevated level of intrinsic motivation can significantly positively impact both personal and professional aspects of an employee’s life. Also, this result is aligned with the findings of Rahim and Jam’an (2018) that when employees are deeply motivated by their internal factors, they are inclined to exhibit commitment and excel in their professional responsibilities.

Summary on the Level of Employee Commitment

Exhibited in Table 3 is the summary on the level of employee commitment. The indicators, namely, Top Management, Compensation and Benefits, Career Development Opportunities, Working Conditions, and Organizational Commitment, received a descriptive equivalent of “Very High” or “High”. The mean scores range from 4.15 to 4.26, indicating a high level of employee commitment. The standard deviation (SD) ranges from 0.79 to 0.88, which connotes the uniformity of the respondents’ responses. This result indicates that employees in multi-purpose cooperatives demonstrated a significant emotional bond, expressing a desire to stay, aligning with organizational goals, demonstrating determination, and proactivity in their work. The overall mean is 4.17, which implies that employee commitment is often evident in multi-purpose cooperatives.

Indicators Mean SD Description
1. Top Management 4.19 0.79 High
2. Compensation and Benefits 4.19 0.83 High
3. Career Development Opportunities 4.26 0.85 Very High
4. Working Conditions 4.15 0.85 High
5. Organizational Commitment 4.20 0.88 Very High
Overall 4.17 0.61 High

Relationship between Variables

The result of the correlation analysis is revealed in Table 4. The data shows that employee attitude and job motivation significantly correlate with employee commitment (p<.05). It means that when each of these factors improves, employee commitment behavior is also achieved.

Table 4. Relationship between Employee Attitude, Job Motivation, and Employee Commitment

Variables being paired r p-value Remarks
Employee attitude and employee commitment .796** .000 Significant
Job motivation and employee commitment .801** .000 Significant

**Significant at .01

The significant correlation of the independent variables with employee commitment confirms the findings of D’Souza and Poojary (2018), revealing a positive correlation between employee attitude and employee commitment, which leads to the company’s development. Moreover, the study of Iqbal et al. (2013) showed that there is a direct interrelationship between motivation and employee commitment. Employees who exhibit high commitment and motivation are advantageous for the institution. Furthermore, the research conducted by Rahim and Jam’an (2018) uncovered that the level of commitment and performance among employees increases as job motivation increases.

Influencers of Employee Commitment

The beta coefficient of .480 connotes that a unit increase in employee attitude results in a .48 achievement in employee commitment. Also, the beta coefficient of .554 infers that a unit improvement in job motivation leads to a .554 increase in employee commitment. Consequently, with an r2 of .716, the regression model indicates that the combined influence of employee attitude and job motivation can explain 71.6% of the variation in employee commitment. However, it is essential to note that other factors not included in the study may account for the remaining 28.4% of the variation in employee commitment.

Table 5. Influencers of Employee Commitment

Employee Commitment Beta p-value t Remarks
Employee Attitude 0.48 0 7.1999 Significant
Job Motivation 0.554 0 7.558 Significant
r =.846
r2 = .716
p = .000
F = 248.388

The result affirms the finding of Weathington and Jones (2006) that there is a strong relationship between employee attitude and employee commitment. Based on their research finding, the beta coefficient of employee attitude is .436, which implies a significant relationship between these variables. It is also congruent with the study of Ayache and Naima (2014) that as the level of employee attitude rises, their commitment to the organization also increases. Accordingly, based on the study of Mohsan et al. (2011), findings revealed a significant correlation between employee motivation and commitment. Parallel to this finding is the result of the study of Saqib et al. (2015), which found that as the level of job motivation escalates, it leads to increased employee commitment and loyalty.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter encompasses the conclusion and recommendations. These are based on the study’s findings.

Conclusion

The findings of the study vis-à-vis the statement of the problem are presented in the succeeding conclusions.

The level of employee attitude of the selected Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City is high, which signifies that workers’ attitude toward their jobs is often manifested. Both indicators of these variables obtained high category mean scores, which shows that these subscales are often manifested. However, employee engagement got the lowest mean than employee satisfaction, which is considered high.

In addition, the level of job motivation attains a high overall mean score, considering that each indicator yielded high and very high ratings. The finding confirms that job motivation among employees is often manifested. Nonetheless, extrinsic motivation attains the lowest category mean but is still referred to as high, unveiling that this type of motivation is often manifested.

Moreover, the level of employee commitment among selected cooperative employees gains both high and very high ratings in all its domains, which signifies that employee commitment is often evident. Career development opportunities obtained the most elevated category mean, which indicates that cooperative personnel constantly feel valued by the development opportunities offered by the company. On the other hand, working conditions acquire the minor category mean score, though it refers to high. It denotes that the working conditions frequently affect the commitment among employees of selected cooperatives. Also, it imparts the idea that employees often feel inconvenienced in their working areas.

The data shows that employee attitude correlates significantly with employee commitment. This indicates that job satisfaction among employees and engagement in various stimulating activities can significantly enhance their dedication to their organization. Additionally, job motivation significantly correlates with employee commitment in the Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in Davao City. The result signifies that highly motivated employees are highly committed to their jobs and the organization.

Furthermore, employee attitude and job motivation are positive factors of employee commitment. This signifies that employees who exhibit a positive attitude and derive motivation from their work are more inclined to demonstrate commitment to their company cooperatives. However, job motivation could better predict employee commitment compared with employee attitude. This result implies that employees motivated by their jobs are more likely to be committed to their company cooperative than those who possess a positive attitude but lack motivation.

The study’s findings align with Allen and Meyer’s Three Component Model of Commitment (1990). Based on their theory, various components influence employee perception and emotion toward their organization. Further, the findings of this research emphasized that if the organization wants to improve its competitive advantage through human resources, they have to pay attention to the factors that affect employees’ commitment. Also, the results suggest that improving employee attitudes and motivation is crucial for increasing employee commitment to the organization.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions, the succeeding recommendations were summarized:

Since both indicators of employee attitude obtained only high ratings, the multi–purpose cooperatives may improve its activities. The MPC can foster development by instigating and cultivating activities and practices to enhance employee engagement and satisfaction. These include establishing a policy regarding working hours and promoting a healthy work-life balance by discouraging after-hours work. Creating an enjoyable working atmosphere also involves organizing monthly sports fest activities to cultivate a culture of enjoyment and camaraderie among cooperative employees. Encouraging short breaks throughout the day to recharge and maintain focus is also part of these initiatives. Furthermore, human resource managers within the cooperative may offer training programs, workshops, and mentorship to support the growth and development of employees in their respective roles.

Given that job motivation ratings from the respondents vary, and extrinsic motivation acquired the lowest mean scores, the company cooperative may sustain and improve the procedures concerning employee motivation. The cooperative’s managers and human resource officers may uphold their practices to foster intrinsic motivation. This includes empowering cooperative personnel with the autonomy to determine how they execute their tasks, bolstering their pride. Acknowledging and commemorating employees’ accomplishments will contribute to heightened self-esteem and internal motivation among the workforce. Furthermore, the cooperative may sustain its extrinsic motivation approaches with the assistance of finance officers. This involves offering bonuses, commissions, or other financial incentives to employees surpassing performance goals. Human resource officers can facilitate monthly feedback using employee evaluation forms to guide employees on areas for improvement. Additionally, cooperative management may establish a competitive work environment by setting performance targets and recognizing top performers.

Considering that employee commitment attained only a high rating and working conditions got the lowest category mean, the company cooperative may develop strategies to enhance the working conditions of every personnel. These approaches include implementing flexible work arrangements, where suitable managers and leaders permit employees to have adaptable work schedules, promoting an improved work-life balance and stress reduction. Utilizing task management tools, managers can employ weekly planners to assist employees in handling their workload and monitoring their progress. Furthermore, establishing realistic deadlines for tasks and projects aims to prevent undue pressure on personnel. Moreover, since the merged influence of employee attitude and job motivation is only 71.6 percent, future researchers may explore the factors associated with the remaining 28.4 percent.

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