Submission Deadline-30th July 2024
June 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Deadline-20th July 2024
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

Evaluation of the Pala’wan Epic Odayang Translations from a Minority Dialect to Two Dominant Languages

  • Ma. Gemma Roxas-Rojales
  • Jessica R. Austria
  • Angelo Joseph M. Salas
  • 662-674
  • May 24, 2024
  • Language

Evaluation of the Pala’wan Epic Odayang Translations from a Minority Dialect to Two Dominant Languages

*Ma. Gemma Roxas-Rojales1; Jessica R. Austria2; Angelo Joseph M. Salas3

1 Lyceum of the Philippines Cavite, Philippines

2Jose Magsaysay Elementary School, Philippines

3Olivarez College- Paranaque, Philippines

*Corresponding Author

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.803045S

Received: 11 March 2024; Revised: 18 March 2024; Accepted: 26 March 2024; Published: 24 May 2024

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to analyze the translation of the Pala’wan tribe epic Odayang from the English version which was first translated by Mariano S. Dela Cruz, who is familiar with the tribe’s language and culture from its original form which is in the Palaw’an dialect, being one who grew up near its origin because of his birth. The goal of this study is to 1. decode the different meanings inside the language used in the epic without destroying its quality and integrity, 2. Compare and analyze the two versions through lexical attention, grammatical structure, communicative situation, and cultural context lenses as the piece was first translated to English taking into consideration its closeness to the original version and authenticity. 3. It will try to know if there is an effect when a minority language is translated to two dominant languages by the process it went through in the aspect of material authenticity.

The second translation utilized Translation Theory by Jiri Levy, General Translation Theory by Hans Vermeerand Kloepfer’s Approach as used by Lokman Tanrikulu,  to ensure that all parts of the material is preserved in terms of cultural standards and worth. The author also considered the preservation of a minority means of communication which is the Palaw’an dialect against dominant languages used in the first and second versions. The author weighed all facets in the translation, as not doing so will result in obstruction in the dialect’s development. Thus, social context of communication must not be put aside, lest it may mean death to the marginal language. In the two versions of the epic, exegesis, pragmatic function, and unidirectional approach was applied as means of analysis to reach a more comprehensive and close interpretation of the words used without endangerment to the cultural and pragmatic values of the minority language.

Key words: dominant language, minority language, diglossia, stasis, exegesis, Pala’wan tribe, Palaw’an dialect,

INTRODUCTION

Seat of civilization and culture

Palawan (referring to the place) is the largest province in the Philippines. It belongs to the MIMAROPA provinces composing of Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon and Palawan of the Region IV-B. it is home to some of the ethnolinguistic tribes’ namely, the Kagayanen, Tagbanua, Batak, Taaw’t Batu, Molbog and the Pala’wan(referring to the people as Palaw’an is the language)to give a few. These people live in the farthest places in the mountains, which they consider to be their ancestral lands, as they form a special bond with their ancestors. https://www.philatlas.com/luzon/mimaropa/palawan.html

Known as Pala’wan(the people) or Palawanos as they are called by outsiders, or Traan which means people scattered in place by the Tausugs. They live apart and as independent as possible, far from other members of their own community. They traditionally hunt using soars and bamboo blowguns or what non-members of the community callsumpak. They plant their rice fields in the deepest portions of the forest; thus, their houses are built separate from the others. This is becauseof the need to protect their produce from wild boars, birds and the elements that may destroythemhttp://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/palawano-tribe-palawans-original-dwellers/

They closely resemble the Tagbanua tribe and are believed to be relatives, as shown by Dr. Robert Fox’s discovery of the Tabun cave in Lipuun point where the Tabun Man’s remains were found. The discovery was made through a grant commissioned by the National Museum in the 1980s (Fox, 1982). The tribe is composed of several sub-groups. One small community of Southwestern Pala’wans, living in the internal mountains specially the rocky and highest points, are known as the taaw’tbato, more popularly known as thepeople of the rocks. They are found in the southern interior of Palawan (the province) in the volcanic crater of Mount Mantalingaan http://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/palawano-tribe-palawans-original-dwellers/

Most of the Pala’wans are now settled in the highlands of the province, from just north of Quezon on the west side and Abo-Abo on the east, all the way to the southern tip of the island at Buliluyan. Speaking their dialect called Palaw’an, a dialect they share with their Tagbanua cousins. Their religion is an old form of spiritualism and ritualism, which was once practiced throughout the central Philippines prior to the Spanish arrival in the 16th century. It is a mix of traditional animism with elements of Hinduism and Islamic belief due to the influx of Moros in ancient times, which drove them away from their communities along the shores to their present habitat in the mountains. They are a peace-loving people, but willing to die for their ancestral lands as they are exceptionally goodat the use of their arrows and the sumpaks. Some have embraced Islam from their southern Molbog and Palawan neighbors. A small number of them are Protestant due to recent missionary campaigns. http://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/palawano-tribe-palawans-original-dwellers/

LITERATURE OF THE PALA’WANOS

Pala’wan literature is among those that are being endangered by modernization and globalization. Just like literary works of other indigenous people around the country, they are at risk of extinction before it is even given a chance to be studied. Odayang, spoken and originally written in the Palaw’an dialect, is one of the epics the Pala’wan tribe takes pride in. It is the story of two sisters that show the culture and way of life of the tribe (Dela Cruz, 1994). It gives a glimpse of what happens in the community’s day-to-day living. The way siblings respect the elderly and how the older ones protect their younger brothers or sisters. It is a treasure chest of literary richness that can also be found in other folklore of our country that were transferred through words of mouth and handed down to the younger generations.

The Pala’wanshavean extraordinarily rich culture and beautiful literary works. It is very clear in the ancient literature of its forebears. Intensively studying each group of indigenous people that the country has, one cannot help but be amazed with the pieces of writings produced over the centuries, that are treasured in their distinct cultures. Having specific persons in the community who were assigned for the transfer of such riches from one generation to the other. It is an unfortunate event that Filipino literature is folkloric in form, thus, there is a need for them to be written and translated to a language that can be read and understood by others, for the cultural wealth to be appreciated. Failure to do so would mean a strong possibility for them to be lost and be forgotten with the passage of time.

Translating cultural writings including Philippine literature, for that matter, is an endeavor that is a difficult one to take. Translation of a literary work is never easy,especially if a prior version with a dominant characteristic was made preceding the present task. Considering that what is being translated belongs to a minority language, doing so may mean destruction of the linguistic value of the written work. That the interlingual rendition to another language may mean the complete structural, grammatical, lexical and cultural alterations in its totality.

This study, which was aimed at analyzing the epic Odayang in Filipino and English as close as possible from its Palaw’an original. Translation, though different from its original text, must see to it that the structure of mental definition is clear in the literature even after a successful translation to a dominant language, must be kept. That the mental processing of words may be preserved but it bears what can be found in its raw variant as it is translated to the target language. That the transfer has the same characteristics as that of its root literary material in terms of its linguistic aspect for interlingual rendition is a causal factor when it comes to linguistic unit attributes of target oral communication.

This study focused on translating Odayang to Filipino from its English version but took into consideration the discourse facilities of the original language. This was done not mainly to translate the words but to express the main idea inside the material to the target audience. Here, the cultural aspects of the epic were considered. Giving importance to the authenticity and preservation of value and worth of the material.

Odayang and the Theories of Translation

This study used Kloepfer’s approach, the General Translation Theory by Vermeer and Levy’s Theory of Translation to describe the process during translation. These three theories were used as foundation to explain what happened in this evaluation to further explain the progression the literary material went through. A careful consideration of the distinct aspects of the translation was foremost on the part of the translator, as Odayang was already translated from the original oral form, which is in the Palaw’an dialect, a minority language to English, a dominant language then, to another dominant one, Filipino.

The author, fazed by the different considerations, dealt with the literary work within the discourse facilities carefully presenting the text in an expression unfamiliar to the reader that utilized the indigenous tongue used in the original version (Tanrikulu, 2017), directed the task of translating the epic through the analysis of its grammatical structure, securing closeness to its origin language. Hence, translation of the material to the nearest possible rendition using Filipino from English must follow the exact construction of the original piece. This posits a problem in terms of the observation of grammatical structure in reference to the English language, as the English language is grammatically structured. The author found out that the original piece has a unique structure of its own in comparison with that of the English version, even different of what is being followed in the Filipino grammar.

On the transfer treatment given to the epic Odayang, the author considered translating the material by using words that is an exact equivalent in Filipino, as Stamenov stated, attention to cognates is used when a translator reproduces a literal rendition of the original text in terms of meaning and form in the source and target languages (Stamenov, et al 2020), as cognates premise that language preserving tendencies exist in the respective language (Vintar et al, 2005). This tells that the way the translator regards language control and language contact is because language transfer procedures affect the lexical features in the target language (Becher et al, 2009). Therefore, the translator opted to translate the epic on a word for word basis. This was done to ensure that the shift to the dominant language would in no way affect the integrity of the dialect used in the original.

Furthermore, as Koller posits that phonological, morphological and syntactic units need to be transferred to the target language with a linguistic interpretation during translation (Koller, 1972). This is a postulation that an attempt to transfer a text requires a deeper understanding of the original text structurally and in its semantic terms before finding the language equivalent in the target and eventually, incorporating his own perspective to guarantee the authenticity of the transfer to a different form other than that of the original. The Filipino translator, being one who understands the Palaw’an dialect, was able to translate the words used in the epic by looking for exact words in the Filipino vocabulary, unlike that of the English version when there is no exact translation found. Following Koller’s model, a translator must have an in-depth knowledge of the language used in the material of focus to be able to safeguard its legitimacy in terms of word equivalence. A personal knowledge and comprehension of the dialect stands a significant help in the credible transference of the words used in English and Filipino.

Another aspect of translating the epic Odayang that was taken into consideration in both English and Filipino translations, was the cultural features of the literature. This facet cannot be set aside as doing so will discredit the whole material. Philippine ancient literature as seen by the author, presents the culture of the country, may it be in poetry, narratives, short story and even so in epics. It gives a glimpse of how and what life was like during those times. Thus, General Translation Theory was also used as this states that, the translator acts in consideration of the cultural characteristics as a contributing factor in the original text and distinct aspects of the target culture and produces a new text on the related cultural platform during the translation process (Vermeer et al, 2014). Vermeer posits that a translation process must not set aside the cultural aspects of a literary material. It must not sacrifice the features embedded in a work in terms of culture. In fact, translation must reinforce it. This means that as translation progresses, preservation of the cultural quality in the literary work is secured, thus the translated product differs from the original, only on language used, but keeps its integrity as a cultural material, as in the case of the epic Odayang in both the English and Filipino versions.

Lastly, used to explain the translation process Odayang went through was Levy’s Approach. The theorist contests that literary materials must not lose their literary value (Stolze, 2001). That literature must take into consideration that no part of the original version must be dropped as doing so means a failure of translation. He further argued that the artistic aspects of a work can be found by logic, thus, transferring the material to the target language without alterations in its creative value is possible. Levy explained furthermore that transfer must be consistent and holistic, that it must reconstruct what the original material owns in terms of readers’ reaction. This signifies that translation must be an authentic one, preserving the aesthetic and creative worth of the literature undergoing translation procedure.

On this, the author considered how each part of the literary material was presented. Giving account to the artistic value literature has been a particularly important part as it shows not only language qualities but, most significantly, its creative construct. This is following Levy’s approach of conserving the values mentioned. Preservation of linguistic properties and artistic worth of Odayang, would substantiate a faithful translation that is of great importance in executing a process such as this as applied to ancient literature.

Linguistic Property English vs. Filipino

As with the earlier translator of this epic, the theoretical translator Mildred L. Larson, in 1991, also followed these lenses in the translation she made. That is, the translator used 1. Meaning of the words used in the epic, 2. Outline structure, 3. Situational Narrative, and 4. Cultural context.

As the translator said earlier, the epic Odayang was first translated into English where Dela Cruz used exegesis, or an explanation or critical interpretation of a text, to define the meaning of the terms in the Palaw’an dialect. The second translator used the pragmatic function. It was used to show the practical need of the minority language as a source language in both translations. The second translator of the epic noticed that some words were not found in the original material. In this process the translator used the non-directional method. That is, the second translator translated the English words according to the words used by the first translator. It is then compared with the terms used in the original material. The latter found that there were some words in the English translation but not in the original. Examples of these are:

English

      Then she commanded, “you coconuts, fall.”

Palaw’an:

       “Akaung niyog dagdag kaw”

Filipino

        “kayong mga niyog, mahulog kayo”

Note that the original material does not have the words “Then she commanded,” while it is there in the English version, so the Filipino translator was moved to bring the translation closer to the original work. Therefore, in the final translation, the latter followed the original material to preserve the cultural aspect of the language used in the epic. The second translator assumes that the former did this to add artistic value to the material, which was not done by the Filipino translator as doing so goes against the Levy’s approach that said, communicatively, whatever is being translated must not lose its literary value (Levy, 1969).General Translation Theory will also be violated by adding words or words that are not in the original text as it posits that there is an aim when a translation is done. That translation’s consideration of the target language, target culture and target reader were of utmost importance (Vermeer, 1984).

Odayang, Stasis and Diglossia

On the other hand, according to one article written by Dr. Racquel Sison-Buban in 2010, translation is difficult because it is problematic to communicate between cultures using different languages. She stated the complexities of the translation process from one language to another, as there must be contemplation upon a lot of things (Buban, 2010). This difficulty is much clearer in the case of this analysis, as the translation procedure was done twice. This fact made the translation work even more intricate as it was done on the same literary work a second time. To a dominant language (the language is spoken by a majority) or two, from a minority language used by one group, the Pala’wan tribe, where lies the difficulty of the task at hand. Michael Kronin, in his article Altered States: Translation and Minority Languages said;

 “As languages operating in a multilingual world with vastly accelerated information flows fromdominant languages, they must translate continually in order toretain their viability and relevance as living languages. Yet, translation itself may in fact endanger the very specificity of those languages that practice it, particularly in situations of diglossia” (Kronin, 2003)

The study mentioned has shown that translation should be done carefully and in the right way so as not to affect the value of a literary work. In the case of Odayang, there is diglossia, a situation in which two languages (or two varieties of the same language) are used under different conditions within a community, often by the same speakers (Nordquist, 2018). The term is usually applied to languages with distinct high and low (colloquial) varieties, such as Arabic (Oxford Dictionary), maybe present in a dialect or language being translated. This happens when a person is taught a language that is not native to a particular place, as was the case in the Philippines. Although the English language has no diglossia characteristic, Filipino language has it. Children in the country are speaking Filipino as their native tongue and taught English from the first day of school until they reach college. This posed a problem as majority of the Philippines’ citizen do not speak English at home as a language of conversation and communication.

Still, according to Kronin, translation should be continuous to keep the possibility of the word minority continuing to survive. In translating Odayang which is a Pala’wan epic, that has been translated into English, and again translated from English into Filipino, importance was given to keeping the cultural value of the epic. In such cases it is inevitable to experience diglossia, which is a situation where two words are used in different conditions where English is the dominant word or more predominantly used while the Palaw’an word is a minority language and was translated again to Filipino which is also a dominant language in the country.

It should be noted that in the very first translation, cultural aspects in the Odayang epic were already in danger. It was at risk of deterioration by the simple fact that it is undergoing the process of translation and being transferred to a foreign language, that is also a dominant one. Breaking it down, the process will not be clear because the practical needs of the minority language may not be considered. And again, translating it in Filipino would mean that there are cultural characteristics and linguistic properties that will inevitably be left out in the process. Therefore, it can be said that the translation from English to Filipino must consider the integrity of the Palaw’an language used in the original work if the syntax and idioms used are to be considered. This meant that the translator must go beyond translating the material with the English version only as reference but must in fact translate the original version directly to Filipino, to avoid or minimize errors resulting to destroying the literary material.

Therefore, translation from English to Filipino, required binding on matters related to the cultural aspect and following the linguistics basics. This means that the translator will weigh the difference between the two languages, while also considering the word in Palaw’an. But if the translation is done while following the rules of translation only and not looking at the aspects surrounding the Palaw’an language, it signifies stasis, which is defined by the Oxford dictionary as a period or state of inactivity or equilibrium, that is, the translation has not helped the growth of the minority language. Thus, in translating a minority language to a dominant one, as in the case of the epic Odayang, two dominant ones, careful considerations must be at its utmost.

Moreover, according to Virgilio Almario, as used by Sison-Buban (2010), translation is a communicative process that takes place in a social context. This involves the consideration of the development of the source language rather than destroying it in the process, since it is a task of communication. It should not eradicate but develop or let it progress, by responding to the cultural needs of such a language (Almario, 1996). This agrees with attention to cognates’ position that in a literal rendition, the translator must preserve language control and language contact, as the procedure is already a cause for changes in linguistic features in the target language (Baker, 2011). This further strengthens the contention that as translations progress, the author must exert a conscious effort to uphold the improvement of the original language rather than diminishing the original language used in the source text.

Cultural Context English vs. Filipino

Odayang was first translated into English by Dela Cruz, who hails from the province of Palawan where he grew up (Dela Cruz, 1994). This means that the translator is familiar with the language and culture of the Pala’wan tribe. However, he did more study to better understand this language especially the lexical, grammatical, communicative situation and cultural context aspects. According to him he did these studies to find out the meaning of each word and to do the reconstruction in English using the closest word and grammatical structure (Dela Cruz, 1994). While, on the other hand, the second translator lived in the province for several years, and thus, was able to understand and speak the language. Both translators’ ability to understand and talk in the dialect helped make the translation as close as possible to the original, having first-hand knowledge of the language.

Dela Cruz’s work showed an appreciation for the cultural aspect. That by respecting the language even if it is translated into a foreign one should not forget the culture contained in the epic that, in the translation he made, was valued and focused on the growth of this language and not the gradual dissolution by indirect translation.

Odayang in Palaw’an

                   Si Odayang baka siNantud. “Mapanawkitado’tdanum”

                 “Ampa kita maglubi”.   “Naras na bin si Nantud”

                 “Pagtugpado’tlabo. “Akaungdo’tlabo”

                  Pagdatang do’t labo, “Akaung niyog dagdag kaw,”

                “Kadwa, katlo,” baras ya.

 Odayang in English

Odayang and Nantud. “Let’s go to the river,” (Odayang Said)

                 “We have to extract Coconut oil first,” answered Nantud 

                 She went down the house. Upon reaching the ground,

                 (She commanded,) “you coconuts, fall.”

                “(One, two, three,” she counted.

In the translation made by Dela Cruz, the simplicity of the work can be seen. But although simple, you can see the traditional life of two sisters, Odayang and Nantud. The images shown in the earlier lines of the epic reflect the culture that the Pala’wan people have. The appreciation of work even before the personal. Notice the task of making oil from coconut. This is important to the women of the tribe as they use it for haircare and cooking as well. That is why Nantud need to prioritize it, as it is a daily necessity in their lives. Even Odayang’s admonition to his sister to go to the river shows a good relationship between the siblings and the cultural aspects that can be seen in the works written in the minority language.

Si Odayang at siNantud .  “Tayo nasailog” sabiniOdayang

       “Kailangan muna nating maglangis ng niyog”  sagot ni Nantud

Tumungosiyasailalim ng bahay. Nang makaratingsalupa

       Nag-utos siya “kayong mga niyog mahulog kayo

      Dalawa, tatlo, bilang niya.

The translator wanted to focus on the sibling relationship that can be seen in the response of the characters in the lines of the epic Odayang. Nantud is assumed to be a younger sister. This is seen in the tone of the words used. One proof of this is when Nantud replied that before they could go to the river, they had to finish the housework, although the older sister did not object, but when Nantud came down to get a coconut and cried she was scolded. Rebuking a sibling cannot be done by a younger one, as it is in the Filipino culture. And since this was done by Odayang so it is assumed that she is the older one of the two. Focused on the relationship of the sisters, it was obvious that the cultural aspect of the work had been the translator’s guide to successfully translate the material in the English version.

Although, the cultural aspect is clearly noticeable and can be distinguished at once through the sisters’ exchange of conversation, with regards to the lexical aspect, it was there that the English translation found things that were problematic. An acceptable fact is the lack of direct meaning of other English words in Filipino. And because of this incident, the direct Filipino translation, was an alternative process, as the author also grew up in the province and understands the dialect. Thus, the negative effect was minimized in the latter translation, to ensure the authenticity of the translation. This is following Levy’s Approach, that a transfer to another language must ensure that no part of the original must be altered in the process (Levy, 2011).

Communicative Aspect English vs. Filipino

Since the epic Odayang is a narrative poem, just like other epics of the Philippines, one of its characteristics is the economical use of words. But despite the sparse use of the terms the whole story is amazingly intact. Although the story is simple, one can see the rich cultural character. That is why the epic shows the respect that a younger sister gives to her older sibling. The Filipino habit can also be seen that the elders serve as the leader of the younger ones. It also presents how the Pala’wan women traditionally is cautious by describing the length of Nantud and Odayang’s hair. The hair care of the women in the story is an integral part of the culture of this tribe.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, though there may be variations in the English and Filipino versions of the epic from its Palaw’an original, the two versions tried to keep the credibility of the epic. That the process had minimal effect and did not affect the authenticity, integrity, and quality of the material, nor had it diminished its value in terms of lexical, grammatical, structural, and cultural worth. The approaches used by the translators proved extremely helpful throughout the whole translation process. The translations, although done two times, one in |English and the other, Filipino, nevertheless, preserved the linguistic, cultural and communicative values of the literary materials. Although, on the English version, there were some phrases added for artistic reasons, on the second one, it was eliminated by sticking to the direct meaning of the words used on the original text.

Furthermore, although the epic had undergone translations twice, first in English and then second in Filipino, which are both dominant languages, the translators were successful in the preservation of the authenticity of the material in terms of lexical attention, grammatical structure, communicative situation and cultural context, thus, the minimal effect on the credibility of the translations. The most dominant factor contributing to the total preservation of the literature, as none of its characteristics were altered due to the care given by the translators as to how the process was carried through and contributory to the success of these tasks done, were the personal knowledge by the two translators of the Palaw’an dialect.

The ability of one person to access lexical, morphological, and grammatical structures during the translation processes the material went through, is one factor that enable a translation to emit all linguistic information to come up with word equivalent and help preserve a literature while it undergoes the task of transfer.

To translate ancient literary works, when done meticulously, with the aim of preservation of its different attributes would be beneficial to the Philippine oral wealth. The importance lies in the younger generation to have knowledge of the beauty this country’s literary treasure holds. But trying on this task involve great care and dedication as there is a need to consider literary attributes that are essential to produce a true and correct material out of an original indigenous literature. There are many works our indigenous people can be proud of. Across the country many literary works have been recorded and translated into other languages including English. Odayang which is only one among those found, apart from the sixty -two known epics in the province of Palawan alone, was successful in translating the epic to English, keeping the cultural values and authenticity of the material, just like what was done to its Filipino counterpart.

REFERENCES

  1. Almario, Virgilio et al. Patnubaysa Pagsasalin. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. 1996, Printed.
  2. Baker, M. (2011). In other words: A Coursebook on Translation, 2nd New York, Routledge.
  3. Becher, V., J. House and S. Kranich (2009) ‘Convergence and divergence of communicative norms through language contact in translation’ in K. Braunmüller and J. House (eds) Convergence and Divergence in Language Contact Situations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins,
  4. De La Cruz, Mariano. A Transcription and Translation of “Odayang” a Palaw’an Epic, as Sung by Addan Madil. Pamantasang De La Salle. 1994, Thesis,
  5. Fox, Robert B., (1970) The Tabon Caves: archaeological explorations and excavations on Palawan Island, Philippines” National Museum, Manila, Philippines.
  6. Kloepfer, R. (1967). Die Theorie der LiterarishchenÜbersetzung. W. Fink –Munchen.
  7. Koller, W. (1972). Einthrung in die ubersetzungwissen shaft, Quelle and Meyer Heidelberg.
  8. Kronin, Michael. Altered States: Translation and Minority Language. Association Canadienne de Traductologie, 2017, Printed.
  9. Larson, M. (1991). Translation theory and practice, tension and interdependence. John Benjamins Publishing-State University of New York.
  10. Levy, J. (2011) The art of translation. Amsterdam. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027224453
  11. Nordquist, Richard. (2020, August 28). Diglossia in Sociolinguistics. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/diglossia-language-varieties-1690392
  12. Rojales, M.G. R. (2019). Paray at tabadbilangatangsamundo ng pagdidi’wata at pananampalataya ng mgaTagbanuwa ng Puerto Princesa, Palawan. Pamantasang De La Salle, Manila.
  13. Sison-Buban, Racquel. Si Crazy Mary sa Filipino: Pagtatagpo ng mga Wika at Konteksto. Pamantasang De La Salle. Malay, 2010, Printed. Printed
  14. Stamenov et al (2020). Cognates in Language in the mind and in prompting dictionary for translation. Bulgarian Academy of Science.
  15. Stolze, R. (2011). The translator’s approach. Intro to translational Hermeneutics, theory and examples from practices. Frank and Timme – Berlin 2011
  16. Tarinkulu, L. (2017). Equivalence in translation. 3rd International Symposium on Language Education and Teaching (ISLET 2017) 20-23 April 2017- Rome
  17. Vermeer, H. J and Reiss, K. (2014). Towards a general theory of Translational Action 1st Routledge, London.
  18. Vintar, Špela & Silvia Hansen-Schirra. 2005. Cognates: Free rides, false friends or stylistic devices? A corpus-based comparative study. In Geoff Barnbrook, Pernilla Danielsson & Michaela Mahlberg (eds.), Meaningful texts: The extraction of semantic information from monolingual and multilingual corpora, (research in corpus and discourse), 208–221. London: Continuum.
  19. Websites:
  20. http://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/palawano-tribe-palawans-original-dwellers/
  21. http://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/palawano-tribe-palawans-original-dwellers/
  22. https://www.philatlas.com/luzon/mimaropa/palawan.html

APPENDICES

ODAYANG PALAW’AN ODAYANG ENGLISH ODAYANG FILIPINO
1.     Si Odayang baka si Nantud,

2.     “Mapanaw kita do’t danum”

3.     “Amp akita maglubi”

4.     Naras na bin si Nantud.

5.     Pagtugpa do’t labo.

6.     Pagdating do’t labo.

7.     “Akaung niyog dagdag kaw.”

8.     “Kadwa, katlo”, baras ya

9.     Si Nantud magsyak ya.

10.  “Onoy pagsyakan mo?

11.  Siyakan mon a bang tanan?”

12.  Naras na bin si Odayang.

13.  “Akaung niyog dagdag kaw.”

14.  Nadagdag nung limang bulig

15.  Naras na bin si Nantud,

16.  “Akaung niyog bungkal kaw.”

17.  “Kadwa, katlo” baras ya.

18.  Si Nantud magsyak gasi.

19.  Nantud pagsyakan nang tanan.

20.  Pag ampang ni Odayang,

21.  “Akaung niyog bungkal kaw”,

22.  “Akaung niyog kudkud kaw”,

23.  Niyog mangudkod dia’t derya.

24.  Si Nantud don ngat dibwat.

25.  Sakad naubos kinudkud.

26.  Duwang pulong ng niyog.

27.  Naras na bin si Odayang,

28.  “Doon na kita’t danum.

29.  Malangkaw nay sagit ta.”

30.  Sinintak ya it palang gasi,

31.  Tadyong, tapis dya kagaynan.

32.  “Ukanan ikaw na Kainain mona”

33.  Tumyag nan in si Nantud.

34.  Pagdating ya do’t labo,

35.  “Likyanga kita’y agdan,”

36.  Naras kaynain si Nantud.

37.  “Kadwa, katlo,” baras ya

38.  Magsyak gasi okay a.

39.  Syakan mon ang tanan rikot.”

40.  Naras na bin si Odayang,

41.  “Akaungdalanawatkaw.

42.  Unoy barsan mo’t dalan?”

43.  Si Nantud malak nay lilimbayan.

44.  Sigi-sigi nang panaw ya.

45.  Napat duwang kalyotan gasi.

46.  Si Nantud nakasurot.

47.  Batang siminantak nat inarak.

48.  Sutsutan kay masutsut.

49.  “Akaung batang ugad kaw.”

50.  Si Nantud magsyak gasi.

51.  Naras gasi si Odayang,

52.  “ukanan, syakan mon a bang tanan?

53.  “Akaung batang ugad kaw.”

54.  Batang nanga minay tindagan.

55.  Si Nantud malak nay lilimbayan

56.  Salus gasi napanaw dyu na.

57.  Napat tulong kalyotan gasi.

58.  Si Nantud nagpasurot.

59.  Anibong kara nay sutsutan mo.

60.  Ampang gasi si Nantud,

61.  “Akaung dalan awat kaw.”

62.  Kayna magsyak si Nantud garwak na

63.  “Syakan mon a bang tanan?”

64.  Nampang gasi si Odayang,

65.  “Akaung suksuk, ugad kaw,

66.  Akaung rikot minsan abno kara na

67.  Lumimbay na si Nantud.

68.  Punan tana napanaw dyana gasi.

69.  Naput nay upat kalyotan,

70.  Don dya na bin kagina’t danum.

71.  “Ukanan ikaw na mona maglubi,”

72.  Baras kaynain ni Odayang.

73.  Inuray ya nay boak ya.

74.  Talong kalyotan boak ni Nantud.

75.  Damulyod nang magdagas.

76.  Sinantak ni ni Nantud

77.  Ampa kaynain maglubi.

78.

79.  Nampang naba si Odayang,

80.  “Ukanan, ako gasi pasubli,”

81.  Inuray ni Odayang boak ya.

82.  Pitong kalyotan kibwat.

83.  Boak ni Odayang magsasamputok et umas.

84.  Boak ya kaynain ni Odayang

85.  AmpasinintakniOdayangboakya

86.  Samat gumbang nang magdugas

87.  Sawkwitan ni Odayang maglubi

88.  Kay kanga kay nan mamanyo.

89.  “Atana kita mamanyo’ it libtong.

90.  Magtalingkabo na kita.”

91.  Nagtalingkabo na si Nantud.

92.  “Ano nga tay barsan?”

93.  Tabas dya nagtalingkabo.

94.  “Ukanan, mamanyo na bin kita.”

95.  Naras na bin Odayang

1.     Odayang and Nantud

2.     Let’s go to the river

3.     “We have to extract

coconut oil first

4.     Answered Nantud

5.     She went down the house

6.     Upon reaching the ground

7.     (She commanded)

You coconuts, fall

8.     (One) two, three, she counted

9.     Nantud cried

10.  Why are you crying?

11.  Will you cry over everything?

12.  Odayang asked her sister

13.  (The she commanded) you coconuts fall

14.  Five bunches dropped

15.  Nantud commanded again

16.  You coconuts, unhusk yourselves

17.  (One) two, three, she counted

18.  Nantud cried again

19.  She cried over everything

20.  When Odayang commanded

21.  You coconut unhusk yourselves

22.  You coconuts grate yourselves

23.  They unhusked and grated themselves

24.  Nantud went up the house

25.  When the grating was done

26.  The coconut meat filled up two basins

27.  Odayang said

28.  Let’s go to the river

29.  It is getting late

30.  They prepared turbans

31.  Patadyongs, and tapis

32.  Sister eat breakfast first

(Odayang said)

33.  Nantud stood up after eating

34.  Reaching the stairs

35.  You ladder, incline

36.  She commanded

37.  (One) two, three, she counted

38.  Nantud cried

39.  You are always crying

40.  What are you crying about

41.  Will you cry over everything?

42.  You ladder, incline

43.  The ladder inclined immediately

44.  Sister, you may go down ahead

45.  Nantud waddled gracefully

46.  Towards the river

47.  Nobody told about

48.  Nantud’s bloated body

49.  Reaching the first kilometre marker

50.  Nantud was taken aback

51.  The road was covered by a thick forest

52.  Not even a dog would sneak through the barred road

53.  Nantud commanded

54.  Road, make way for us

55.  (One) two, three, she counted

56.  The forest thickened instead

57.  Making Nantud cry again

58.  Stop your whimpering

59.  You are always crying

60.  Odayang said

61.  Road, let us pass

62.  What will you say, road?

63.  Nantud began to walk gracefully

64.  Down the road towards their destination

65.  Reaching the second kilometre marker

66.  Nantud suddenly stopped

67.  A log reaching the cloud barred their way

68.  There was no way to pass

69.  Log, get lost

70.  Nantud, cried again

71.  Odayang told her sister

72.  Will you cry over everything

73.  Log, get lost she said

74.  The log disappeared immediately

75.  Nantud walked gracefully

76.  As they went on their way

77.  Soon they reached the third kilometre marker

78.  Suddenly, nantud stopped

79.  Thorns, barred their way

80.  Nantud commanded

81.  Get cleared road

82.  Unheeded, Nantud wailed

83.  Odayang said, will you cry over everything

84.  Seeing the thorns, she said

85.  Get lost thorns

86.  Completely disappear

87.  Nantud walked on gracefully

88.  The two went on to their destination

89.  Soon, they reached the fourth kilometre marker

90.  And there was the river

91.  Sister, extract oil from the coconut

92.  Said Odayang

93.  Nantud untangled her hair

94.  Her three-kilometer-long hair

95.  Flowed down the river

96.  Then she pulled her hair

97.  As she poured coconut oil on it

98.  She did it fast.

99.  Said Odayang

100. I’ll also crush oil for my hair

101. Odayang untangled her hair

102.  Seven-kilometer-long hair

103.  Studded with gold

104.  And poured coconut milk on it

105.  Odayang pulled it back instantly

106.  Producing a current-like sound

107.  When she finished putting oil on her hair

108. And was ready to bathe, (she said)

109.  Let us bathe at the deep part

110.  Let us go swimming there

111.  Seeing Nantud swim

112.  She said, “What can you say?”

113. After swimming

114.  Sister, let’s bathe now

115. Odayang said

1. Si Odyang at si Nantud

2.  “Tayo na sa ilog” sabi ni Odayang

3. “Kailangan muna nating maglangis ng niyog”

4.       Sagot ni Nantud

5.       Tumungo siya sa ilalim ng bahay

6.       Nang makarating sa ibaba ng bahay

7.       Nag-utos siya “Kayong mga niyog mahulog kayo

8.       Isa, dalawa, tatlo, bilangniya

9.       Sumigaw si Nantud

10.    Bakit ka tumatangis

11.    Kailanganmong bang iyakan ang lahat ng bagay

12.    Tanongni Odayangsakanyangkapatid

13.    ” kayong mga niyog, mahulog kayo

14.    At limang buwig ang nahulog

15.    Muling nag-utos si Nantud

16.    “bunutan ninyo ang inyong mga sarili

17.    Dalawa, tatlo, bilang niya

18.    Muling umiyak si Nantud

19.    Iniiyakan niya ang lahat ng bagay

20.    Nang muling mag-utos si Odayang

21.    “bunutan ninyo ang inyong mga sarili”

22.    Kaung mga niyog, kudkurin ninyo ang sarili ninyo

23.    Binalatan at kinudkod ng mga niyog ang kanilang sarili

24.    Umakyat si Nantud sa itaas ng bahay

25.    Nang matapos ang pagkukudkod,

26.    Napuno nang kinudkod na niyog ang dalawang palanggana

27.    At nagwika si Odayang

28.    Tara na sa ilog

29.    Gumagabi na

30.    At naghanda sila ng mga turban

31.    Patadyong at tapis

32.    Ate, kumain ka muna ng agahan, wika ni Odayang

33.    Tumayo si Nantud matapos kumain

34.    Nang maabot niya ang hagdan

35.    Ikaw na hagdan, sandal

36.    Utos niya

37.    Dalawa, tatlo, kanyang pagbilang

38.    At umiyak si Nantud

39.    Ano ang iniiyak mo?

40.    Iiyakan mo ba ang lahat ng bagay?

41.    Tanong ni Odayang

42.    Ikaw, hagdan sumandal ka”

43.    At sumandal agad ang hagdan

44.    “Kapatid ko, maaari ka nang maunang bumaba

45.    At lumakad nang marahan si Nantud

46.    Patungo sa ilog

47.    Walang nagsabi

48.    Ng matabang katawan ni Nantud

49.    Nang makarating sila sa hangganan ng unang kilometro

50.    Biglang napatigil si Nantud

51.    Nababalutan ng makapal na kagubatan ang daan

52.    Kahit ang isang aso ay di makatatagos sa tuyong daan

53.    Nag-utos si Nantud

54.    Daan, paraanin mo kami”

55.    Dalawa, tatlo, pagbilang niya

56.    Higit pang kumapal ang kagubatan

57.    Na muling nagpaiyak kay Nantud

58.    Tumigil ka,

59.    Lagi ka na lamang umiiyak

60.    Wika ni Odayang

61.    Daan” padaanin mo kami

62.    Anong masasabi mo daan?

63.    At nagsimulang lumakad ng mahinhin si Odayang

64.    Sa daan na patungo sa kanilang paroroonan

65.    Nang makarating sila sa ikalawang kilometro

66.    BiglanghumintosiNantud

67.    Isang troso na abot sa langit ang nakaharang sa kanilang daan

68.    At wala silang madaraanan

69.    Troso, mawala ka

70.    Muling tumangis si Nantud

71.    Nagwika si Odayang sa kanyang kapatid

72.    Kailangan bang iyakan mo ang lahat ng bagay

73.    Troso, mawala ka,

74.    At dagling naglaho ang troso

75.    At dahan-dahang naglakad si Nantud

76.    Habang sila ay naglalakad

77.    Narrating nila ang ikatlong kilometro

78.    Biglang tumigil si Nantud

79.    Nakaharang sa kanilang daan ang mga tinik

80.    At nag-utos si Nantud

81.    Malinis ka daan

82.    Ngunit di sumunod ang mga tinik, kung kaya’t nagpalahaw si Nantud

83.    ”Kailangan bang iyakan mo ang lahat ng bagay?

84.    Pagkakita sa mga tinik, aniya

85.    Mawala ka mga tinik

86.    Mawala ka ng tuluyan

87.    At nagpatuloy sa kanyang mahinhing lakad si Nantud

88.    At tumuloy ang dalawa sa kanilang lakad

89.    At ng marating nila ang hangganan ng ikaaat na kilometro

90.    At ayun ang isang ilog

91.    “kapatid ko, katasin mo ang langis mula sa niyog

92.    Wika ni Odayang

93.    At inalis ni Nantud ang pusod ng kanyang buhok

94.    Ang kanyang tatlong kilometrong buhok

95.    Ay dumaloy sa ilog

96.    At bigla niyang hinila ang kanyang buhok

97.    Habang binubuhusan niya ito ng gata ng niyog

98.    Mabilis niya itong ginawa

99.    Wika ni Odayang

100. Magkakatas din ako ng langis para sabuhok

101. At inilugay ni Odayang ang kanyang buhok

102. Ang kanyang pitong kilometrong buhok

103. Na nagagayakan ng ginto

104. At kanyang binuhusan ito ng gata ng niyog

105. At biglang hinila ito ni Odayang

106. Na naglikha ng tunog ng alon

107. At nang matapos niyang lagyan ng langis ang kanyang buhok

108. At handa nang maligo, kaniyang winika

109. Doon tayo maligo sa malalim na parte

110. Magtungo tayo doon at doon tayo maglangoy

111. Nang makitang lumangoy si Nantud

112. Aniya, “ano ang masasabi mo?”

113. Matapos makapaglangoy

114. “Kapatid ko, maligo na tayo

115. Wika ni Odayang

Article Statistics

Track views and downloads to measure the impact and reach of your article.

0

PDF Downloads

[views]

Metrics

PlumX

Altmetrics

Paper Submission Deadline

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.