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Green Marketing Practices and Corporate Social Responsibility as Predictors of Organizatonal Commitment among the Selected Food Manufacturing Companies in Davao City

Green Marketing Practices and Corporate Social Responsibility as Predictors of Organizatonal Commitment among the Selected Food Manufacturing Companies in Davao City

Joseph Elmer G. Noval

University of the Visayas, Cebu City, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.70979

Received: 23 August 2023; Revised: 04 September 2023; Accepted: 08 September 2023; Published: 06 October 2023

ABSTRACT

Organizations are no longer the same as before for they have already inculcated the values related to environmental sustainability reflected as their corporate social responsibility could influence employees’ commitment in the organization.  The study aimed to determine the predictors of organizational commitment with regards to green marketing practices (GMP) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) of food manufacturing companies in Davao City and generate emergent theory on organizational commitment based on the results. A quantitative method was used in the study with 183 food manufacturing employees in Davao City as respondents. The statistical methods employed to arrive at the study’s conclusions were mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and multiple regression. Results showed that the level of green marketing practices of food manufacturing companies in Davao City are always evident. Moreover, the domains on the level of corporate social responsibility activities are always manifested. Also, the level of organizational commitment of manufacturing employees is always manifested. The result also showed that there is significant relationship between sustainable green marketing practices (GMP) and organizational commitment. Also, the result revealed that there is a significant relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational commitment (OC) in the food manufacturing companies in Davao City. Finally, green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility are good predictors of organizational commitment. However, green marketing practices predicts organizational commitment more than corporate social responsibility. Results of the study provided Noval Theory of Organizational Commitment (NTOC) as an emergent theory as a result on comparative assessment from the traditional theory and results of the study.

Keywords: Human resource management, environmental orientation, social responsibilities, organizational attachment, regression analysis, Davao City, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

In today’s competitive and ever-growing businesses across the globe, green practices and corporate social responsibility are still the top issues that need to be addressed by every organization (Camilleri, 2017; Heyward, 2022). Due to lack of resources and environmental issues, sustainable asset operations and environmental degradation have emerged as major global issues (Soderholm, 2020; Imasiku, 2021; Montt et al, 2018). According to Wang and Song (2014), pollution control and resource management may not necessarily go hand in hand with economic growth in its entirety. Similarly, Chan et al. (2012) stated that organizations are compelled to do eco-friendly professional activities with high economic value to achieve a feeling of balance between high resource consumption and the rise of economic relics.

Green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility (CSR) adoption within an organization are critical for businesses today. However, the results still depend on how committed an organization engages with these activities. As mentioned above, one of the concerns that brought difficulties in its implementation is the lack of organizational commitment. Abugre (2014) stated that firms could improve their corporate social responsibility practices if management’s attitudes toward CSR, corruption, and work behaviors are positive.

Based on the study of Nikolaou et al. (2011), the green business uses clean technologies that lessen the negative impacts of the firm to function by offering environmentally friendly goods or services, environmentally friendly manufacturing methods, or both. On the other hand, most companies are still far from the notion of green marketing techniques and cannot effectively execute the appropriate corporate social responsibility (Linas et al., 2014). Thus, the greening of business is considered a great challenge to every organization worldwide, for it will provide an extra burden in terms of its cost and the development and improving its social and economic responsibility (Brown & Ratledge, 2011).

Social responsibility plays an important role in improving employee organizational commitment when people increasingly pay attention to environmental issues. More specifically, the latter study by Nejati and Ghasemi (2013) also reaffirms that CSR has a positive impact on employee engagement. In general, previous studies on the impact of corporate social responsibility on employee commitment to the organization. Social responsibility plays an important role in improving employee organizational commitment when people increasingly pay attention to environmental issues. More specifically, the latter study by Nejati and Ghasemi (2013) also reaffirms that CSR has a positive impact on employee engagement. In general, previous studies on the impact of corporate social responsibility on employee commitment to the organization

As more individuals become aware of environmental challenges, corporate social responsibility is crucial for developing organizational engagement among employees (Nejati and Ghasemi, 2013). Organizational commitment affects the organization and can influence social values.  With higher organizational commitment, employees are willing to do their tasks.  And there would be a reduced ecological disaster regularity and increased compliance with environmental requirements, which implies good results for the ecosystem, community, industry, and humanity (Geyer and Jackson, 2004; Zhu and Sarkis, 2004, as cited by Famiyeh et al., 2018).  In addition, employees with high organizational commitment would help the company do better and help prevent corporate scandals, which will increase its competitive advantage.  Further, Collier (2018) emphasized that organizational commitment is one way that the company could create value for its stakeholders in the same way that it also creates value for society and the economy, leading both parties to acquire advantages and benefits.

The study’s findings from Gautam (2017) have shown that employee satisfaction cannot always guarantee organizational commitment. Likewise, Arustei (2013) said that the willingness of manufacturing companies to provide services that increase employees’ commitment to the organization is another issue. In addition, it will result in lesser involvement of employees. Employees who are not involved in the organizational process will not use their knowledge to solve problems. They will not be willing to share their ideas with their peers or supervisors, eventually leading to poor organizational commitment. Abidin et al. (2010) established that those who have poor employee engagement would lose a crucial source of identity and belonging. It was observed that the quality of connections to membership status is poor in several work organizations. In that instance, it will affect output quality and productivity. According to Prutina’s (2016) study, organizations that are motivated by the long-term development of stakeholder values will experience better organizational outcomes, in this case, organizational commitment, if their employees have favorable perceptions of the actions of their organizations toward various stakeholder groups.

There have been several studies on the organization’s commitment on the national and international scenes but most of which generally center on employee performance, job satisfaction, and citizenship behavior. Hence, there is a shortage of studies on the organizational commitment that focuses on green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility, specifically among the manufacturing companies in Davao City. Although there have been several enacted laws to address the environmental decline, most business organizations still do not fully institutionalize green practices in their operation. Although corporate social responsibility is recognized as a meaningful intervention that could provide a more sustainable solution to societal problems, enhance competitive advantage, access to new markets, and reputation building, many business entities are not driven to implement it. This phenomenon prompted the researcher to investigate the organizational commitment, specifically the manufacturing companies in Davao City, to green practices and corporate social responsibility as an instrumental factor in business growth and sustainable development.

The main purpose of this scientific investigation is to assess the possible interrelationship among the following variables: Green Marketing Practices (GMP), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on the Organizational Commitment (OC) among the selected food manufacturing companies in Davao City in 2023, the findings of which served as bases for the emergent theory on organizational commitment.

METHODS

Research Design. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design using the quantitative research tradition to determine the factors which predict the organizational commitment of the managers and employees among food manufacturing companies in Davao City.

Locale/Environment. The study was conducted at Davao City on the southern Philippine Island of Mindanao.  The city is one of Mindanao’s financial centers and the island’s primary center for trade, commerce, and industry.  The local administration of Davao City took the lead in educating manufacturing firms on proper food handling and production techniques for emergency foods.  By supplying secure, wholesome, and ready-to-eat emergency meals during pandemics, epidemics, or other tragedies, it also utilized locally grown raw ingredients from farmers in the Davao Region (FIPC, 2020).

Participants. The respondents of the study were the 183 personnel in the top, middle and lower management of the selected food manufacturing companies in Davao City. The information on the total number of SMEs provided by the Department of Trade and Industry has not classified the active and non-active entities. Hence, the researcher randomly chose the respondents of the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set with the seventeen food manufacturing companies.  At the same time, snowball sampling was also utilized by tapping friends, peers, and colleagues working in the food manufacturing companies in Davao City who also became respondents to the study.

Research Instruments. The research instrument has three parts and used sets of adapted survey questionnaires from various sources in gathering the necessary information from the respondents. A study by Ghodeswar and Kumar (2014) titled “A Study of Green Marketing Practices in Indian Companies” served as the basis for Part 1 of the survey questionnaire. The researcher modified that study’s survey questionnaire for this purpose, and a reliability analysis found that it had a Cronbach’s Alpha score of 0.837. The instrument has ten indicators with 7 to 10 items for each indicator.

While Part 2, which is corporate social responsibility, was adapted from Kim et al. (2018) with a Cronbach alpha of 0.82-0.92. Indicators in this variable include Environment Dimension, Community Dimension, Employees Dimension, and Customers Dimension, with 3 item questions in each domain.

Lastly, Part 3 entails the Organizational Commitment that was adapted from Akhigbe (2014) with an overall Cronbach alpha of 0.90-0.91. Indicators involve Affective Commitment, Continuance Commitment, and Normative Commitment, with 6-item questions in each construct.

The three adapted survey questionnaires used in this study were explicitly contextualized while pilot test was conducted to test the reliability of the instruments resulting in an overall Cronbach alpha of 0.95.

Data Gathering Procedures. After obtaining the necessary approvals, the researcher made use of enumerators to coordinate with the supervisors or heads of the office in securing an informed consent from the participants as well as during the administration of the survey questionnaires. Questions and clarifications related to the survey were entertained. The survey questionnaires were administered personally by the enumerators. The respondents were given enough time to answer the survey questionnaires on their vacant period. The answered survey questionnaires were retrieved by the enumerators for analysis.

Data Analysis. The researcher compiled all categorical characteristics, including product categories, years of operation, and firm categorization, using frequency and percentages.  The degrees of corporate social responsibility, organizational commitment, and green marketing techniques were described using weighted mean.  Conversely, the standard deviation was used to gauge the consistency of the respondents’ answers. Pearson correlation was used to establish the association between green marketing techniques, corporate social responsibility, and organizational commitment.  This study used regression analysis to compare corporate social responsibility and green marketing strategies to see which may more accurately predict organizational commitment.

Research Ethical Considerations. The University’s Research Ethics Committee (REC) examined and approved the protocol prior to the start of the study. As a result, the researcher felt confident that the study adhered to ethical research guidelines, especially while acquiring data. Research ethical consideration was observed on the three fundamental principles: respect of persons, beneficence, and justice.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The data in Table 1 pertains to the demographic profile of the respondents composed of 183 personnel in the top, middle and lower management from 17 selected food manufacturing companies in Davao City.

As seen in Table 1, most of the product types among food manufacturing companies (52.9%) belong to fresh, chilled, and frozen meat & poultry. At the same time, ten food manufacturing companies have been operating for over five years, representing 58.9%. As to the classification of MSMEs, 12 companies belonged to micro-enterprises comprising 70.6%.

Presented in Table 2 are the results on the level of green marketing practices (GMP),  of the food manufacturing companies in Davao City. GMP consists of recycling practices, responsible sourcing, product design innovations, responsible advertising, green communication practices, building green product credibility, price-setting behavior, customer engagement practices, green marketing orientation, and ethical standards as indicators.

The result shows that the level of green marketing practices got a high overall mean score of 3.19 which connotes that green marketing practices among food manufacturing companies are evident. The standard deviation is generally below 1.0, implying the responses’ consistency. However, there are responses of the respondents which are more than 1.0, which connotes that responses are heterogeneous.

This highly evident Green Marketing Practices corroborates the idea of Indeed (2022), citing that pioneers and implementers of green marketing practices will reap enormous benefits, enhancing consumer loyalty and business profitability. In addition, Subatra (2020) noted that in addition to businesses, governments, and non-government groups play a significant role in pushing consumers to become green and adopt green purchasing practices. On the other hand, marketers should always work to ensure that their green products are of excellent quality and reasonably priced.

Also, presented in Table 2 are the results on the level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of food manufacturing companies in Davao City. CSR consists of environmental, community, employee, and customer dimensions.

The result shows that corporate social responsibility got a very high overall mean score of 3.33, considering that all the domains yielded very high ratings. It conveys that corporate social responsibility activities are always evident. The standard deviation ranges from 0.65 to 0.88, which entails the consistency of the responses.

The level of organizational commitment of the respondents is also shown in Table 2. It contains three constructs: affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment.

The result shows that the level of practice of the organizational commitment obtained an overall mean score of 3.93, described as very high, as all the indicators yielded very high ratings. This result conveys that affective, continuance, and normative commitment are always manifested. The standard deviation is generally below 1.0, which suggests the consistency of the responses. However, there are responses of the respondents which are more than 1.0, which connotes that responses are heterogeneous.

The substantial evidence in CSR supports the idea of Chung et al. (2018) that CSR has become a norm in society. More and more food manufacturing companies regard it as a desirable business model and enhance their business activities. Furthermore, the employees of these organizations are more pleased to work and have reported increased productivity. The result of this domain is also in line with the data obtained from Subair’s (2018) study that CSR activities have become a common practice by manufacturing companies in different countries.

The results of the correlation of variables are shown in Tables 3 and 4. Table 3 provides information on the correlation between two variables which are Green Marketing Practices and Corporate Social Responsibility.

The correlation coefficient (r= 0.76, p<.05) indicates a strong positive correlation between green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility. This suggests a strong relationship between these two variables, and as the level of green marketing increases, the level of corporate social responsibility also tends to increase. The p-value is 0.00, meaning the correlation between green marketing and corporate social responsibility is statistically significant.

Similarly, the result of the correlation of variables, green marketing practices, and corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment is revealed in Table 3. The data revealed a significant relationship between green marketing practices and organizational commitment (r=.76, p<.05).

This result aligns with the study of Lee and Shin (2017), which examined that implementing effective green marketing practices positively influenced consumers’ perceptions of a company’s corporate social responsibility efforts and image. In addition, the correlation result supports the findings of Bratanova and Bruce (2012), which cited that green marketing practices can help businesses improve their corporate image and build a positive relationship with stakeholders, which can ultimately enhance a business’s corporate social responsibility initiatives.

On the other hand, corporate social responsibility shows a significant relationship with organizational commitment (r=.73, p<.05). Implying that when a company implements CSR activities, organizational commitment is also manifested.

The result of the regression analysis, as shown in Table 5, reveals that each independent variable could significantly predict organizational commitment on their singular capacity (p<.05). The most surprising result to emerge from the data is that between the two variables, green marketing practices could better predict organizational commitment as manifested by a higher beta coefficient of .51 compared to the coefficient of corporate social responsibility (CSR), which is only .30.

This result implies that each unit of improvement in green marketing practices (SMP) results in a .51 growth in organizational commitment. The result is surprising because most of the literature gathered in this study showed that corporate social responsibility most likely predicts the organizational commitment of the manufacturing companies, as what the findings of Yusliza et al. (2019), Im et al. (2017), Nejati and Ghasemi (2013), Azim (2016), Zaman and Nadeem (2019), D’aprile and Talo (2015) and Gupta (2017) are. However, the coefficients signify that for every unit increase in green marketing, practices lead to .51 increases in organizational commitment. Every unit increase in corporate social responsibility corresponds to a .30 increase in organizational commitment.

Furthermore, for the regression model, the r2 of .60 infers that 60 percent of organizational commitment variation could be associated with the combined influence of green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility. This data indicates that additional factors comprising 40% that might substantially impact organizational commitment were not included in the study.

As gleaned in the results, the affective, continuance, and normative organizational commitment models are very high which implies that these models are manifested in the among food manufacturing companies. Results of this study outlined the 4 Paradigms of Organizational Commitment which becomes an emergent theory. The results of this study also explicated that employee’s emotional attachment in an organization contributes higher loyalty in the enterprise once well understood and practice the organization’s advocacy. As such, staying in an organization is more of a desire than necessity that usually resulted to longer tenure. Moreover, the value of remaining loyal in company emanates on the feeling of valued individual who conscientiously contribute in the realization on the organization’s advocacy. Establishing clear advocacy for the organization fosters intrinsic engagement and motivation, encouraging people to keep working with the business organization because it is the right thing to do.

Advocacy commitment becomes an important additional model of organizational commitment since it impacts employee engagement. In addition, an advocacy that is well defined by the organization becomes the threshold of every employee to feel committed in the organization specially if it provides individual’s worth not just an employee but agent in contributing social value in the business sector and society. Advocacy commitment of the organization that increases compliance with environmental regulations, implying positive outcomes for the ecosystem, community, industry, and humanity influences organizational commitment.

THEORY GENERATION

The world is experiencing environmental difficulties, which seem to worsen with time. From where we were to where we are now, it can gleam that we are experiencing mightier storms, twisted weather patterns, and worsening global warming concerns. The solution to these concerns does not just rest on the government but must be consolidated efforts of all stakeholders in the nation. To address these challenges and achieve sustainable development goals, many organizations began implementing environmentally friendly approaches such as green marketing strategies, carried out through corporate social responsibility, and improving organizational commitment.

By promoting the environmental advantages of their goods and services, green marketing helps companies embrace more sustainable business practices. Additionally, using green marketing helps consumers understand the value of sustainability and how their purchasing choices affect the environment. It might motivate clients to adopt greener lifestyles, reducing waste, pollution, and other harmful environmental consequences.

Increasing employee engagement is a crucial corporate social responsibility (CSR) goal. These companies frequently draw people who want to work for a living while also changing the world. In organizations, there is strength in numbers, and cooperative employee efforts may produce noteworthy results, boosting workplace morale and productivity. Businesses that actively engage in CSR projects review their internal processes to address cultural and societal issues, which is advantageous to both. In addition to enhancing business, people, and revenue, CSR models promote global change and growth, which frequently implies helping those who are underprivileged or have no resources.

Organizational commitment has been defined as a person’s level of committing to or binding themselves to a specific set of behaviors and attitudes that motivates them to take action. It has to do with the amount of commitment and engagement that workers have with the business. Once people connect with the organization, they will start caring about its bigger goals, such as its reputation, survival, and continuing success, which sparks action and resource sharing and encourages more identification. A motivated, high-performing, emotionally invested staff enables them to produce and deliver goods and services that provide the company with a consistent competitive advantage.

In essence, businesses are creating ways to demonstrate their environmental efforts to the public, improving their environmental status. They use green marketing strategies to gain a competitive edge and attract environmentally conscious clients. Green marketing strategies and corporate social responsibility are becoming more significant in putting company commitment and societal development into practice. It is acknowledged that workplace activities encourage employees to act responsibly toward the environment and society both inside and outside of their enterprises.

CSR has grown in relevance in recent years. Most companies today have concentrated on implementing CSR activities to improve their profitability and relationships with external stakeholders, such as consumers, regarding trust and loyalty. The interplay of green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility has not just become jargon nowadays in the organization; instead, it has become advocacy, which is considered an essential factor in its operationalization in increasing organizational commitment that usually results from employee work satisfaction, excellent performance, and business productivity.

This theory is aptly called Noval Theory on Organizational Commitment.

Noval Theory on Organizational Commitment (NTOC):

This section presents the Noval Theory on Organizational Commitment (NTOC) which is essentially databased. The database normally would come from the quantitative responses coupled with the results from inferential statistics.

In this instance, organizational commitment does not only encompass the employee’s affection for the organization, the fear of loss of work, and the sense of obligation to stay in the enterprise but, more so, the likelihood to advocate the organization’s cause because employees believe in the larger vision. Employees’ intention to stay in the company transcended from just mere workers delivering the tasks and fulfilling responsibilities into agents of promoting the company’s mission and creating a sense of purpose in addressing the environmental agenda.

Organizational commitment usually undergoes processes before it is fully realized. Organizational commitment results from ongoing development, articulating its achievement regarding other contributing factors. As this study’s findings indicate, to achieve corporate commitment in the context of environmental consciousness, one must carefully evaluate and practice the principles of green marketing. Similar to how a complete understanding and use of green marketing and a corporate social responsibility environment ensure company commitment. Integrating environmental culture and consciousness suggests that organizational commitment is both a consequence and a byproduct. A few specific components from a few indicators will be combined to acquire a particular degree of organizational commitment so that a more responsive organization to the environment and society may be advantageous. This section covers this viewpoint.

Identifying the Contributory Factors of Organizational Commitment:

The emerging theory on Organizational Commitment does not just come out from thin air but instead it came from the quantitative data and the empirical results on the inferential statistics.  The following are as follows:

A. Domains of Green Marketing Practices

               2.1 Recycling Practices

               2.1 Responsible Sourcing

               2.3 Product Design Innovations

               2.4 Responsible Advertising

               2.5 Green Communication Practices

               2.6 Building Green Product Credibility

               2.7 Price Setting Behavior

               2.8 Customer Engagement Practices

               2.9 Green Marketing Orientation

               2.10 Ethical Standards

B. Correlation Data Between GMP and Organizational Commitment

C. Other Constructs that Constitute the Achievement of Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment Implications:  Job performance, Job autonomy, Loyalty, Organizational identification, Organizational trust. Efficiency, Credibility, Globality, Adaptability and flexibility.

Propositions and Theory:

These propositions have a strong connection to the study’s variables.

Proposition 1: “Green Marketing Practices lead to Organizational Commitment”

Instead of merely being an advertising stunt, a green product marketing plan should be a business strategy. The environment is essential to civilization, and if corporate actions destroy it, the whole foundation of human life is in jeopardy. Natural eco-friendly selling features for firms are the cleverest green marketing approach and concept. Selling goods and services to consumers while making a profit is the traditional definition of marketing. However, green marketing goes beyond this since it also encompasses defining “what is green” and creating and promoting goods that provide value to consumers. In order to develop and maintain equilibrium and regulate the natural situation, organizations have acknowledged the need to maintain a healthy environment and lifestyle. People worldwide are starting to care more about environmental conservation, both as customers and as employees. Green marketing techniques refer to being environmentally sensitive while carrying out marketing initiatives that influence the workforce’s dedication to producing environmentally friendly products. These initiatives should involve environmental awareness in product development, manufacture, storage, distribution, transportation, marketing, and consumer communications (Anyahie et al., 2020).

Consumers are now well informed about the ecological benefits of consuming products and inherent issues, thus resulting in their growing environmental concerns. The managerial and marketing implications of this will be to develop such green products that are preferred over the others not doing so and thus develop a competitive advantage, simultaneously meeting their business objectives (Punitha & Rasdi, 2013). From the organizational point of view, every aspect of marking activity with new product development and communications ought to be integrated with environmental considerations, contributing to organizational engagement and commitment among stakeholders. This general perspective of Green Marketing means that not only the suppliers and retailers should be considered, but also the employees, stakeholders including educators, community members, regulators, and NGOs should also be considered.

Thus, consumers nowadays consider purchasing goods and services as environmentally friendly and patronizing firms marketing themselves as green enterprises (Elemeen, 2015).

Green marketing is more than just highlighting goods and services that have eco-friendly features. Viewing marketing from a new angle and considering the worldwide repercussions of environmental degradation also involves adjustments to the production process and product modifications. Whether they offer industrial products, services, or raw materials to other industries, institutions and businesses that rely on green marketing should be aware of their moral and ethical obligations to protect the environment and take all necessary measures (Smith, 2016). Grimmer and Woolley (2014) further concluded that because green marketing strengthens the commitment of the marketers (employees) to the company they work for, it enables businesses and institutions to reach new markets and categories of consumers who are environmentalists and prefer to use environmentally friendly products. Due to their civic obligation to protect the environment, Liu et al. (2012) stressed that green marketing affords firms significant competitive benefits. They noticed that companies that use green marketing activities build enduring customer loyalty relationships and become more credible in the eyes of their clients and customers.

Employees at these businesses understand the importance of environmental sustainability because of internal messaging, training, and induction programs. At all organizational levels, awareness is raised. This subject is covered in induction classes for new hires, while other workers have access to internal knowledge-sharing platforms and recurring training. These procedures increase commitment and mold people into environmentally conscious individuals. The arguments made by Liao et al. (2018), Pham et al. (2018), Papadas et al. (2019), Junsheng et al. (2020), and Schein (2010) agree with the points made by the authors mentioned above. These writers emphasize how vital it is to spread the ideals of green marketing among staff members to boost understanding, adherence, and implementation effectiveness. Employees prioritizing environmental sustainability often choose eco-friendly packaging options when creating or choosing packaging for a new product, presuming all other aspects stay constant.

On the other hand, Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2010) argued that organization that needs to incorporate environmental sustainability values in their company’s documentation have a different situation. The ethos of these businesses was heavily weighted toward achieving financial goals and gave little to no thought to long-term environmental sustainability. These organizations mostly need official paperwork that demonstrates their dedication to operating sustainably. The businesses needed more execution, implementing only a few components of the green marketing mix. The strategy was sometimes indirect, such as through alliances with recycling businesses. Due to the lack of formal training, only some employees in these enterprises are aware of the efforts made by their organizations. Fraj et al. (2013) emphasized the significance of incorporating green values into policies and procedural statements for those dedicated to implementing eco-friendly practices. Based on the given information, without internalizing green values as part of their culture, a company is less likely to adopt green marketing approaches that contribute to increasing employees’ commitment to serving the organization and society.

Proposition 2: “Green Marketing Practice and Corporate Social Responsibility leads Organizational Commitment”

Green marketing initiatives, which include using all or some of the components of the green marketing mix, are closely watched by businesses whose core values are rooted in environmental sustainability. As such, organizations have values related to environmental sustainability that are reflected in various internal documents, including mission and vision statements, business strategies, codes of conduct, brand books, and policies that could influence employees’ commitment to the organization (Fraj et al. (2013), Chen et al. (2020), and Pham et al. (2018). All levels of the organizations prioritized environmental sustainability. Fraj et al. (2013) observed that the formalization of green marketing generates a moral duty for employees to follow firm rules and processes. Employees who are devoted to the company and aware of its fundamental ideals and objectives perform their work well because they are conscious of the moral obligation, which is a manifestation of corporate social responsibility.

Employees devoted to the company should go above and beyond to guarantee it reaches its strategic goals because they feel obligated to do so (Dessler, 2011). According to Tarigan and Ariani (2015), workers who commit to the organization may guarantee that they will keep working there and remain a part of it; more specifically, organizational commitment is a form of employee duty. The perception of ongoing employment is that the company’s commitments to its employees transcend beyond the terms of the employment agreement and demonstrate more organizational loyalty (Johar, Nor, Hassan, & Musa, 2019).

Industrial and organizational practitioners define CSR as the firm’s economic growth, corporate responsiveness, stakeholder participation, moral responsibility, transparency, and ethical practices (Rahman et al., 2011). According to Widyastuti Sri et al. (2019), the study would enable the company to drive green marketing initiatives, fostering new economic growth, preserving the environment, and enhancing business operations. The community benefits, the company’s commitment to sustainability is upheld, and the firm benefits by incorporating green marketing into its marketing strategy and CSR programs.

Proposition 3: “Other Factors available that can Impact Organizational Commitment”

Other potential factors might potentially have an impact on organizational commitment. Employees’ commitment to the company is commonly described as their eagerness to put in a tremendous effort on its behalf and their willingness to stick with the organization. The company would only be effective and long-lasting with the devotion of its personnel. Employee commitment is closely related to their work performance, job autonomy, loyalty, and turnover rate, all of which impact the firm’s bottom line (Porter et al., 2014).

According to several studies, there is a strong and favorable correlation between workers’ CSR and organizational engagement (Huang, 2016; Mensah, 2017; Nejati & Ghasemi, 2013). Numerous research (Brammer et al., 2007; Huang, 2016; Nejati & Ghasemi, 2013; Turker, 2009b) also demonstrated that assessing workers’ views of CSR may result in a more thorough grasp of the concept and influence corporate commitment. Sánchez & Puente (2017) established specific components as general principles of CSR regarding organizational commitment, including voluntarism, aggregated value, integration and efficiency, adaptability and flexibility, credibility, globality, the social dimension and nature, environmental aspects, and the involvement and participation of the stakeholders, where employees and their organizations are formed apart from the firm decisions and actions that carry out in all its parameters.

Studies have shown that all aspects of CSR considerably indirectly impact employees’ emotional commitment, which is sequentially mediated by organizational trust and identity. Through attitudes toward the significance of CSR, organizational identification, and organizational trust, it was determined that CSR to customers and CSR to employees had a significant conditional indirect effect on affective commitment (George et al., 2020).

Theory Generation:

The Noval Theory on Organizational Commitment (NTOC) emerged based on the previously discoursed propositions. The theory articulates that for Organizational Commitment to contextualize in the paradigm of environmental agenda and self-regulated responsibility of the organization, an interplay of the constructs of green marketing practice, which transpired having a strong and positive correlation with organizational commitment in this study, should be integrated. These constructs of green marketing practice are recycling practices, responsible sourcing, product design innovations, responsible advertising, green communication practices, building green product credibility, price setting behavior, customer engagement practices, green marketing orientation, and ethical standards entrenched the salient implied dimensions of the corporate social responsibility and organizational commitment which are job performance, job autonomy, loyalty, organizational identification, organizational trust: efficiency, credibility, globality, adaptability, and flexibility.

The figure below is the diagram of Noval Theory on Organizational Commitment:

Implication:

After the generation of the theory, the following are the implication statements:

  1. This theory is applicable only on the research locale covered in this research as the data came from such source.
  2. This theory might be applicable to other research locales as may deemed proper but subject to testing and verification.
  3. Future researchers can take off but using the existing data and hoping to explore other possibilities.
  4. The theory generated can be validated by the future researchers in order to further improve the rigor.

CONCLUSION

The food manufacturing businesses in Davao City frequently use green marketing techniques. While ethical norms were less frequently practiced, recycling processes were always in place.

Corporate social responsibility activities are always manifested. Moreover, customers and community dimension are always evident.

Further, organizational commitment of the selected manufacturing employees is manifested. Normative commitment shows that employees often believe they should remain with the company since quitting might have dreadful repercussions. While affective commitment connotes that employees often feel valued, acts as ambassadors for their organizations, feel emotionally attached, and are often unwilling to leave the organization due to the benefits they are getting from the organization.

Corporate social responsibility and green marketing practices are significantly and positively correlated. This result shows that staff members are more likely to commit to participating in corporate social responsibility in firms using green marketing strategies.

Likewise, there is a strong link between corporate dedication and green marketing techniques. According to this, staff members are more dedicated to the company when green marketing strategies are used. Additionally, the outcome demonstrates a strong link between organizational commitment and corporate social responsibility in Davao City’s food manufacturing businesses.

Additionally, green marketing practices and corporate social responsibility are good determinants of organizational commitment. However, green marketing practices predict organizational commitment more than corporate social responsibility.

The study’s results further supported the Three-Component Model of Commitment’s applicability (Meyer & Allen, 1997). The study’s findings demonstrated how more organizational commitment will arise from values alignment between the employer and its workforce. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and green marketing are two examples of how the proper orientation on the social, environmental, and economic framework may boost employees’ conscientization process and dedication to their jobs and the organization. Employees that consistently uphold organizational ideals gradually get identified with the business and can incorporate the values that reinforce their loyalty to the enterprise.

With the employees gratified at all times with how they positively perceived, responded, and acted not only with their work assignment but also in imbibing with company values on environmental concerns by profoundly participating with the green marketing practices and company extension services through CSR, the more the employees are satisfied that amplifies their organizational commitment. These very findings in the study postulated the Herzberg Two Factor Theory, which the study was also posited with.

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