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Impacts of Social Media on English Language Teaching and Learning: A Systematic Review of Literature

  • Michael R. Martizano
  • 187-200
  • Jan 28, 2023
  • Language

Impacts of Social Media on English Language Teaching and Learning: A Systematic Review of Literature

Michael R. Martizano
Faculty of Education, Baguio College of Technology, Baguio City, Philippines
Ph.D. ELS Student, College of Arts and Humanities, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines

Abstract

Social media use is evident in the facilitating of teaching and learning especially in the English language teaching arena. This is why it is important to know what social media are useful in the teaching and learning of the English language and how these social media affect both the teachers and the learners’ performance in the educational setting. This study is conducted exploring various articles on the impacts of social media in the English language teaching and learning. The paper applied the method of a systematic review of literature exploring 75 articles from peer reviewed journals and published studies that are available in the research site like Google scholar. The surveyed articles underwent thematic analysis investigating the problems or objectives, methodologies and designs, salient findings, conclusions and recommendations of the selected articles. This systematic review of related literature has identified the positive and negative impacts of social media on the English language teaching and learning. From the obtained result of the review, the researcher proposed important areas or topics to be considered for future studies to further enhance and widen the knowledge about the relevance of social media in the English language education.

Keywords positive and negative impacts, social media use, teaching and learning, systematic review of literature, relevance in English language education

Introduction

Social media pertains to the relationships that exist between networks of people (Walter & Rivera, 2004). Other researchers defined it as “socially interactive technologies” for example; instant messaging or text messaging, or other networks which offer fast-paced, inexpensive online communication which allows social interaction to start and evolve (Bryan, et. al, 2006). Social media plays an important role in the world of communication. Many digital applications like Youtube, Instagram, Facebook and media blog sites are used to share information, pictures and videos to other people.

These digital social media applications are also being utilized in the field of education. In fact, Raut and Patil (2016) added that social media did make the world a smaller place, now we have more information, more knowledge, and have better opportunities to use it. “Social media not only helps to acquire knowledge but also to establish enduring relationships with real people. Connecting with fellow dorm residents through Facebook, Twitter and various social sites can help a student overcome the kind of isolation that otherwise might lead him to leave school”.

In reality, social media are being used by teachers and students for different purposes. Mobile devices and social media provide excellent educational e-learning opportunities to the students for academic collaboration, accessing in course contents, and tutors despite the physical boundary (Gikas & Grant, 2013). As social media is becoming increasingly ubiquitous to millennium learners, educators see the potential benefits of using these tools for academic purposes (Hughes, 2009; Nellison, 2007). Based on individual companies’ statistics in July 2011, Facebook passed 750 million users (2011); LinkedIn had over 100 million members (2011); Twitter hit over 177 million tweets per day (2011); YouTube reached three billion views every day (2011). Teachers use social media as materials to facilitate teaching and the students use social media for various classroom activities to support their studies and achieve a meaningful learning environment. Adoption and application of mobile devices and social media can provide ample futuristic learning opportunities to the students in accessing course contents as well as interaction with peers and experts (Cavus & Ibrahim, 2008, 2009; Kukulska-Hulme & Shield, 2008; Nihalani & Mayrath, 2010; Richardson & Lenarcic, 2008, Shih, 2007). Social media are infiltrating the educational arena and online social networks are increasingly being used not only by college students, but also by instructors for different reasons (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007; 2009).  Batsila and Tsihouridis (2016), for instance, found that using a social media tool for digital storytelling in an English class helped students enhance their reading and writing skills, their interest in writing and struggling students’ self-confidence. Derakshan and Hasanabbasi (2015) also claim that Facebook promoted students’ communication and language skills.

This paper aims to review and investigate articles about the impacts of social media on English language teaching and learning. This literature review is also designed to determine the gaps or the topics which are less explored to recommend necessary ideas and tips which may be used for future studies. Ellison et.al. (2007) pointed out that there are studies which show positive impacts of social networking sites or social media on the psychological status, communication skills and social skills of the students. Tufekci (2008) also found out that students usually use social networking websites to share things, send emails and read blogs. The researcher believes that social media being one of the most powerful tools of communication is very relevant in education and it should be a continuous subject of study in order to further enhance its use to effectively help both teachers and students in achieving quality teaching and learning. Jones et al. (2010) stated that social networking websites are tools that can be used by teachers and students to facilitate education. Furthermore, Valenzuela, Park and Kee’s (2009) research shows that using Facebook raises life satisfaction and social confidence. Social media tools as a product of a continually evolving technology would have a great advantage to school setting if its impacts particularly on language learning will be determined.

Therefore, this review study is conducted not only to find out the gaps or the less explored topics about the impacts of social media on the English language teaching and learning but also for the researcher to impart and suggest a body of knowledge that will surely benefit the English language academies for them to utilize social media effectively. Addressing the less explored areas or topics from the articles under review would lead to necessary recommendations that will be beneficial for future studies.

Research Questions

This study revolved on reviewing literature regarding the impacts of social media on English language teaching and learning. It investigates how these online platforms affect both students and teachers. Specifically, this study is sought to answer questions that consist of the following:

  1. What are the topics or problems that are explored in the selected articles?
  2. What research approaches and designs are applied in the articles under review?
  3. What types of social media are explored in the articles?
  4. How does social media benefit the English language teachers based on the reviewed articles?
  5. How does social media benefit the English language learners based on the reviewed articles?
  6. How does social media negatively affect English language teaching and learning?
  7. What conclusions, suggestions and recommendations can be derived from the articles under review?

Methodology

This study was conducted with the use of systematic review of literature. Systematic review method is actually a very important feature of academic study. Through this method, researchers can evaluate the validity and quality of existing work against a criterion to reveal weaknesses, inconsistencies, and contradictions (Paré et al., 2015). Evaluating the validity and quality of the articles will help to determine the areas or topics which were not touched by the previous studies and these topics can be proposed for future research. By means of reviewing various literatures, the researcher will be able to understand the depth of the existing body of work and determine the topics to be explored. In addition, because these reviews are meant to exist as their own contribution of scholarly knowledge, they should be held to a similar level of quality and rigor in study design as we would hold other literature (Okoli & Schabram 2010). Therefore, literature review is designed to see clearly the quality of a particular study. Through the inclusion and exclusion criteria and by setting parameters on what particular articles should be reviewed, it will further help the researcher dissect appropriately the unknown and less explored topics which could serve as relevant subjects of another scholarly research.
To obtain the goal of this study, many different articles related to the impact of social media on English language teaching and learning were carefully searched and reviewed. A total of 75 articles and related studies were explored. In order to limit the articles to be explored, certain parameters were applied. These exclusion and inclusion criteria helped to filter the related studies or articles to be reviewed.

Table 1. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

PARAMETERS INCLUSION CRITERIA EXCLUSION CRITERIA
Type of research Articles that are published in peer-reviewed journals Opinion papers, columns, diaries, book reviews and literary works
Results of the study Research works that dealt with the impacts of social media on English language teaching and learning Research works which are not related to English language studies
Language Research works that were written in English Research works which were not written or translated into English
Database Google scholar

Open access repositories

Databases which cannot be accessed by the researcher
Timeframe Research works published from 2010-2022 Research works which were not published from 2010-2022

Treatment of data
The researcher made use of the repertory grid to address the questions of this research in the form of systematic literature review. From the repertory grid, the gaps or less explored and unknown areas were then determined. In order to identify the common concepts and themes from the different articles used for this study, the use of constructive thematic analysis was applied. Thematic analysis was applied in the study wherein the researcher with the use of the repertory grid tracked all the significant statements from the articles under review. From the significant statements, the researcher formed categories to be analyzed to form themes. These themes were used for discussion to obtain the result of the study.

Ethical Consideration

In the entire duration of the study, the researcher followed the use of appropriate format in citation which is the APA format. It was rest assured that all references or sources were properly acknowledged.

Results And Discussion

Topics or Problems that are Explored in the Studies

It can be seen from the studies under review that the topic or problem on finding the effects of social media in English language learning is the most explored subject of study (Ariantini, 2021; Esman, et. al., 2021; Al Arif, 2019; Kutubkhanah Alsaied, 2017; Abdulazis Al Fadda, 2020; Jahromi, 2020; Yadav, 2020; Ules, 2022; Nguyen & Pham, 2022; Hayi Kaleng et. al., 2017; Deerajviset, 2022; Akkara, et. al., 2020; Dhanya, 2016; Omoera, et. al., 2018; Amin et. al., 2020; Sharma & Mahavidhalaya, 2015; Sozudogro et. al., 2019; Klimova & Pikhart, 2020; Erzad & Suciati, 2018; Saha, 2019; Xiuwen & Razali, 2021; Kim & Kim, 2021; Khan, 2016; Alahmad, 2020; Thurairaj et. al., 2015; Marleni & Asilestari, 2018; Teves-Pinili & Ridad, 2018; Muico, 2022; Novawan et. al., 2020; Jamshidian & salehi, 2020; Boatis et. al., 2020; Nanquil, 2020; Poramathikul, et. al., 2020; Pratiwi, et. al., 2021; Desta, et. al., 2021; Wang & Chen, 2013; Ilyas & putri, 2020; Okumura, 2016; Ghobadi & taki, 2018; Citrawati et. al., 2021; Lakhal, 2022; Rao, 2019; Zarei & Rudravarapu, 2019; Kamnoetsin, 2014). There are only few articles which explored on the perceptions of teachers and students on the use of social media (Bermudez, et. al., 2018; Sugiarto, et. al., 2021; Putri, et. al., 2020; Mismara, 2019; Ismail, et. al., 2019; Mabuan, 2018; Dogoriti, et. al., 2014; Ulla, et. al., 2020; Allam & Elyas, 2016; Bagcki & Cihat, 2018; Liu, et. al, 2015; Pitaloka, et. al., 2020) and the effects of social media on the English language teaching (Slim & Hefedh, 2019; Li, 2017; Esman, et. al., 2021; Patel; 2015; Inharjanto, 2022; Hasan Dirjal & Gabanchi, 2020; Mulyono, 2016; Balcikanli, 2010; Balcikanli, 2015; Tunde-Awe, 2015; Sirivedin, et. al., 2018; Inayati, 2015; Alshenqeeti, 2018; De Jager et. al., 2020). Furthermore, the subjects on finding the strengths and weaknesses of social media as a tool for ELL (Cabrera, 2018; Yunus   et. al., 2012), the impacts of social media on the attitudes of learners (Gagalang, 2022) as well as the ways used by students to learn English through social media (Ismail & Shafie, 2018) and the Social media contents useful in developing English skills (Anwas, et. al., 2020) are least explored.

Approaches Used/Applied in the Studies.

Based from the 75 reviewed articles, there are 36 researches which made use of the qualitative method applying case study, interview, observation, SWOT analysis, library research, content analysis, interpretive, web instrument, documentation, critical analysis, literature review, descriptive analysis, evaluation, transcribing, exploratory case study as the research designs, tools and instruments. A total of 31 studies made use of the quantitative design of the study applying interview method, survey question, ANOVA, cross sectional survey, analysis, pre-test and post-test, likert scale questionnaire, probability sampling, chi-square test, FB questionnaire and convenience sampling . Mixed method was the design used for the 8 research articles utilizing online survey, purposive sampling, structured interview, survey questions and interview.

Social Media Explored in the Studies

It can be noted from the reviewed research that many of the articles focused on exploring social media in general perspective. There were few articles which focused specifically on exploring the impacts of Facebook, Youtube, Whatsapp, Tiktok and Telegram on the English language teaching and learning. Based on the review, Quipper, Skype, Edmodo, Instagram and blogs are the least focused social media being used for English language teaching and learning.

It is evident based on the surveyed research that social media plays a big role for teaching and learning. The emergence of the web and therefore the important array of social media networks such as blogs, tweets, Facebook posts and LinkedIn profiles have no doubt resulted in associate degree and  exponential increase in new varieties of written language (Rao, 2019). The English language experiences vast changes because of social networks. It appears that there are varieties of social media applications which could serve as a source of information by teachers and students. Ulla and Perales (2020) mentioned that Kahoot, Socrative, Google Form, QR code, Facebook, YouTube, Quizizz and Quizlet were among the Internet-based applications the teachers used in their classroom teaching. Also, the findings from the study conducted by (Al Arif, 2019) indicated that a range of social media, especially Instagram and Facebook are used by the students. De Jager et al. (2020) also found in research that the platforms commonly used by teachers and learners are WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. Bulnes (2022) revealed that the most frequently used social media platform is Facebook. Students reported to have used social media more than an hour daily, primarily to communicate with friends.

Other researchers managed to review articles on the most frequently used social media in education largely due to the English learning activities that match the features of such platforms; to wit: YouTube, WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter (Ariantini, 2021); Instagram, YouTube, Facebook (Al Arif, 2019); WhatsApp and Instagram (Ismail, 2018); and, Youtube, Instagram, Facebook, and Line (Erzad & Suciati, 2018).

Benefits of Social Media for the Teachers

Many of the articles emphasized the positive impacts of social media in the teaching of the English language. Inayati (2015) stated that Facebook and YouTube were the most frequently used types of SMTs by the language center faculty members. Ghobadi and Taki (2018) discovered that teaching vocabulary through Telegram stickers could lead to outstanding advantages for the learners. In other words, social networking had a positive impact on learning new vocabulary items among EFL learners. Dhanya (2016) found that the social media tools help the language teachers to stay connected with their peers around the world and stay updated about their fields. Moreover, these online buttons give the language teachers the chance to help others in their fields, find solutions to their problems and improve their teaching language careers. In addition, the impact of media on people, language and education is very much in the positive and progressive direction (Sharma & Mahavidhalaya, 2015).

Sirivedin et al. (2018) and Pitaloka et al., (2021) stated that social media like Facebook has a high effect on their usage of the English language and could significantly help teachers improve their writing skills, namely accuracy, meaningfulness, clarity, and relevance. It also effectively enhanced teachers’ English learning attributes, namely fluency, confidence, satisfaction, value, and self-efficacy belief. Bagci and Cihat (2018) pointed out that the acceptance and use of social networks for teaching purposes is high and the participants have a high acceptance for the use of them for teaching purposes.

Ulla (2020) also emphasized that the teachers responded positively to changes in the ELT landscape as they integrated these different applications in their classrooms. They seemed to be confident about the advantages these applications can bring into their teaching practices. Moreover, Allam and Elyas (2016) found in their study that participating EFL teachers do perceive social media as a vital pedagogical tool in the EFL classroom. Using social networking can offer direct benefits to both teacher educators and student teachers. It is also emphasized that this may help student teachers develop their reflective skills to look at their own teaching practices more constructively (Balcikanli, 2010).

De Jager et al. (2020) also discussed that English teachers often used social media for collaboration, networking, communication and out-of-school digital literacy practices as their initiatives. These digital initiatives lead to the utilization of digital connection platforms for socialization and teaching and learning English. Balcikanli (2015) believes that there was a significant and positive relationship between “Facebook adoption” and “educational use of Facebook”. Likewise, “purposes of Facebook users” were found to be positively associated with “educational use of Facebook”. Sirivedin et al. (2018) mentioned in the study that Facebook had a positive effect on English teachers’ English writing skills and learning attributes. Based on these results, Facebook can be a visionary, recommended platform for English learning. Jamshidian and Salehi (2020) showed in their meticulous review on the social media used by Iranian teachers and learners that social networking sites positively influence the process of the teaching and learning foreign languages.

Benefits of Social Media for the Students

The articles under review mentioned about the different benefits of social media to the learners. Social media strength is that it can be a source of information, language texts, and vocabularies (Cabrera, 2018) and it can also be used for getting general information, knowledge and increasing students’ language competency (Ismail, et. al., 2018). In addition, social media are useful for communication, connection and interaction, motivation, student engagement, and autonomy (Cabrera, 2018; Patel, 2015; Deerajviset, 2022; Novawan, et al., 2021; Khan and Faheem, 2016 & Thurairaj et al., 2015). For instance, Facebook as a platform can be used to exchange feedback with peers and teachers. Youtube, Facebook and Instagram for example are very useful media for English language learning and motivation (Deerajviset, 2022).

It appeared in the studies by Li, (2017) and Yunus, et al., (2012) that social media platforms are also used to promote 21st century skills, creative thinking skills and innovation in technology. It also helps to develop students` English language skills in terms of vocabularies, lexical variation, reading skills, communication skills, listening skills and speaking skills (Al Arif, 2019; Slim and Hefedh, 2019; Anwas, et,al., 2020; Sugiarto, et.al., 2021; Zarei and Rudravarafu, 2019; Pratiwi, et. al., 2021; Saha, 2019; Ismail & Shafie, 2018; Ilyas & Putri, 2020; Lakhal, 2022; Deerajviset, 2022; Tunde-Awe, 2015; Mabuan, 2018; Nanquil, 2020; Citrawati, et. al., 2021 & Okumura, 2016).

Ariantini (2021) and Jahromi (2020) also agreed that social media implementations in English learning have been argued to positively impact the students’ language skills, vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, spelling, motivation, as well as their creative and critical thinking. The utilization of social media has been perceived to have positively impacted learners’ writing style, reading skills, and communicative abilities.

Mismara (2019, Klimova and Pikhart, (2020) agreed that social media allows students to connect with their friends easily, to discuss common interests, to share ideas, and most of them feel entertained enough through these sites. This was supported by Alahmad (2020) saying that students can enjoy the comfort of using it which could be catered to their own needs and to a capability of it to provide them with a feeling of security. He confirmed for example that the Telegram today is almost an integral part of EFL college students’ daily lives.

The findings of the studies under review emphasized as well that social media play a vital role in learning the English language. Students use social media as a support system for learning and knowledge, to enhance their learning techniques and improve their English language academic performance (Bermudez, et. al., 2016; Rao, 2019; Alshenqueeti, 2018; Li, 2017; Kamnoetsin, 2014; Yadav, 2021; Katubkhanah Alsaied, 2017; Kaleng, et. al., 2016; Sozudogru, et. al., 2019; Poramathikul, et. al., 2020; Erzad & Suciati, 2018; Dogoriti, et. al., 2014; Liu, et. al., 2015; Abdulazis, 2020; Wang & Chen, 2013 & Mulyono, 2016).

Muico (2022), Patel (2015), Marleni and Asilestari (2018) and Desta et.al., (2021) also pointed out in their study that social media platforms have many advantages in improving learners’ English understanding in the process of EFL learning. It positively affects learners in improving their level of English proficiency and raising their scores in various language tasks.

Negative Impacts of Social Media Use for Teaching and Learning

There are also some disadvantages of social media in English language teaching and learning as appeared from a few articles. Social media can likewise have drawbacks and dangers that meddle in one’s learning of the English language. The internet-based social media destinations can be viable stages in giving cutting-edge data, an extensive measure of language input, connection with native language speakers, and imaginative learning. Social media can likewise occupy the language students with all their deception, unscholarly and ungrammatical content, disgusting language, and counterfeit sort of human association (Amin et al., 2020). Some research shows that learners with social media accounts, especially snapchat, are less enthusiastic about learning English, even if it means recreational reading (Abdulazis Al Fadda, 2020). It can also impact the way learners use the appropriate language. There are some weaknesses to integrate social networking tools into an ESL writing classroom. For instance, internet distraction and informal writing habits such as using short forms are regarded as the main challenges (Yunus, et al., 2012). Omoera et al. (2018) in their study on the impact of social media on the English language writing abilities of undergraduates in Nigeria, they have discovered that through social media, majority of the youths adopt a certain option/brand of English which cannot be located within the matrix of Standard English (SE) or even popular Nigerian English variant which is called Pidgin English (PE). Furthermore, Cabrera (2018) pointed out that social media can be a cause of learning distraction and time wastage. He even added that language differences can cause communication barriers and the rise of internet slang and subverting language can also be a threat.

Gagalang (2022) indicated in the result of her study that social media platforms (SMPs) were least used for educational purposes. Students showed positive reading attitudes emphasizing their accorded importance to reading and finding happiness to learn new things. However, as they managed to read posts daily, lesser inclination was accorded to productive reading attitudes such as finding time to read during vacant hours and having enthusiasm towards advanced reading and reading with friends. Boatis et al. (2020) pointed out that students` communication skills are being debilitated because using social media lessens face-to-face interactions when chatting and sharing posts. It also affects the way individuals react to emotions, social clues, or nonverbal cues on account that they can easily relate and adapt to the trends in social media. The respondents’ self-esteem and self-confidence also get affected when someone talks to them in a degrading way.

Allam and Elyas (2016) mentioned that though social media is preferred to be used by EFL teachers, there seems to be a subconcious barrier hindering the adoption of this important tool and that is the fear of misuse or distraction it may cause among some students even though some teachers do not perceive it that way. Additionally, there seems to be this widespread belief that current curriculums do not accommodate social media in the taught materials (e.g. textbooks). Cabrera (2018) pointed out that though social media have good impacts on learning, they can also have downsides and threats that interfere in one’s learning of sound English language. The internet-based social media sites can be effective platforms in providing up-to-date information, considerable amount of language input, interaction with native language speakers, and innovative learning. But the same media can also distract the language learners with all their misinformation, unscholarly and ungrammatical content, obscene language, and artificial kind of human interaction.

Conclusions Derived from the Studies Under Review

Based on the researcher`s analysis of the conclusions of the selected studies under review, there are advantages of social media use for both the teacher and the student. Ulla and Perales (2020); Akkara, et.al. (2020); Mulyono, (2016) pointed out that social media are effective and beneficial to teachers in facilitating English language teaching. This was supported by Jahromi (2020) who mentioned that social media can be utilized to make teaching more student-centered through facilitation of interactive collaboration. Yadav (2021) also added that social media might become a popular tool for English language teaching in the future. Hence, the use of social media should be welcomed in the educational institutions to facilitate teaching (Ghobadi & Taki, 2018) and it should be part of the learning context (Balcikanli, 2015). It is helpful for educators because it can foster English language teaching and can attract students` interest (Injarhanto & Leovani, 2022). Okumura (2016) concluded that the teacher of the English language recognizes already the importance of using social media like Edmodo in ESL teaching. Furthermore, topics about the integration of social media in education are being discussed as well in other foreign institutions just like in South Korea (Kim and Kim 2021).

Social media do have many benefits to students as mentioned in the selected articles. Social media have positive impact in English language learning and skills (Cabrera, 2018; Katubkhanah Alsaid, 2017; Ules, et. al., 2022; Xiuwen and Razali, 2021; Bulnes, 2022; Novawan, et al., 2020; Ismail & Shafie, 2018; and Citrawati, et. al., 2021). This was evident to the studies conducted by Ulla and Perales, 2020; Deerajviset, 2022; Mismara, 2019; Ismail and Shafie, 2019; mentioning that social media help to improve students` motivation, engagement, independence and autonomy. Slim and hafedh (2019), Ariantini et. al., (2021), Bulnes, (2022), Wang and Chen (2013), also concluded that students have positive attitude and perspective on social media use in learning. The improvement of the students` macro and micro skills through the use of social media were also emphasized.  Desta et al. (2021) and Al Arif (2019) mentioned that learners benefited from SM usage in terms of improving their macro (ie listening, speaking, reading and writing) and micro (ie grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation) English language skills. Social media have an impact on developing students` speaking and communication skills (Hasan Dirjal & Ghabanchi, 2020; Nguyen & Pham, 2022; Marleni & Asilestari, 2018; Mabuan, 2018; Pratiwi, et. al., 2021; Ilyas & Putri, 2020). Also, the students` reading and writing skills are also being enhanced through social media (Esman et. al., 2021; Kamnoetsin, 2014; Gagalang & Lakhal, 2022). Teves-Pinili and Ridad (2018) concluded as well that social networking sites may have a significant contribution in improving the grades of students in school if utilized responsibly. This is something that the English language institutions must realize in the development of Curriculum. Especially now that in this millennial era, students cannot be separated from the information and technology development and one of them is social media (Erzad & Suciati, 2018).

Suggestions and Recommendations Derived from the Reviewed Articles

There are suggestions and recommendations derived from the articles under review which can be worked on by the researchers for future studies. The suggestions for the teachers, curriculum developers and school administrators were also emphasized in the selected studies. It was proposed that teachers and students must train and have concrete knowledge, literacy level and skills on social media use (Cabrera, 2018; Li, 2017; Boatis, et.al., 2020; Nanquil, 2020; Yunus, et. al., 2012; De Jager, et. al., 2020). Social media will be used effectively in teaching and learning if the teachers and students are knowledgeable about it. Teachers can utilize media through knowledge sharing to encourage students` collaborative learning and motivation. Slim and Hafedh (2019); Bermudez et. al. (2016); Al Arif (2019);  Nguyen and Pham (2022); Xiuwen and Razali  (2021) and Khan (2016) also suggested that the English learning with the use of social media should be considered or included in the curriculum, lesson plan and in the school system of different institutions or universities. Social media must be introduced in the secondary schools just like what other countries have been doing and the learning management system for e-learning must be employed when designing a curriculum. Curriculum planners and policy makers must realize the importance and effectiveness of social media sources and must make it a part of the EFL learners’ education programs.

There are researches which suggest that there should be more studies to be conducted on various topics such as the specific roles and uses of social media in English language learning and teaching (Jamshidian & Salehi, 2020; Pitaloka et. al., 2021; Sirivedin, 2018 & Inayati, 2015) and social media contents especially Facebook (Klimova and Pikhart, 2019 & Kamnoetsin, 2014), the social media role in developing students` 21st century skills (Ariantini et. al., 2021), social media content that is contributory to ESL learning (Anwas, et.al., 2020 & Thurairaj et. al., 2015), teacher`s metacognitive awareness and students` learning achievement through social media (Balcikanli, 2010) and research on the effective implementation of social media at the level of course design (Hamza, 2018).

Jahromi (2020); Nguyen and Pham (2022); Hasan Dirjal and Gabanchi (2020); Alahmad (2020); and Zarei and Rudravarapu (2019) recommended that there must be means, proper ways and mechanisms on how to effectively use social media in teaching and learning. The educators should pay more attention to the process of employing social media applications in the educational domain and there must be a provision of mechanisms to ensure the effective utilization and employment of social media in the pedagogical practices in the English language. Lastly, the teachers and students therefore must really use or apply social media in the teaching and learning of the English language because it is useful (Patel, 2015; Dhanya, 2016; Muico, 2022; Nanquil, 2020; Dogoriti, et. al., 2014; Liu, et. al., 2015; Teves-Pinili and Ridad, 2018; Okumura, 2016; Tunde-Awe, 2015; Mismara, 2019).

Pedagogical Implications, Conclusions And Recommendations

The study found out that social media at present times play an important role in the English language teaching and learning. Exploring the use, content, feature and mechanism of these social networking sites can be beneficial to both teachers and students to attain quality education. This generation is definitely evolving through the presence of continuous development of technology and this emergence of social media made a greater impact to the agencies of society including education. The articles under review mentioned the various benefits of social media in English language teaching and learning in terms of skills development and academic improvement.

Based on careful investigation of the selected research, most teachers and students are said to have positive perspectives on the integration of social media in teaching and learning. Teachers find it useful in facilitating learning as they can use or access social media to obtain important information that they can incorporate in the discussion of their subjects and topics. Students on the other hand use to access social media sites in connection to research tasks and any other academic activities. In addition, students also find social media as an effective platform for communication and social interaction. The review also discovered that learners can also use it as a form of entertainment, motivation, engagement, autonomy and is taken as an important tool to connect with peers, friends and teachers.

From the analysis of the 75 selected and explored articles, the researcher found out that various articles emphasized more on the positive effects of social media in learning and only few of the negative effects appeared in the results of the review. This means that the ethical side and ethical use of social media can also be explored for future research.

Most of the articles under review dealt with the impacts of social media on teaching and learning in general and the perceptions of both teachers and students on the integration of social media in the classroom teaching. Majority of the articles give emphasis on the perceptions of the target population when it comes to its use but the analysis and elaborative configuration on the specific contents, creators, elements and features of social media are less emphasized. This is why it is suggested to have as well a study that will focus on the specific contents, creators, elements and features of social media like vlog and blog to enhance even further the quality, effectiveness and ethicality of social media use. It is also recommended to have more research not only dealing with the perceptions of students and teachers on social media use but also on the perceptions of other important entities and personalities such as the parents, curriculum designers and developers and even school administrators on the integration of social media in English language teaching and learning. Other areas that can be explored will be on the specific social media that are effective for teaching and the specific use of those media in learning as aligned to the design of the learning program or curriculum.

Moreover, this review found out that although social media are perceived by both students and teachers as effective means of teaching and learning, careful research and investigation about the responsible use of social media should also be considered in English language teaching and learning. This will even polish the effective application and integration of social networking sites to the system of English language education.

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