Submission Deadline-12th July 2024
June 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Deadline-20th July 2024
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

Inspection Strategies and Organizational Performance in Public Secondary School in Delta State, Nigeria

Inspection Strategies and Organizational Performance in Public Secondary School in Delta State, Nigeria

GINIGO, Millicent* & BIOKORO, Beauty O

Department of Educational Management and Foundations

Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.803063S

Received: 06 April 2024; Accepted: 15 April 2024; Published: 01 June 2024

ABSTRACT

This study examined inspection strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State. It was guided by three research questions and three hypotheses. The correlational survey method of the ex-post facto research design was adopted. The population was twelve thousand seven hundred and fifty-five thousand (12,755) principals and teachers in Delta State public secondary school. Adopting a stratified sampling technique, 637 respondents were sampled. A self-constructed research instrument titled “Inspection Strategies and Organisational Performance Questionnaire (ISOPQ) was used to solicit information from respondents. The instrument underwent face and content validity through scrutiny from three experts. To measure the internal consistency of the instrument, it was subjected to the Cronbach alpha reliability test and yielded a reliability index of .91. Data gathered from the field were analyzed using mean rating and standard deviation to provide answers to the research questions at a benchmark of 2.50. On the other hand, the hypotheses were tested using Pearson r at a 0.05 level of significance. SPSS 23 statistical package was used to compute data. Finding revealed that inspection strategies inspectors use to influence performance in public secondary schools in Delta State include full inspection, classroom visitation, feedback, curriculum innovation, routine inspection, development inspection, follow-up inspection, and check–up inspection. It was also discovered that full inspection, inspection visits, feedback and curriculum innovation were significantly related to organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State. Arising from the findings it was recommended that school principals should work on diversifying the inspection strategies used in their schools.

Keywords: Inspection strategies, organizational performance, secondary schools

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria, as an emerging state, depends on its secondary educational structure to facilitate the advancement of primary school graduates toward higher educational opportunities. Unlike tertiary institutions, where admission criteria often consider regional ties and allocation quotas, secondary education in Nigeria maintains impartiality regarding ethnicity and religion (Sofadekan, Adedayo Oyewole, 2018). Serving as an intermediate phase between primary and tertiary education, secondary schooling acts as a prerequisite for admission to higher learning institutions. In Nigeria, secondary education spans six years, consisting of three years each in Junior Secondary School (JSS) and Senior Secondary School (SSS).

Upon completing this six-year period, students generally undertake the Senior Secondary Certificate Exam (SSCE), conducted by WAEC, NECO, or NABTEB. This, in turn, mandates twelve years of education before individuals become eligible for admission to Colleges of Education, polytechnics, universities, and other tertiary institutions. Secondary education significantly guides individuals toward career paths, shaping their academic trajectories in areas such as arts, sciences, or social sciences, commonly referred to as the commercial sector (Detgen, Fernandez, McMahon, Johnson, & Dailey, 2021). Furthermore, the diverse curriculum offered in secondary schools aids in self-discovery by unveiling hidden talents and capabilities, such as artistic or athletic skills, through extracurricular activities.

Despite these aspirations, concerns persist regarding declining educational standards, particularly evident in public examinations and the inadequacy of graduates’ preparedness for the job market. For instance, FME (2023) reported below-par performance levels among candidates in examinations such as the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) between 2000 and 2006. Employers lament the insufficient skills and competencies of secondary school graduates, attributing this issue to various factors, including the quality of educational inputs and institutional processes (Ochuba, 2018). To tackle these challenges and uphold the objectives of education, a well-structured school system with robust supervision and inspection mechanisms is essential to ensure quality outcomes and meet societal development goals.

Wilcox (2011) provided a definition of inspection as the evaluation of the quality and/or performance of institutions, services, programs, and projects by external assessors (inspectors) who are not directly involved in them. These inspectors are usually designated explicitly for this purpose. Inspection represents a formal procedure of external assessment aimed at ensuring school accountability and fostering improvement. Historically, inspection has been synonymous with exerting control over the educational system and functioning as an executive branch of the government. Individuals responsible for inspections were predominantly administrative officials who conducted visits to educational institutions.

The federal inspectorate service under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Education takes direct responsibility for guaranteeing quality control and maintaining standards in public secondary schools across Nigeria. Inspection and supervision endeavors aim to enhance instructional methodologies in schools and uphold educational standards within any educational framework. In this context, the effectiveness and efficiency of inspection rely on the performance of the inspectorate division within the Ministry of Education.

Recognizing the crucial role of effective inspectorate and supervisory services in educational institutions, the Federal Government of Nigeria emphasized the need for adequate and efficient supervisory and inspectorate services in the National Policy on Education (2013). This policy assigns the responsibility of ensuring quality control and consistent standards in education to the Federal Ministry of Education (FME) and state-level Ministries of Education through Federal Inspectorate Services (FIS) at the federal level and Inspectorate Departments at the state level.

According to Ochuba (2009), the federal inspectorate service of both the Federal and State Ministries of Education is directly responsible for upholding quality control and standards in institutions below the tertiary level. This responsibility is reinforced by Decree 16 of August 20, 1985, which outlines objectives such as maintaining minimum standards in education nationwide, implementing a uniform system of education nationwide, introducing classroom innovations, and achieving quality education in Nigeria. The decline in the quality of education in the country necessitates quality control measures by the inspectorate department, which serves as the surveillance and quality control organ within both federal and state Ministries of Education.

Brown (2019) presented a definition of monitoring as “an intermittent series of observations over time conducted to demonstrate the extent of adherence to formulated standards or the degree of deviation from an expected norm,” whereas inspection involves the physical examination of a product or service to verify its conformity with predetermined standards. Within the Department of Education, the Inspectorate assumes responsibility for assessing primary and post-primary schools and education centers. Inspectors also offer guidance on various educational matters to school communities, department policymakers, and the broader educational system. All inspectors have teaching experience, with many having served as school principals, deputy principals, or advisors in school support services. Some possess expertise in curriculum development, assessment practices, school administration, and educational research. Inspection methodologies focus on the administrative procedures essential for formulating a comprehensive in-service inspection blueprint for institutions (Straub and Faber, 2015). This blueprint entails scrutinizing organizational units, issues, or practices to ascertain their adherence to normative standards, optimal practices, or other benchmarks, and offering suggestions for improvement or corrective measures. During inspection and monitoring visits, personnel are responsible for overseeing program delivery, classroom capacity, teaching methodologies in larger classes, environmental conditions, and course content delivery. The Commission conducts inspections and monitors university activities through various departments tailored to the specific activities under review, aiming to ensure compliance with established standards, optimal practices, or other benchmarks, and providing recommendations for enhancement or corrective measures. Inspection initiatives consistently strive to uphold and enhance the quality of student learning, thereby maximizing organizational efficiency.

Efficient organizations operate akin to finely-tuned, well-functioning mechanisms, with each element contributing to achieving desired outcomes effectively, while minimizing resource wastage (Sackmann, 2021). Organizational performance serves as a contemporary gauge for steering organizations toward their objectives, a concern shared by students, parents, teachers, and authorities in schools across Delta State. The conceptualization of organizational performance encompasses various terms such as school readiness, academic achievement, and school performance, often used interchangeably. However, these differences in terminology are largely semantic, with organizational performance typically applied to school populations and school performance to both regular and alternative basic education settings (Martinez, Frongillo, Leung, & Ritchie, 2018).

Numerous authors assert that organizational performance results from learning prompted by teaching activities and manifested by students (Martinez, 2017). School organizational performance entails meeting goals, achievements, and objectives set forth in a student’s program or course, often reflected in grades derived from assessments. Therefore, the objective of organizational performance in Delta State schools is to attain educational objectives and foster a rich learning experience.

Organizational performance encompasses multiple components, including learning processes promoted by schools, which involve transforming existing states into new ones with cognitive and structural elements (Taylor, 2021). Performance varies based on circumstances, organic and environmental conditions, and factors such as intellectual level, personality, motivation, skills, interests, study habits, self-esteem, and teacher-student relationships. Divergent performance occurs when there is a gap between organizational performance and expected student performance, often linked to teaching methodologies (Marti, 2013). Inspection strategies become imperative in such instances, requiring the assistance of inspectorate personnel to address the situation. However, the Inspectorate division grapples with several challenges, including inadequate funding, transportation constraints, and a shortage of inspectors. Ogunu (2020) noted that 88% of respondents identified insufficient inspector numbers as a significant impediment to school inspection. Additionally, the quality of personnel recruited into the inspectorate poses a concern, potentially stemming from a lack of recruitment and deployment policies.

Statement of the Problem

The primary objective of inspection is to enhance the educational standard within schools by meticulously examining and evaluating their role as hubs for educational activities. With a focus on monitoring and assessing academic performance and school advancement, inspection efforts persistently strive to enrich the quality of student learning. Its overarching goal is to address all factors influencing teaching and learning within educational systems. Scholars underscore that school inspection within the education sector aims to ensure teachers adhere to efficacious approaches. Specifically in government-operated secondary schools, inspection endeavors to ensure administrators and teachers adopt suitable strategies to impact organizational efficacy.

Unfortunately, school inspection has encountered criticism from scholars for perceived deficiencies in enhancing organizational performance in government secondary schools in Delta State. Research suggests that certain inspection tactics employed may be inadequate and ineffective, falling short of enhancing performance or improving the quality of education delivered. Moreover, these strategies may not adequately align with national educational objectives, provide feedback to the government on educational practices, cultivate responsibility and accountability in education, regulate the educational milieu, or fully unleash students’ potential for societal engagement.

However, education stakeholders argue that there exists a skewed perception regarding the efficacy of school inspection strategies and their outcomes, particularly in contributing to quality improvement and academic performance. Consequently, the researcher aims to investigate inspection approaches and their influence on organizational performance in government-operated secondary schools in Delta State.

Research Questions

To achieve the purpose of the study, the following questions guided the study:

  1. What inspection strategies do inspectors use to influence organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?
  2. What is the level of organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?
  3. In what ways do inspection strategies influence the organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between inspection strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.
  2. There is no significant relationship between full inspection and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.
  3. There is no significant relationship between inspection visits and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Concept of Organizational Performance

The evaluation of organizational effectiveness pertains to how effectively an entity is progressing toward its vision, mission, and objectives. Assessing organizational performance stands as a crucial component of strategic management. Decision-makers must ascertain the efficacy of their organizations to discern any necessary strategic adjustments. According to Lee (2021), performance is a multifaceted concept, requiring meticulous attention to assessment methodologies. Two pivotal considerations encompass (1) performance metrics and (2) performance benchmarks; wherein, a performance metric serves as a yardstick to measure organizational performance. While executives commonly scrutinize metrics such as profits, stock prices, and sales to gauge market competitiveness, these metrics offer only a partial view of organizational performance. Performance benchmarks are equally imperative for evaluating organizational well-being. A performance benchmark serves as a reference point to contextualize an organization’s position relative to a performance metric.

Managers, administrators, and inspectors, among others, are invested in assessing organizational performance, which embodies the collective outcomes of an organization’s operational processes and endeavors. It constitutes a multifaceted yet indispensable concept, necessitating an understanding of the determinants contributing to superior organizational performance (Nakiyemba, 2017). These stakeholders aspire not to steer their organizations toward mediocrity but rather to cultivate environments conducive to achieving exemplary performance levels, irrespective of the mission, strategies, or objectives pursued. They engage in measuring and regulating organizational performance as it correlates with enhanced asset management, heightened capacity to deliver value to customers, and enhanced metrics of organizational proficiency. Moreover, assessments of organizational performance significantly impact an organization’s reputation. Leaders in successful enterprises regularly engage in asset management endeavors aimed at maximizing the organization’s value. Given the imperative of achieving and sustaining high levels of organizational performance, leaders continually seek strategies to enhance asset management practices, ensuring alignment with key performance indicators scrutinized by internal and external stakeholders. The significance of attaining superior organizational performance, both in the immediate and long term, impels leaders to explore avenues for optimizing asset management practices, thereby positioning their organizations for sustained success.

Organizations aspire to cultivate favorable reputations among various stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, competitors, and the community. The symbiotic relationship between an organization’s financial performance and its reputation is evident. While the causal relationship between the two may not always be explicit, it is indisputable that a strong reputation typically correlates with robust financial metrics such as earnings growth and total return. Employees within organizations must actively disseminate their expertise and leverage collective knowledge to drive improvements in work methodologies, processes, or products, thereby fostering superior organizational performance.

 There exist three methodologies for assessing organizational performance. Commonly utilized metrics encompass productivity, organizational efficiency, and organizational positioning. Among the frequently employed metrics for assessing organizational performance are productivity, effectiveness, and industry standings. Productivity refers to the overall yield of goods or services produced in relation to the resources expended in their production. Organizations aspire to achieve heightened productivity levels (Gibbs, Mengel, and Siemroth, 2021), aiming to maximize output while minimizing input expenditure. Output is quantified by the revenue generated from the sale of goods and services (selling price x units sold), whereas input encompasses the costs associated with acquiring and transforming organizational resources into outputs. Management endeavors to bolster productivity by curtailing input costs and augmenting output prices (selling price), thereby enhancing efficiency in executing organizational tasks. Hence, organizational productivity serves as a gauge of employees’ effectiveness in performing their duties (Abusweilem & Abualoush, 2019).

Organizational Effectiveness serves as an indicator of the alignment between organizational objectives and their attainment. It constitutes a prevalent performance metric employed by managerial personnel (Sharma and Singh, 2019). Various conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness have been proposed by management scholars. For instance, the systems resource model posits that effectiveness hinges on the organization’s capacity to harness its environment to acquire scarce and valuable resources. The process model accentuates the organization’s conversion processes, assessing its proficiency in translating inputs into desired outputs. Conversely, the multiple constituencies model advocates for the adoption of diverse effectiveness measures reflecting the criteria of the organization’s stakeholders. These may include customers, advocacy groups, suppliers, and security analysts, each assessing organizational performance through distinct lenses. Despite the validity of these different effectiveness models in gauging specific facets of organizational effectiveness, managers ultimately prioritize the organization’s ability to achieve its objectives. This guides managerial decision-making concerning strategy formulation, work processes, activities, and employee coordination.

 Industry ranking entails the evaluation of organizations based on specific performance criteria. For instance, Fortune’s Top Performing Companies within the Fortune 500 are determined by financial indicators such as profits, return on revenue, and return on shareholder equity, alongside growth metrics spanning 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years, as well as revenue-related benchmarks such as revenues per employee, per dollar of assets, and per dollar of equity. Industry Week’s Best Managed Plants are appraised based on organizational achievements and demonstrations of superior management competencies across various domains including financial performance, innovation, leadership, globalization, alliances and partnerships, employee welfare and training, and community engagement (Kamauff, Smith, and Spekman, 2011). Thus, diverse agencies employ varying parameters or metrics to evaluate and rank the performance of organizations within industries.

To achieve optimal performance, educational institutions must be responsive to the needs and expectations of students and adept at devising and implementing policies that reflect these demands. Consequently, the evaluation of school performance revolves around two overarching dimensions: responsiveness and efficacy. Managing performance within the realm of education often revolves around individual aptitude and capability. Factors such as beliefs, values, expertise, personality traits, motivation, emotional well-being, and intellectual capacities play crucial roles in determining proficiency and competence (Nair and Fahimirad, 2019). Individuals’ beliefs significantly influence their behavior; those who perceive themselves as lacking creativity or innovation tend to refrain from exploring novel approaches to problem-solving. In the context of secondary education, educators’ primary proficiency lies not only in acquiring knowledge but also in effectively conveying it to students. It is imperative for educators to ensure that instructional materials are comprehensible and memorable to students, enabling them to both comprehend and retain the knowledge imparted. This aspect is closely tied to educators’ presentation skills, encompassing both verbal and non-verbal behaviors, which must align with the needs of learners.

INSPECTION STRATEGIES USED BY INSPECTORS TO INFLUENCE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

School inspection entails the official scrutiny and assessment of educational operations within schools to verify their compliance with established benchmarks. It encompasses the monitoring and appraisal of academic endeavors within educational institutions, highlighting its focus on upholding teaching and learning standards within the educational framework. Sharma and Singh (2019) perceive school inspection as a sequence of interventions wherein the inspectorate units of education ministries offer guidance, support, and counsel to schools, aiming to enhance organizational efficacy through the assessment of human and material resources, thereby ensuring standards are upheld and remedial measures are taken when necessary. They further assert that school inspection serves purposes such as securing government endorsement, effecting operational enhancements, validating programs, and responding to exigencies. Various methodologies are employed by school inspectors during the inspection process.

1. Supervisory Feedback: School inspectors are tasked with providing feedback to both governmental authorities and school stakeholders. They evaluate schools against quality standards and identify strengths and weaknesses based on performance. Wilcox, Murakami-Ramalho, and Urick (2011) conducted a study on the “response to intervening framework,” revealing various perspectives on how feedback from school inspections can contribute to school improvement. Public secondary schools that receive feedback from inspections tend to enhance their functioning, thereby improving organizational performance. Additionally, scholars argue that theories on schools as learning entities and school improvement support the role of performance feedback in driving change. Hence, feedback can facilitate improvements in teaching and learning by offering insights into strengths and weaknesses.

Kanjee (2020) advocates for self-assessment and evaluation in schools as a means to provide feedback. Educators must perceive feedback as relevant, clear, and accurate for it to be effective. Wilcox et al. (2011), as cited by Kanjee (2020), suggest that feedback from school inspectors is more likely to be utilized if teachers are involved in recommendations and if schools receive adequate support. Inspectors must possess a comprehensive knowledge base and a thorough understanding of school operations. They emphasize that schools facing challenging circumstances require tailored feedback strategies.

2. School/Classroom Visits: During school inspections, it is customary for inspectors to visit classrooms to observe teaching practices. Inspectors are tasked with providing ongoing professional development, monitoring, reviewing, and assessing students’ progress. Since teaching and learning are core functions of teachers, inspectors primarily focus on evaluating classroom activities. Caillier (2020) argues that it is imperative for inspectors to observe classroom activities to ensure teachers adhere to standards and students receive appropriate learning experiences. Thus, all stakeholders in education must ensure students receive quality education, making school inspection an invaluable source of information for achieving this objective. Caillier (2020) further contends that school inspection serves both as an accountability tool and a catalyst for organizational performance. This underscores the need to review instructional methods to effectively impact organizational performance.

METHODOLOGY

This study employed the correlational survey approach within the ex-post facto research framework. The aim was to ascertain the connection between an independent factor and a dependent factor, rendering it correlational in nature. Nworgu (2006) delineated correlational investigation as a form of inquiry aimed at establishing the linkage or impact existing among two or more variables. The demographic consisted of twelve thousand seven hundred and fifty-five (12,755) administrators and educators within the public secondary school system of Delta State. Delta State comprises 25 municipal areas housing 465 public secondary educational institutions.

The study’s sampling comprised six hundred and thirty-seven (637) instructors, constituting approximately 5% of the total secondary school teaching cohort in the region. This subset included 330 female educators out of 6598 female counterparts and 307 male educators out of 6157 male counterparts, reflecting 5% representation from the overall populace. The sample was drawn from both urban and rural educational institutions across designated municipal areas. Employing a stratified sampling methodology, schools were categorized into senatorial districts and municipal regions. Subsequently, a random selection process was enacted through simple balloting to designate schools from each senatorial district and municipal area. This ensured equitable representation across all districts and regions. A total of 43 secondary schools were chosen at random for inclusion in the study, with 307 male and 330 female teachers from each municipal area.

An internally developed research tool entitled “Survey on Examination Strategies and Organizational Effectiveness (SESOE)” was utilized to collect data from participants. The survey is partitioned into two segments. Section A was utilized to collect data on respondents’ demographic factors, while section B is further divided into subsections B (i) through B (iii). Section B (i) comprises data pertaining to examination strategies employed by inspectors, consisting of eight (8) items. Section B (ii) encompasses data regarding organizational effectiveness levels, comprising sixteen (16) items. Employing a four-point scale, items in subsections were rated as Strongly Agreed (SA) = 4 points, Agreed (A) = 3 points, Disagreed (D) = 2 points, and Strongly Disagreed (SD) = 1 point.

RESULTS

Research Question 1: What inspection strategies do inspectors use to influence organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?

Table 1: Mean scores on inspection strategies inspectors use to influence organizational performance

S/N Inspection Strategies Mean SD Remarks
1. Full inspection 2.96 .81 Agree
2. Check–up inspection 2.96 .81 Agree
3. Follow-up inspection 2.97 .81 Agree
4. Curriculum innovation 2.99 .81 Agree
5. Routine inspection 2.99 .82 Agree
6. Classroom visitation 3.01 .82 Agree
7. Feedback 3.04 .82 Agree
8. Development inspection 3.06 .84 Agree

Table 1 displayed the average ratings concerning the inspection strategies employed by inspectors to impact organizational performance. It is evident from the table that all listed strategies garnered mean scores surpassing 2.50. Therefore, the inspection strategies utilized by inspectors to enhance performance in Delta State’s public secondary schools encompass full inspection, classroom visitation, feedback provision, curriculum innovation, routine inspection, developmental inspection, follow-up inspection, and check-up inspection.

Research Question 2: What is the level of organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?

Table 2: Mean scores on the level of organizational performance

S/N Level of Organizational Performance Mean SD Remarks
1. Promoting a conducive atmosphere for learning 2.99 .81 High
2. Holding other teachers to high principles 3.03 .82 High
3. Teachers responsiveness to students’ academic demands 3.02 .81 High
4. Teachers’ exposure to professional training 3.00 .81 High
5. School environment motivation to students’ application of new knowledge 2.97 .82 High
6. Presentation of lecture in a logical manner 3.06 .80 High
7. Teachers’ positive contribution to the work environment 3.04 .79 High
8. Teachers job productivity 3.01 .82 High
9. Collaboration among teachers 3.06 .81 High
10. Clear communication channels in the school 3.03 .82 High
11. Teachers enthusiastic attitude to get things done 2.96 .83 High
12. Teachers work proactively 3.03 .81 High
13. Teachers’ positive influence on their colleagues 3.02 .82 High
14. Mutual respect among teachers 3.01 .81 High
15. Responsive use of curriculum 2.92 .82 High
16. Meet the needs of individual students 3.06 .83 High
Average mean 3.01 .81 High

Table 2 illustrates the average ratings regarding the degree of organizational performance. Participants consistently rated all items highly, with mean scores exceeding the 2.50 threshold. The overall mean score of 3.01, coupled with a standard deviation of .81, indicates a high level of organizational performance within Delta State’s public secondary schools.

Research Question 3: In what ways do inspection strategies influence the organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State?

Table 3: Mean scores on inspection strategies influence the organizational performance

S/N Inspection strategies influence organizational performance Mean SD Remarks
1. Inspectors identify potentially hazardous situations 3.03 .81 Agree
2. Listens to teachers’ concerns 3.02 .82 Agree
3. Reports everything to management 3.01 .82 Agree
4. Make recommendations when needed 2.96 .79 Agree
5. Identify underlying issues 3.00 .80 Agree
6. Establish an interactive atmosphere with teachers 2.97 .80 Agree
7. Inspection strategies help in policy formation 2.99 .81 Agree
8. Inspection strategies improve curriculum 2.98 .80 Agree
9. Inspection strategies help to correct school errors 3.02 .79 Agree
10. Inspection strategies improve resource facilities 2.99 .83 Agree
11. Classroom visitation helps to introduce new teaching methods 3.02 .82 Agree
12. Feedback inspection contributes greatly to the organisational performance 3.00 .80 Agree
13. Inspection visit leads to a positive impact on teaching strategies 2.99 .81 Agree
14. Inspection visit leads to a positive impact on developing professional performance 3.01 .79 Agree
15. Inspection visit provides teachers with the skills needed for effective teaching 2.98 .80 Agree

Table 3 exhibited the average ratings concerning the impact of inspection strategies on organizational performance. According to the table, all items received agreement ratings from respondents, with mean scores surpassing the 2.50 benchmark. In summary, inspection strategies exert influence on organizational performance by detecting potential risks, attentively addressing teachers’ concerns, communicating all observations to management, offering recommendations as necessary, identifying underlying issues, fostering interactive environments with teachers, contributing to policy development, enhancing curricula, rectifying school deficiencies, enhancing resource facilities, introducing innovative teaching methods, positively affecting teaching approaches, enhancing professional competence, and equipping teachers with effective teaching skills.

Hypotheses Testing

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between inspection strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

Table 4: Pearson r on inspection strategies and organizational performance

Inspection Strategies Organizational Performance
Inspection Strategies Pearson Correlation 1 .742
Sig. (2-tailed) .322
N 571 571
Organizational Performance Pearson Correlation .742 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .322
N 571 571

The table exhibits the Pearson correlation analysis for Hypothesis 1, which aims to explore the importance of the relationship between examination strategies and organizational effectiveness in public secondary schools in Delta State. The data reveals a notable positive correlation between these variables, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.742 and a p-value (Sig.) of 0.322. This indicates that the correlation holds statistical significance at the conventional significance level of 0.05. Consequently, the null hypothesis, positing no significant relationship between examination strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, was refuted. Therefore, a significant relationship exists between examination strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between full inspection and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

Table 5: Pearson r on full inspection and organizational performance

Full Inspection Organizational Performance
Full Inspection Pearson Correlation 1 .603
Sig. (2-tailed) .013
N 571 571
Organizational Performance Pearson Correlation .603 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .013
N 571 571

The Table exhibits the Pearson correlation analysis for Hypothesis 2, which seeks to explore the importance of the relationship between comprehensive inspection and organizational effectiveness in public secondary schools in Delta State. The data reveals a notable positive correlation between these variables, as evidenced by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.603 and a p-value (Sig.) of 0.013. This suggests that the correlation holds statistical significance at the conventional significance level of 0.05. Consequently, the null hypothesis, which contends that there is no significant relationship between comprehensive inspection and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, was dismissed. Thus, a significant relationship exists between comprehensive inspection and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between inspection visits and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

Table 6: Pearson r on inspection visits and organizational performance

Inspection Visits Organizational Performance
Inspection Visits Pearson Correlation 1 .843
Sig. (2-tailed) .302
N 571 571
Organizational Performance Pearson Correlation .843 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .302
N 571 571

Table 6 displays the Pearson correlation analysis for Hypothesis 3, aimed at exploring the importance of the relationship between inspection visits and organizational effectiveness in public secondary schools in Delta State. The data reveals a significant positive correlation between these variables, indicated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.843 and a p-value (Sig.) of 0.302. This suggests that the correlation holds statistical significance at the conventional significance level of 0.05. Consequently, the null hypothesis, asserting no significant relationship between inspection visits and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, was rejected. Therefore, a significant relationship exists between inspection visits and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State.

DISCUSSION

Inspection Strategies Inspectors Use

Findings show that inspection strategies inspectors use to influence performance in public secondary schools in Delta State include full inspection, classroom visitation, feedback, curriculum innovation, routine inspection, development inspection, follow-up inspection, and check–up inspection. These inspection strategies are deeply rooted in the acknowledgement that a well-rounded evaluation process is essential for fostering continuous improvement in the educational landscape of public secondary schools in Delta State. Each strategy serves a specific purpose and collectively contributes to the enhancement of teaching quality, student learning experiences, and overall school effectiveness. This finding is in agreement with Gaertner et al., (2013) who found that schools that were inspected more frequently showed greater improvements in student achievement than schools that were inspected less frequently. Similarly, Gustafsson et al. (2015) found that schools that received more comprehensive feedback from inspectors were more likely to implement changes that led to improved student outcomes. These findings suggest that the inspection strategies used by inspectors are likely to have a positive impact on school performance. The finding is in disagreement with a study by Maarten Penninckx (2017) whose finding indicated that there was no significant difference in student achievement between schools that were inspected more frequently and schools that were inspected less frequently. Similarly, a study by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) (2012) found that the impact of inspections on school performance was small and inconsistent. These studies suggest that the relationship between inspections and school performance is complex and that there may be other factors at play, such as the quality of the inspection process and the characteristics of the schools being inspected.

Inspection Strategies Influence Organizational Performance

Findings show that inspection strategies influence organizational performance through the identification of potentially hazardous situations, listening to teacher’s concerns, reporting everything to management, making recommendations when needed, identifying underlying issues, establishing an interactive atmosphere with teachers, helping in policy formation, improving curriculum, correcting school errors, improves resource facilities, introduce new teaching methods, positive impact on teaching strategies, developing professional performance and provide teachers with the skills needed for effective teaching. This is because inspection strategies provide a framework for schools to evaluate their current performance and identify areas for improvement. By identifying potentially hazardous situations, inspectors can help schools to prevent accidents and injuries. Finding agree with Matthews and Sammons (2014) who discovered that by listening to teachers’ concerns, inspectors can gain valuable insights into the challenges that teachers face and the needs of their students. This finding is in line with the work of Harris and Ingle (2004) found that schools that received more comprehensive feedback from inspectors were more likely to implement changes that led to improved student outcomes.

Similarly, Marvel (2015) found that schools that were inspected more frequently showed greater improvements in student achievement than schools that were inspected less frequently. These findings suggest that inspection strategies can play a valuable role in helping schools to identify areas for improvement and implement changes that lead to better student outcomes.  The finding agrees with Salahu (2020) who found that inspection is not a silver bullet for school improvement but effective inspection requires a well-trained and experienced inspectorate, as well as a school culture that is receptive to feedback and change. The finding agree with Podolsky and Kini (2019) that found  schools that had been inspected twice in a row were more likely to improve their student outcomes than schools that had only been inspected once. This suggests that the impact of inspection strategies can be cumulative and that schools can benefit from being inspected regularly. The finding is in line with Nonaka and Takeuchi (2015) who found that inspection strategies can be a valuable tool for helping organizations to break down silos and create a culture of continuous learning. The finding is in accordance with Mintzberg. (2014) who argues that inspection can be a crucial tools for helping organizations to develop more flexible and adaptive strategies.

Level of Organizational Performance

The finding shows that the level of organizational performance was high in public secondary schools in Delta State. This is so because it is an indicative of a commitment to continuous improvement. Schools in Delta State likely engage in regular assessments, data-driven decision-making, and strategic planning to identify areas for enhancement and innovation. The finding is in agreement with Fullan (2015) who found that schools with a strong commitment to continuous improvement were more likely to experience significant and sustained improvements in student outcomes. Similarly, Dufour (2014) found that schools that engage in regular data-driven decision-making were more likely to close achievement gaps and improve student learning.

This finding is also in line with Ile and Mekuri-Ndimele, (2021) in their study discovered that the organizational performance of teachers in public secondary schools involves various aspects that contribute to the overall effectiveness and success of the educational institution. The finding also agree with Anderson and Taner (2023), a teacher’s primary responsibilities in terms of organisational performance in secondary schools include a number of crucial facets. This finding agree with  Ikeda and Echazarra (2020), who found that teachers must first provide high-quality instruction that complies with curricular standards to  improve organisational performance. They must also use effective teaching strategies and methodologies. This findings is in line with Huber and Helm (2020) and Asiyai (2020) whose study found strong topic and content knowledge and the ability to create and carry out lesson plans that meet the needs of a variety of students that are prerequisites to higher performance. In addition, the finding is in accordance with Johari and Yahya (2018) who reported that teachers are essential in evaluating students’ progress and offering helpful criticism to foster their intellectual development, hence increase their professional performance. They are responsible for assigning and marking homework, conveying student performance to parents and students, and conducting assessments. The study of Lucianetti et al. (2019) supports this finding in establishing that teachers who give a supportive learning environment and practising good classroom management, enhance the performance of the entire organisation.

CONCLUSION

Conclusively, the findings indicate a significant positive relationship between inspection strategies and organizational performance in public secondary schools in Delta State, highlighting the vital role of inspection in school improvement. These strategies encompass various components, including full inspection, classroom visitation, feedback, curriculum innovation, routine inspection, development inspection, follow-up inspection, and check-up inspection, collectively contributing to enhanced performance. Full inspection, in particular, plays a crucial role in boosting organizational performance, emphasizing the value of comprehensive assessments.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings the following were recommended:

  1. School principals should work on diversifying the inspection strategies used in their schools. This could involve a combination of full inspections, classroom visitation, feedback mechanisms, curriculum innovation, routine inspections, development inspections, follow-up inspections, and check-up inspections. A variety of strategies can provide a comprehensive view of the school’s performance and areas for improvement.
  2. Given the significant relationship between full inspections and organizational performance, school principals should place a strong emphasis on ensuring that full inspections are conducted thoroughly and regularly. This can help identify issues and areas of improvement more effectively.

REFERENCES

  1. Abusweilem, M., and Abualoush, S. (2019). The impact of knowledge management process and business intelligence on organizational performance. Management Science Letters, 9(12), 2143–2156
  2. Alghamdi, J., and Holland, C. (2020). A comparative analysis of policies, strategies and programmes for information and communication technology integration in education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Ireland. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 4721–4745. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10169-5
  3. Anderson, J., and Taner, G. (2023). Building the expert teacher prototype: A metasummary of teacher expertise studies in primary and secondary education. Educational Research Review, 38(2), 100485–100485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2022.100485
  4. Asiyai, A. A. (2020). Relational study of chemistry teachers’ content knowledge and their teaching effectiveness in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. ATBU Journal of Science, Technology and Education, 8(2), 323-334.
  5. Brown, R. (2019). Joint Nature Conservation Committee Statutory Adviser to UK Government and Devolved Administrations. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-2268
  6. Dalkıran, E. (2015). Analysis of the relationship between the self-assessment and examination performance and test performance effect of test anxiety. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 1(4), 1132–1141. https://doi.org/10.24289/ijsser.279123
  7. Detgen, A., Fernandez, F., McMahon, A., Johnson, L., and Dailey, C. R. (2021). Efficacy of a College and Career Readiness Program: Bridge to Employment. The Career Development Quarterly, 69(3), 231–247. https://doi.org/10.1002/cdq.12270
  8. Dillard, J., and Vinnari, E. (2019). Critical dialogical accountability: From accounting-based accountability to accountability-based accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 62(6), 16–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpa.2018.10.003
  9. Dobbelaer J., Prins M. J., F., and van Dongen, D. (2013). The impact of feedback training for inspectors. European Journal of Training and Development, 37(1), 86–104. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090591311293301
  10. Docheva, M., Gaftandzhieva, S., and Doneva, R. (2020). Model for quality evaluation in secondary education. EDULEARN Proceedings, 14(3), 3745–3755. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2020.1031
  11. Duxbury, S. W., and Haynie, D. L. (2020). School suspension and social selection: Labeling, network change, and adolescent, academic achievement. Social Science Research, 85(5), 102365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2019.102365
  12. Ehren, M. C. M., Altrichter, H., McNamara, G., and O’Hara, J. (2019). Impact of school inspections on improvement of schools—describing assumptions on causal mechanisms in six European countries. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 25(1), 3–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-012-9156-4
  13. Gaertner, H., Wurster, S., and Pant, H. A. (2013). The effect of school inspections on school improvement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25(4), 489–508. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2013.811089
  14. Gibbs, M., Mengel, F., and Siemroth, C. (2021). Work from Home and Productivity: Evidence from Personnel and Analytics Data on IT Professionals. SSRN Electronic Journal1, 15(3). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3843197
  15. Lee, C. (2021). Factors influencing the credibility of performance measurement in nonprofits. International Review of Public Administration, 26(2), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/12294659.2021.1884342
  16. Maarten Penninckx. (2017). Effects and side effects of school inspections: A general framework. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 52(5), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.06.006.
  17. Martinez, S. M., Frongillo, E. A., Leung, C., and Ritchie, L. (2018). No food for thought: Food insecurity is related to poor mental health and lower academic performance among students in California’s public university system. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(12), 1930–1939. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318783028
  18. Martínez-Otero, V. (2017). Los adolescentes ante el estudio. Causas y consecuencias del rendimiento académico. Madrid: Fundamentos.
  19. Ochuba, V.O. (2018). Participant’s perception about the effectiveness of a federal Ministry of Education workshop on capacity building for inspectors of Education in Nigeria, Benin Journal of Gender Studies, I(1), 76-85.
  20. Ogunu, M.A. (2020). Problem of School Inspection in Nigeria in Current Issues in Education Management in Nigeria N.A Nwagu, ET, Ehiametalor, N.A. Ogunu and Mon Nwadiani (Eds), NEAP: 270-281. 33
  21. Sharma, N., and Singh, R. K. (2019). A unified model of organizational effectiveness. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 6(2), 114–128. https://doi.org/10.1108/joepp-10-2018-0084
  22. Wilcox, K. A., Murakami-Ramalho, E., and Urick, A. (2011). Just-in-time pedagogy: Teachers’ perspectives on the response to intervention framework. Journal of Research in Reading, 36(1), 75–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2011.01494.x

 

Article Statistics

Track views and downloads to measure the impact and reach of your article.

2

PDF Downloads

[views]

Metrics

PlumX

Altmetrics

Paper Submission Deadline

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.