Submission Deadline-30th July 2024
July 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Deadline-20th July 2024
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

Junior Secondary School Administrative Management and Achievement of Competence Based Curriculum Core Competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

Junior Secondary School Administrative Management and Achievement of Competence Based Curriculum Core Competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

Dr. Luke Murithi Kathenya

Tharaka University- Kenya

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.804278

Received: 23 March 2024; Revised: 16 April 2024; Accepted: 23 April 2024; Published: 25 May 2024

ABSTRACT

The study investigated influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum (CBC) core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. Junior secondary schools (JSS) in Kenya are all domiciled in primary schools. The existing primary schools and junior secondary schools form comprehensive schools comprising: Early childhood education and development (ECDE), primary schools and junior secondary schools all under the same administrative management. The ministry of education Kenya emphasizes development of practical skills, knowledge and core competences in learners’ reallife situation in all comprehensive schools. However, junior secondary school administrative management is insufficiently implemented; rising concern on acquisition of core competences by JSS learners in Kenyan comprehensive schools. The objective of the study was to determine influence of junior secondary school administrative management on learners’ achievement of CBC core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. It involved 367 respondents selected from 8000 study population using purposive and simple random techniques. The study employed descriptive design. The study respondents were: Junior secondary school teachers, comprehensive school head teachers and junior secondary school learners. The research tools utilized were questionnaires for junior secondary school teachers, comprehensive school head teachers and junior secondary school learners. Inferential data was analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test. The study established that junior secondary school administrative management had statistical significant influence on learners’ achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. Following study findings, the researcher concluded that junior secondary school administrative management is a valuable element in learners’ achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Kenya. Therefore, the researcher recommended that ministry of education should promote effective junior secondary school administrative management for proper learners’ achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Keys words: Junior secondary school, School administrative management, Competence based curriculum and Core competencies

INTRODUCTION

The study tended to address the issue regarding influence of the current junior secondary school administrative management on learners’ achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Kenya. Competence based curriculum emphasizes development of practical skills, knowledge and core competences in learners’ real-life situation, in Kenya. The government of Kenya (2020) has enhanced learners’ development in CBC core competences such as communication and collaboration, creativity and imagination, critical thinking and problem solving, digital literacy, citizenship, learning to learn and self-efficacy. The ministry of education (2019) embarked on curriculum reforms that enhanced implementation of competency-based curriculum from all levels of education. The government of Kenya (2020) ensured policy objectives for education, training and research that meet aspirations of Kenya vision 2030, Kenya constitution 2010, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal and the regional and Global conventions to which Kenya is a signatory. According to Maxwell (2016), a case study on in-service education of teachers, involving 207 respondents suggested that core competences in competence-based curriculum are structured learning experiences that combine administrative experiences with mentored preparations and reflections in education management. According Tedesco, (2015) descriptive study comprising 429 respondents in South Africa on the curriculum and educational reforms; integration of core competences in administrative management, provides learners with life skills that benefit the community and society as a whole. CBC core competences support teachers to integrate education, learning and humanity in managing school administration. A related survey study by Muller (2016) comprising 402 participants on junior schools administration suggested that acquisition of learners’ core competences is enhanced by effective school administration; educating teachers about topics of public interest that aims to create awareness and action on some issues that impacts administrative management in various junior schools. According to Lassningg (2015) descriptive study involving 363 respondents on managing, identity and junior schools administrative management; established that when learners acquire effective learning competences with a new way of critical thinking; they may be persuaded into reasoning at higher levels by reorganizing the way they think about a given situation in school administrative management.

Conceptual Framework

Junior Secondary School Administrative Management and Achievement of Competence Based Curriculum Core Competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

Source: Researcher’s own idea

Junior secondary school administrative management affects school environment and in turn school environment affects achievement of learners’ core competences.

Theoretical Framework

The study was guided by leader- member exchange theory. The theory focused on the interaction between leaders and individual followers. The interaction is viewed as a fair exchange whereby the leader provides certain benefits such as task guidance, advice, support and significant rewards and the followers reciprocate by giving the leader respect, cooperation, commitment to the task and good performance. However, the leaders and individuals followers vary in the type of exchange that develops between them.

General Objective of the Study

To determine influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Specific Objectives of the Study

  1. To establish influence of school board of management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.
  2. To determine influence of senior school administrators on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.
  3. To examine influence of students’ representative council on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Research Questions

i. What is the influence of school board of management on achievement of CBC core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County?

ii. What is the influence of senior school administrators on achievement of CBC core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County?

iii. What is the influence of students’ representative council on achievement of CBC core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County?

Hypothesis

Junior secondary school administrative management has no statistical significant influence on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Statement of the Problem

In Kenya, junior secondary schools are all domiciled in primary schools. The existing primary schools and junior secondary schools form comprehensive schools all under the same administrative management.  Therefore, junior secondary school administrative management is insufficiently implemented in various comprehensive schools; rising concern on acquisition of core competences set for junior secondary school learners. Several researchers have done much on various emerging issues affecting junior secondary schools and acquisition of core competences, but little has been done on junior secondary school administrative management and achievement of core competences that the study tended to addressed.

Significance of the Study

The study findings may benefit JSS learners by achieving CBC core competences. Head teachers and teachers may benefit by acquiring necessary skills on impacting CBC core competences to JSS learners.  The study may help Kenyan government to address emerging issues regarding to management of Competence Based Curriculum in Kenyan education system. The study may also add the existing body of knowledge on managing primary school curriculum implementation processes.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The study employed descriptive design. Descriptive design provided insight into complex real world in its natural settings; thus helping researcher develop theories and make predictions regarding causal effects on a given phenomenon.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size

Sampling Technique

The researcher utilized simple random sampling technique to select 50 comprehensive schools from 500 comprehensive schools to participate in the study. The researcher used Krejcie and Morgan sample determination table to determine 367 respondents from 8000 target population. According to Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample determination table, 367 respondents under study are adequate to represent the total of 8000 individuals. The researcher purposively sampled 50 comprehensive school head teachers using purposive sampling technique. The researcher also sampled 114 junior secondary school teachers and 203 junior secondary school learners from 50 sampled schools using simple random technique.

Sample Size

The sample size was 367 respondents, involving 50 comprehensive school head teachers, 114 junior secondary school teachers and 203 junior secondary school learners.

Research Instruments

Questionnaires

The researcher employed questionnaires for junior secondary school teachers, comprehensive school head teachers and junior secondary school learners. Questionnaire was most efficient since it is a standardized measuring instrument where questions are phrased exactly the same way for all respondents. Self-completion questionnaire was less expensive and saved time for the researcher.

Data Collection Procedure

First researcher conducted pilot study in Meru County. Then, researcher employed research assistors. The

researcher conducted actual study in Tharaka-Nithi County; by collecting data starting with comprehensive school head teachers, junior secondary school teachers and junior secondary school learners; using questionnaires.

Validity and Reliability of the Study

Researcher ascertained research tools validity by getting relevant information on specific tools from experts and professionals in ministry of education Kenya. The respondents were given questions with similar characteristics; basing on specific objectives of the study. The reliability of research tools was determined by cronbanch alpha co-efficient of 0.740. The researcher maintained ethical issues by adhering to assured non-discrimination, confidentiality, anonymity to maintain privacy of participation in the study.

Ethical Considerations of Study

Researcher observed   principles of informed consent from National Council of Science Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) to carry out study in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. The researcher utilized NACOSTI letter to seek permission from Tharaka-Nithi county commissioner and county director of education to carry out study in selected schools.

Data Analysis

The data was organized and analyzed using inferential statistic of data analysis.  Pearson Chi-square test was used to estimate influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. Data processing adopted statistical package for social sciences software program.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study hypothesis stated that junior secondary school administrative management has no statistical significant influence on learners’ achievement of competence based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. Comprehensive school head teachers, junior secondary school teachers and junior secondary school learners; gave responses on influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies. The data were analyzed and findings recorded. The researcher utilized Pearson chi-square tests to determine influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. The results were analyzed in tables as follows.

Table 1: Chi-Square Tests of influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for comprehensive school head teachers.

Value df p-value
Pearson Chi-Square 18.024 6 0.019
Likelihood Ratio 10.627 6 0.108
N of Valid Cases 50

Pearson chi-square test was performed to investigate whether there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for comprehensive school head teachers. χ2 (6, 50) =18.024, p=0.019 indicated that there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for comprehensive school head teachers. The findings were supported by ideas of Muller (2016) study who suggested that acquisition of learners’ core competences is enhanced by effective school administration; educating teachers about topics of public interest that aims to create awareness and action on some issues that impacts administrative management in various schools.

Table 2: Chi-Square Tests of influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for junior secondary school teachers

Value df p-value
Pearson Chi-Square 6.583 2 0.035
Likelihood Ratio 8.457 2 0.232
N of Valid Cases 114

Pearson chi-square test was performed to investigate whether there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for comprehensive school teachers. χ2 (2, 114) =6.583, p=0.035 indicated that there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for comprehensive school, teachers. The study findings are consistent with those of Tedesco, (2015) study in South Africa on the curriculum debates and in educational reforms: who claimed that integration of core competences in administrative management provides learners with life skills that benefit the community and society as a whole. CBC core competences support teachers to integrate education, learning and humanity in managing school administration.

Table 3: Chi-Square Tests of influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for junior secondary school head learners

Value df p-value
Pearson Chi-Square 19.781 6 0.014
Likelihood Ratio 11.412 6 0.172
N of Valid Cases 203

Pearson chi-square test was performed to investigate whether there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for junior secondary school learners. χ2 (6, 203) =19.781, p=0.014 indicated that there was significant influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for junior secondary school learners. The study findings related with ideas of Maxwell (2016) who suggested that core competences in competence-based curriculum is a structured learning experience that combines administrative experiences with mentored preparations and reflections in education management.

Hypothesis Testing on Influence of Junior Secondary School Administrative Management on Achievement of Competence Based Curriculum Core Competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County.

The null hypothesis stated that there was no statistical significant influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County. The researcher utilized Chi-square tests of influence to determine overall chi-square tests of influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County. The results were analyzed in Table 4.

Table 4: Overall Chi-Square Tests of influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County.

Value df p-value
Pearson Chi-Square 34.795 6 0.000
Likelihood Ratio 11.924 6 0.081
N of Valid Cases 367

Pearson chi-square test was performed to investigate whether there was influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, for all the groups. χ2 (6, 367) =34.795, p=0.000 indicated that there was significant influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. The study findings were in agreement with the government of Kenya (2020) which enhanced learners’ development of CBC core competences such as communication and collaboration, creativity and imagination, critical thinking and problem solving, digital literacy, citizenship, learning to learn and self-efficacy in schools programs and in real life situation. The null hypothesis was rejected because the p-value was less than 0.05 and came to the conclusion that there was significant influence of junior secondary school administrative management on achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

CONCLUSIONS

Following study findings, the researcher concluded that junior secondary school administrative management was valuable element in achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Kenyan schools.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher recommended that ministry of education should promote effective junior secondary school administrative management for proper learners’ achievement of competence-based curriculum core competencies in Kenya.

REFERENCES

  1. Government of Kenya (2020). Policy Objectives for Education Training and Research. Nairobi: Government printers.
  2. Lassnigg, L. (2015) Competence-based Education and Educational Effectiveness: A Critical Review of the Research Literature on Outcome-Oriented Policy Making in Education. Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna.
  3. Maxwell, K. (2016). Quality Principles for Competency based Education. Vienna.
  4. Ministry of Education. (2017). Implementing a Competency-Based Curriculum in Education. Nairobi: Government printers.
  5. Muller, J. (2016). Curriculum and the Specialization of Knowledge. London: Routledge.
  6. Tedesco, J. (2015). The Curriculum in Debates and in Educational Reforms to 2030: For a Curriculum Agenda of the Twenty-First Century. IBE Working Papers on Curriculum Issues No. 15. UNESCO International Bureau of Education.
  7. UNESCO (2015) EFA Global Monitoring Report: Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and Challenges. https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges. 68
  8. UNESCO (2015). Education for All 2015 National Review Report: Ethiopia. Paris: UNESCO.
  9. UNESCO (2017). Competency-Based Curriculum Reforms: The Kenyan Experience. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/ 002504/ 250431e.pdf

Article Statistics

Track views and downloads to measure the impact and reach of your article.

0

PDF Downloads

[views]

Metrics

PlumX

Altmetrics

Paper Submission Deadline

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.