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Perceived Organizational Politics, Organizational Ethics and Employees’ Morale in Tertiary Institutions Southwest, Nigeria

Perceived Organizational Politics, Organizational Ethics and Employees’ Morale in Tertiary Institutions Southwest, Nigeria

Ogunremi Gbolawole Dauda and Oshotoye Adedayo Bradford

Faculty of Business and Communication studies and Faculty of Social Management and Humanities the Polytechnic, Ibadan Oyo State.


 Received: 12 May 2023;  Accepted: 18 May 2023; Published: 20 June 2023


The paper focuses on assessing and identifying the factors that affect the morale of employees in Tertiary Institutions in southwest Nigeria. Employee morale is a drive to keep the organization growing and achieve its objectives. However, it is imperious to improve more by thoughtful and dealing with the factors that may contribute negatively in the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria. A Descriptive approach was utilized for the paper and a questionnaire was constructed to collect data from 752 academic and non-teaching staff in southwest, Higher Institutions, Nigeria. A stratified approach method was used. All data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and the findings of the paper reveals that the level of employee morale was very low and further reveals that management support and feedback, ethics and culture of the organization, benefits, promotion processes and recognition, communication and understanding of policies as well as treatment and workload were the crucial factors affect the morale of employees. The paper recommends that institutions of higher learning in southwest Nigeria to review their own policies and ensure that all stakeholders of their institutions understand them efficiently.  Similar research should be conducted in other institutions of higher learning in Nigeria as well in order to generalize or enrich the findings of the present paper which serve as a wake-up call.

Keywords: Employee morale, Organizational Politics, Organizational Ethics, Tertiary Institutions, Management


Organizations may be big or small, and for profit or not for profit, and they will have a reason for existing, such as a goal and/or a purpose. Organizations usually have a mission statement, a vision statement, or a goal statement; they also may have a purpose statement. Organizations facilitate the retail and wholesale provision of goods, tangible and intangible products, and services that fulfill the wants, needs, desires, and value perceptions of their internal and external customers and the organization’s stakeholders. Efficient and effective performance levels in an organization translate into the success or failure of the organization. Organizations influence, economically impact, and serve the surrounding community. In summary, organizations often start from an image and become a machine built for accomplishing goals either a small society with a social structure and culture or as an organism making its way through a resource environment (Moore, Scott & Davis, 2007).

Organization in society today play an important role in the development endeavor of the mankind. Therefore, achievement of the organization’s goals effectively and efficiently has always become a must for well-being of individuals and the society as a whole. The employees of those organizations bear the primary responsibility to achieve the organization’s goal effectively and efficiently. In the ever-changing competitive world, the success of the organization depends on the performance of its total workforce and their morale. But in practice, some of the members of the organizations express high morale with greater involvement in their organizations while in some organization’s employees express low morale and show less involvement in their organizations.


Conceptual Review

The morale is defined as the depiction of emotion, satisfaction, and overall attitude towards a workplace productivity is directly related to morale. Happy employees have high morale while dissatisfied and unhappy employees have low morale.  

According to Yoder “morale is a feeling, somewhat related to esprit de corps, enthusiasm or zeal. Fippo has described morale “As a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to cooperate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives.

 Morale is a fundamental psychological concept. It is not easy to define. Morale is the degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which the members of a group pull together to achieve group goal. It has been defined differently by different authors. Different definition of Morale can be classified into three major approaches.

i. Classical approach ii. Psychological approach iii. Social approach

The success or failure of an organization much depends up on the Morale of its employee’s morale. It can be described as state of mind, mood, or mental condition (Bennett 1998). Morale is purely emotional. It is an attitude of an employee towards his job, his superior and his organization. It is irrational to ignore, excuse, or otherwise minimize its impact on productivity! Generally, increased employee morale means a happier, more productive, and higher performing employee. There is a difference between what people do and how they do it. The difference between either not meeting, or just meeting, productivity goals and exceeding goals- for productivity may be attributed to high morale, low morale is contagious, Poor morale can manifest in the use (abuse) of leave accruals, accidents, illnesses, litigation, worker’s compensation claims, Poor or low Morale becomes obvious from the negative feelings of employees such as dissatisfaction, discouragement or dislike of the job

Low morale

Low Morale indicates the presence of mental unrest. The mental unrest not only hampers production but also leads to ill health of the employees. Low Morale exists when doubt in suspicion are common and when individuals are depressed and discouraged i.e., there is a lot of mental tension. Such situation will have the following adverse consequences

  • High rates of absenteeism and labour turnover.
  • Decreased quality.
  • Decreased Productivity.
  • Excessive Complaints and Grievances.
  • Frustration among the workers.
  • Lack of discipline.
  • Increase errors, accidents or injuries

Organizational Politics

The ones, who do not have it, perceive it to be destructive whilst others, who possess it, consider it a useful tool in an organization to advance oneself. It is absolutely critical to job and career success in organizations today. (Ferris, Anthony and Gilmore, 2000).

Organizational politics is a controversial concept. While there is no doubt that internal politics is a common phenomenon in every organization, very little is known about the nature and boundaries of such politics. An individual’s political behavior may help to formulate his perceptions of the work environment. In other words, political behavior affects perceptions of organizational politics. Accordingly, one’s perceptions of politics should affect one’s morale. As suggested by Kacmar and Ferris (1989) and Kacmar and Carlson (1994), perception of organizational politics represent the degree to which respondents view their work environment as political in nature, promoting the self-interests of others, and thereby unjust and unfair from the individuals point of view.

Given the resource scarcity and the perspective that people are self-interested, it seems that no one can avoid the influence of organizational politics. Ferris, Russ and Fandt (1989) proposed a model, which indicated the antecedents and consequences of perceptions of organizational politics.

Organizational politics is described as an activity that permits people in organization to accomplish goals without going through proper channels. Whether political activities assist or harm the organization depends on whether the goals of individuals are consistent with the goals of organization. There is no doubt that political beliefs are an ordinary observable fact in every organization. Organizational politics represented devious behavior of employees towards their work environment only for their self-interests. These self-interests may be at the cost of other employees or may be against organizational goals as well (Shamaila and Aiyla, 2012) Organizational politics is an important ingredient of the life of organization, which refers to behavior in which personal interests are safeguarded rather than organizational interests.

Perceived Organizational Politics Theory (Harris, Andrew and Kacmar, 2007)

Organizational politics have been defined as “actions by individuals which are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests without regard for the well-being of others or their organization” (Kacmar and Baron 1999). Research suggests that perceptions of organizational politics consistently result in negative outcomes for individuals (Harris, Andrews, and Kacmar 2007). According to Harris and Kacmar (2005), politics has been conceptualized as a stressor in the workplace because it leads to increased stress and/or strain reactions. Members of organization react physically and psychologically to perceptions of organizational politics, physical reactions including fatigue and somatic tension (Cropanzano et al. 1997), and psychological reactions include reduced commitment (Vigoda 2000) and reduced job satisfaction (Bozeman et al. 2001).

Organizational Ethics

Definition and principles of Organizational ethics includes either corporate and business ethics, or, put in another way, both the corporate values and the financial practices of the organization. They relate to all aspects of the organization including mission, vision, governance, and leadership. Organizational ethics is a highly discussed and debated subject in today’s corporate and business world, as well as in educational and academic circles (Brown, Trevino, & Harrison, 2005).

 In practice, it is the application of ethical values and morals to everyday organization processes, behavior, and policies. Ethics is a practice that applies to everyone employed in the organization, regardless of position, level of responsibility, and range of responsibilities (Paliwal, 2006). Drucker (1981) states ethics is non-negotiable, there is one ethics. There are morality rules and ethical behavior code that applies to all people alike.

Ethical behavior and undertakings relate to actions, which are characterized by honesty, integrity, morality and good management practices while earning profits for the business organization.

There are certain parameters, which influence the extensive level and degree to which ethics has been analyzed by scholars and researchers in recent years, such as globalization, technology, intangible assets, talent management (Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Writght, 2014). Furthermore, there are factors, which inhibit ethical intentions and behavior such as increasing competition; pressure for profits and return on investment; political corruption; values and morals not considered important by younger generations; the expectancy of fast money and profits; and disregard for social responsibility, honesty, and integrity. These standards must be modeled and practiced while having the commitment of the administration of the organization. Moreover, there must have been established a formal code of ethics outlining the policies, regulations, and expectations for all stakeholders.

 The code of ethics must be thoroughly communicated throughout the organization in formal an informal way (written and oral communication) while making sure that there is provision for guidance and support in cases of dilemmas or insecurities. The organization ought to provide a thorough training program to prepare the employees for the policies, practices, and expectations in order to increase employee “ethical awareness” and to “define criteria for ethical decision-making within the organization.

Factors Contributing to Political Behavior in Organizations

It is useful to remember that in its original meaning, the idea of politics stems from the view that, where interests are divergent, society should provide a means of allowing individuals to reconcile their differences through consultation and negotiation. In ancient Greece, Aristotle advocated politics as a means of reconciling the need for unity in the Greek polis (city-state) with the fact that the polis was an “aggregate of many members.” Politics, for him, provided a means of creating order out of diversity while avoiding forms of totalitarian rule. Political science and many systems of government have built on this basic idea, advocating politics, and the recognition and interplay of competing interests that politics implies, as a means of creating a non-coercive form of social order. (Morgan, 1996) Organizational politics are a natural result of the fact that people think differently and want to act differently. This diversity creates a tension that must be resolved through political means. There are many ways in which this can be done, for example: autocratically (“We’ll do it this way”); bureaucratically (“We’re supposed to do it this way”); technocratic ally (“It’s best to do it this way”); or democratically (“How shall we do it?”).


This Study Used a Descriptive Survey design. The purpose of descriptive surveys, according to Ezeani (1998), is to collect details and factual information that describes an existing phenomenon.

Setting for The Research

The target population of the study was higher institutions personnel in Southwest State, Nigeria. The research was carried out in eighteen institutions


There were 752 participants. Of these, (43%) 323 were males; while (57%) 429 were females. Their age ranges from 22-62 years, with a mean age of 35.5 years. The academic qualifications of the participants are:

  • B.Sc., B.Ed., BLS
  • M.Sc., MLS, MA, PhD


A modified questionnaire tagged Perceived organizational politics, organizational ethics and employee morale Scale (POPS, OES and EM was used for the collection of data on the study. The questionnaire was specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The first section collected information such as age, sex, experience, professional status, marital status, position, and so on. The second section contained the items, and was divided into three parts.

A. Section A. The second part of the instrument contains items that measure Institution organizational Ethics. It is a 5-point Likert (attitudinal scale): =Strongly Agree SA; Agree = A; disagree = D: Indifferent= I Strongly Disagree = SD, items in this section were adapted from the Organizational culture/ethics Brazil Questionnaire by Barrons and Prate (1996) with 8 questionnaires. The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument yielded an r = 0.644cronbach alpha
B.  Section B. This measure perceived organizational politics (POPS). It is a 10-item questionnaire using a Kacma and Ferri 1992 scale with responses ranging from Strongly Agree: SA; Agree = A; Disagree= D and Strongly Disagree = SD. The items were adapted from POPS in mechanistic and organic organization Scale of the Dr. Boris Blumberg 2008. POPS sequence. The modification yielded an r = 0.582 Cronbach Alpha.

C. Section C. This part contains ten items that measure, using Job Description Inventory (JDI) and Quality of Working Life Instrument (QWL) scale. It is of four points: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Items were adapted from Employee morale questionnaire developed by Hackman & Oldham (1980). The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument yielded an r = 0.619cronbach alpha.


The researcher moved round to Eighteen Institutions (Public & Private) in the study and administered the instrument to Institutions personnel after the approval from the appropriate quarter. Following the instructions on the instrument, the questionnaires were filled and returned.


The data gathered were analyzed using independent sample T Test and regression analysis. The Statistical package for social science (SPSS) was the software used to analyze the work. The qualitative data were transcribed into black and white before the socio-metric analysis was carried out. In the procedure, the themes of the data transcribed were sorted out and improvised in the discussion section to buttress the Validity of the quantitative data results.


752 questionnaires returned from participants namely, academic and non-teaching and the findings were as follows:

Table 1. Gender

Gender                 No 100%
Female                  429 57%
Male                     323 43%

As shown in Table 1, above indicate that the majority of the participants were females with 57% who participated in the paper.

Table 2. Highest Qualification

Highest Qualification 100%
National Diploma 16%
B. Tech/ B. Degree/ Honours Degree 38%
M. Tech/ Master’s Degree 30%
PhD 16%

As shown in Table 2, above indicate that the majority of participants with highest qualifications were those with a B.Tech, B. Degree/ Honours with 38% followed by those with the D. Tech/PhD with 16% participated in the paper.

Table 4. Category of employment and Years of service

Category of employment 100% Years of service
Academic 41%  15 years below
Non-teaching 59%  15years above

As shown in Table 3, above indicate that the majority of participants category of employment and years of service were admin with 59 % and the majority on years of service were 15 years above with 60. % participated in the paper.

Table 4. Institutions with staff responded

Government Institutions involved Number of respondents Percentage
University of Ibadan 49 6.50%
University of Lagos 43 5.7%
Obafemi Awolowo University 46 6%
Federal University of Technology Akure 39 5%
Olabisi Onabanjo University 44 5.6%
Ekiti State university 41 5.1%
The Polytechnic, Ibadan 72 9%
Yaba College of Tech 48 6%
Federal Polytechnic, Ede 47 6.6%
Gateway Polytechnic 41 5%
Rufus Giwa Polytechnic 40 5%
Ibarapa Polytechnic 54 7%
Private Institutions involved Number of respondents Percentage
Covenant University 33 4%
Redeemer University 35 4.6%
Afe Babalola University 33 4%
 Ibadan City Polytechnic 32 4.2%
Interlink Polytechnic 31 4.1%
Crown Polytechnic 24 3%
 18 Higher Institution of Learning 752 100%

As shown in Table 4, above indicate the list of Public and Private Institutions that participated in the research paper. Number of respondent shows the Polytechnic Ibadan as highest participants with 72 respondents (9%) while Crown Polytechnic recorded lowest respondent 24 (3%) for the research questionnaire


Table 5. Engagement and Political relation

Question Strongly disagree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly agree
There are always been an influential group in the Institution that no one ever crossed. 34.30% 23.80% 22.90% 16.20% 2.90%
Since I have being working in this organization, I have seen the pay and promotion policies applied politically 9.50% 30.25% 20.00% 22.90% 17.30%
Employees are encouraged to speak out frankly even when they are critical of well established ideas 41.30% 27.90% 16.30% 6.70% 7.70%
Agreeing with powerful others is the best alternative in this organization 8.30% 11.60% 15.40%  35.0%  29.50%
Telling others what they want to hear is sometimes better than telling the truth 6 30% 7.60% 18.50% 40.90% 26.10%

As shown in Table 5, above indicate that the Higher Institution involves staff in decision making and the majority strongly disagree were 50%.  While those indicate that the higher Institution in southwest, Nigeria has a system/process in place that encourages politics and ideas strongly disagree were 39.2%. The table further reveals that those that are neutral with the conditions of service in the higher institutions were 30.4%.

Table 6.  Morale, Communication and Motivation

Question Strongly disagree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly agree
Communication in the polytechnic is open and clear and there is no need for gossip. 34.30% 23.80% 22.90% 16.20% 2.90%
I work with unreasonable deadlines and heavy workloads. 9.50% 30.25% 20.00% 22.90% 17%
The Institution’s HR policies are communicated 41.30% 27.90% 16.30% 6.70% 7.70%
Recently thought about leaving the organization 18,20% 21.80% 14.0% 25.80% 20.30%
Management is really interested in the welfare of employees 18.70% 21.0% 23.50% 22.10% 13.70%
I feel motivated in putting forth extra effort to achieve goals or objective of the organization 15.40% 17.70% 3.90% 29.80% 34.20%
I look forward to going to work each day  22.20%  18.10%  14.4%  36.2%  30.2%

As shown in Table 6, above indicate the majority of the participants indicated that there were fairly motivated for the work that they do strongly disagree were 44.3% while those that indicate that they feel that benefits provided by higher Institution, in southwest, Nigeria meet their needs well strongly disagree were 31.7% the table further reveals that promotions processes were fair for all staff in their higher Institution, strongly disagree were 45.1%.

Table 7. Principle, Culture and leadership

Question Strongly disagree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly agree
Do the leaders in your organization act ethically? 34.30% 23.80% 22.90% 16.20% 2.90%
Is the behavior of your leaders consistent with the stated ethics and values of the organization? 9.50% 30.25% 20.00% 22.90% 17%
Do the leaders in your organization balance the needs of the duties with ethical issues appropriately? 41.30% 27.90% 16.30% 6.70% 7.70%
Does your organization offer training in job ethics? 10.90% 22.50% 10.0% 2420% 22.40%
Does your organization balance its short-term business goals with its long term need for success? 17.70% 25.30% 12.0% 26.70% 20.0%
Does your company require its employees to sign a code of conduct statement? 19.30% 27.50% 6.90% 25.10% 20.0%
Are ethical behaviors rewarded? 23.20% 27.60% 6.0% 23.20% 19.10%
Do the executives in your organization lead by example?  12.40%  15.80%  41.90%  17.30%  12.50%

As shown in Table 7, above indicate the majority of the participants indicated that ethics in the higher Institution in southwest, Nigeria is clear and leadership 34.3%. It further reveals the majority of participant indicated that they work with unreasonable deadlines and heavy workloads disagreed followed by 22.9% who agreed and conclude with the majority of those that indicate that the institution’s HR policies are communicated clearly to all employees were 41.3%.


As mentioned earlier, discussion of  findings  is  categorized  into  the  following  subheadings;  impact  of

organizational politics and organizational ethics on employees performance; impact of politics on organizational, working ; impact of  politics on  position of superior; impact of  organizational politics  on position of subordinate and  discussed in relation to theoretical framework along with case studies.

Demographics factor

The paper reveals that all employees including those with required qualifications also experience the same factors that affect morale both academics and non-teaching.. Ahmad, R. (2010)) urge a need to consider equality in the organizations as it affects employees along the run. This requires management to priorities and benchmark with other institutions of in the south west to avoid losing talent and qualified people

Management Support and Feedback

Omodan, (2020) advises management support by including all employees in the decision-making in the organization. The findings of the paper shows that support from management is lacking and employees are not involved in decisions that affect them. This can also lead employee to be demotivated as there are not noticed. Further recommend management to recognize/ the importance of involving everyone in the issues pertaining employees. Abanobi C.Ci (2017) emphases a need for management to recognize performance as a strategy for motivation. The paper reveals that there are no system/process in place that encourages employees to offer feedback and ideas in the polytechnics they work under. This also contribute to low employee morale. It therefore recommended that all institutions of higher learning to consider the participatory decision making for all to boost the morale of employees now and in future. It is important for the institutions of higher learning to understand that recognizing is not the end but using employees’ inputs and opinions is required to improve morale.

Organizational politics at workplace.

 However, it is important that organizations create an environment whereby politics do not become destructive. This can be achieved through implementing key objectives that create standards within the organization. Organizational politics manifests itself through leadership styles, communication flow and control of motivational incentives. The perceptions which employees hold about the political nature of their work environment affect their feelings, place of work, boss and co-workers, and these affect their productivity, satisfaction, and their intent

Organizational Ethics precursor to Employee Performance

 It is the obligation of organizations to set guiding principles to direct employees as well as ensuring adherence and positive work attitude. These governing standards are Organizational Ethics. Organizational ethics is the set of values or moral principles regulating an individual‟s or a profession‟s conduct. There is a coherent expectation for every employee of an Organization to behave in a manner consistent with Organizational goals and objectives. Earlier studies indicate relationship between organizational ethics and employees‟ performance. Organizational ethics inherently influences organizational practices which in turn influence employees‟ performance. Organizational ethics once adhered to, solely has the power to improve organizational performance, employee job satisfaction and a sense of certainty about problem solving. Employers value a strong organizational ethic due to the economic benefits it provides to the organization (Ali & Falcone, 1995). This indicates that employees of an organization with insufficient commitment to work, poor organizational discipline and interpersonal skills would impact on the organization‟s productivity. Adeyeye, et al (2015) observed that organizations are in existence to provide goods and services to its stakeholders using all human resources available to them. Indeed, organizations advance the progress of countries through output level and performance, efficiency, and productivity, as engendered by the institutional labour or the employees.

Working Conditions

According to NGen (2009) in Erasmus (2020) emphasis that employees get motivated if they work under competent supervision, balance working hours and safe working conditions. Eke and Onuoha (2020) recommended the organization to improve the conditions of work by training and facilitating employees on opportunities to boost the morale. Working conditions Physical working conditions such as tools, equipment and working space are not provided to some employees. The findings of the paper reveal that employees are not satisfied with the conditions of service of the polytechnic their work under. Therefore, the paper recommends that all institution of higher learning should make it a priority that there is a balance of the hours of work and family in general. All Polytechnics in Southwest Nigeria should also ensure that line managers manage work of employees not employees. During covid-19 pandemic most if not all employees working remotely, therefore all necessary tools of work should be provided such as connections and laptops. Those that are working in the office should also be considered with health environment not to share small spaces.


Compensation and benefit If employees are not fairly compensated, the employees look for other jobs externally (Fathaniy, 2011). The findings of the paper reveal that employees feel that benefits provided by the polytechnic does not meet their needs well. Benefits does not improve performance however, influence the satisfaction of employees’ commitment (O’Moala laidh, (2000). Further, Eke and Onuoha (2020) recommended organization to provide benefits also to casual or part-time workers such as health insurance, bonuses and allowances of bus fare. While Nur, Harrison, Deb, Burch & Straderman (2021) recommended management to offer employees with non-monetary based benefits. It is recommended for the institutions of higher learning to assess their employee turnover in order to verify purpose that chase talent away. To boost morale in the institutions of higher learning it is vital to consider part-time employees with benefits as they play a crucial role in the performance of the institutions such as bus fare allowances and bonuses for good performance.

Employment and Promotion Processes

It is the responsibility of an employee to take charge on their development in the careers with the support of training and development from management (Warnich, Carrell, Elbert and Hatfield, 2018).  Part time Lecturer without full time job  causes low morale to those who are ignored. Khumalo (2020) recommends the implementation strategies of promotions and growth to enhance quality services. The paper reveals that promotion with favorism processes were not clear in the institution of higher learning. Fathaniy (2011) said employees need to given opportunities to advance careers in order to grow and develop skills. Promotion policies should be revised in a way that promote quality and contribution of employees (Bourini, 2010). While Nur et al., (2021) recommended management to notify employees about the processes of rewards and promotion. The paper recommends that it is crucial for managements of the institutions of higher learning to train employees about promotion processes for understanding and encouragement. If those who are in the system are ignored and a focus paid more on keeping on recruiting external is another factor that management of the institutions of higher learning should focus on. Institutions of higher learning requires academics to apply for a promotion to senior levels that takes months while there are seen that they do qualify. Promotion policy should be revisited to accommodate those who overqualified to move from junior lectureship to associate professor that to start from moving to lecturer, senior lecturer than associate professor. This also applies to support employees when they have been developed or attain senior qualifications, there should be promoted to the senior vacancy.

Communication and Understanding of Policies/Politics

According to Omodan, Tsotetsi, and Dube (2020) communication is the lifeline on the business to their stakeholders as it informs and educates everyone. The paper reveals that the Polytechnic’s HR policies are not communicated clearly to all employees. Odionye (2014) emphasis a need to for the Polytechnic to choose the various tools of communication for effective co-operation. The paper recommends the institutions of higher learning to educate employees also in a simple language all the policies and how they influence them. The policies of the institutions of higher learning should accessed by all employees at all levels in different languages. Employees should be engaged formulation of the policies especially that affect them.

Treatment and Workload

Overloaded with work develops confusion and employees fails to meet the targets required (Redfern, Hannan, Norman and Martin (2002). The paper reveals that the employees work under unreasonable deadlines and heavy workloads. Nur et al., (2021) recommended management to introduce a job rotation system. While Erasmus (2020) recommended the institution of higher learning to assess factors of stress which includes overload and ambiguity on employees. The paper reveals that employees are performing tasks of two or more people may lead to confusion, stress, burnout and failing to balance work and life. Workload of academics should be planned accordingly and balanced teaching and learning, research, administration and community engagement. Academics with too much teaching workload result in a shift on other areas of their KPAs which negatively influence the performance and decrease morale that led by demotivation of growth. Management should also consider to add more staff on support, since everyone  blames  them  for  slow  system  without  understanding  the  capacity  of  work.  Therefore, the paper recommends that institutions of higher learning to recruit more staff to avoid being the reason of no progression and low morale to their employees.


The paper assessed the factors that contribute to academics and support employees in the institution of higher learning Institutions in South west, Nigeria and reveals that number of factors that need to be addressed as a matter of urgency to avoid losing talented employees. Employees at all levels have significant experiencing similar factors which embedded to low morale. Higher Institutions in southwest should not ignore these factors as they have huge the consequences. Management support and feedback, conditions of work, remuneration packages, benefits, promotion processes and recognition, communication and understanding of policies as well as treatment and workload were the crucial factors that affect the morale of employees. This paper provides a wake-up call to management and leaders to assess their organizations based on these factors and implement interventions that can bring a desired result for future. Management and leaders are the heads of the institutions and employees including both academics and support are the necks of the same heads. Without a neck the head cannot be able to move from one side to another and the whole body will collapse


Higher Institutions in Nigeria should review they own policies and ensure that all stakeholders of their institutions understand them effectively. However, the participatory of all stakeholder it vital to implement to ensure recognition and being part of the institution.

Proper recruitment of Teaching assistant that are not on the main stream for adequate motivation is highly suggested and the balance of work and life should also be taking into consideration when allocating duties to employees to refrain from burnout which leads to low morale.

Invest on occupying employees with all trade of work either working from home or in the office and  bench marking  of  salaries  is  one  of  the  strategies  to  ensure  that  institutions  not  loose  talent  and  qualified employees.

Training and development to educate people about the necessity requirements to for career growth and advancement and balance of the allocations of duties to employees fairly based on their KPAs to meet the institutional goals and improve performance.


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