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Rhetoric in Sen. “Sonny” Angara’s Speech During MPSPC’s Silver (25th) Charter Anniversary

  • Jonnelle D. Fagsao
  • 919-931
  • Aug 7, 2023
  • Language

Rhetoric in Sen. “Sonny” Angara’s Speech During MPSPC’s Silver (25th) Charter Anniversary

Jonnelle D. Fagsao
Mountain Province State Polytechnic College, Bontoc, Mountain Province 2616, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.70771

Received: 25 June 2023; Revised: 07 July 2023; Accepted: 10 July 2023; Published: 07 August 2023

ABSTRACT

Communication between a speaker and an audience occurs through speech. The technique of convincing the audience to believe what the speaker says is crucial in a persuasive speech. However, in the absence of a powerful speech, admirable methods of persuasion fall short of satisfying the audience. A speaker should therefore employ a balanced speech delivery strategy in his or her persuasive speech. The MPSPC’s 25th Charter Anniversary guest speaker, Senator Sonny Angara, delivered a speech to mark the occasion. The most important rhetorical appeal in Angara’s speech is emotional appeal (pathos), however he uses a range of rhetorical evidence. It was found that Senator Angara tried to increase the impact of his speech by using effective speech elements to clarify some of his points. In order to deliver a great speech, he uses narrative, good posture and body language, an appropriate tone of voice, and pauses.

Key Words -Rhetoric, discourse analysis, rhetorical appeal, speech delivery components, rhetorical strategies

 INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

As a result, many speakers focused on executive oratory in the early days. Speechmaking was identified as a valued communication skill. Political leaders are currently concerned about their use of language as well. They frequently pay attention to various oratory techniques in order to improve their opinions and perceptions and, as a result, to broaden their public image. Over time, rhetoric has become an important tool for spreading their scheme, activating the audience’s spirits and sentiments, and becoming a more visible figure among other contenders in everyday interactions.

Language, in fact, is a significant mechanism of encouragement. As a result, in order to gain favorable public opinion, politicians use appropriate linguistic alternatives and options in their political speeches. Stylistic devices aid in the expansion of the speech and the achievement of success in public debates or political discussions. Political leaders use stylistic devices in their comments to strengthen their opinions and influence on an issue, to create the impression of an authoritative leader, to legitimize their platforms and advocacies, and even to hovering arguments against other candidates they want to beat in the race.

The political persuasion scenarios essentially depict rhetoric for the effective use of language to persuade voters. As a result, language is a powerful tool for gaining public support in elections or achieving any political goals. To paraphrase [8], “rhetoric is a political instrument used to highlight a candidate’s ideologies in a way that is palatable to the people.” They [political candidates] use lavishly fabricated and designed language, and their enthusiasm and energy to deliver such speeches is expectedly lively and powerful. These kinds of persuasive speeches make this type of discourse interesting to study, especially when delivered on special occasions.

Rhetoric has gained prominence in a variety of disciplines, including literary studies, sociolinguistics, and science studies, among others. To put it succinctly, people should remember that each situation in which they communicate is a unique experience; the meaning is always specific, depending on the unique location of space and time. One of the rhetorical studies is used as an example by the researcher. The research focuses on rhetorical proofs in Senator Sonny Angara’s speech at the 25th Silver Charter Anniversary of the MPSPC in Bontoc, Mountain Province. The researcher regards this as Senator Sonny Angara’s political rhetoric, which includes a variety of cultural and linguistic expressions as part of his social communication process.

This rhetorical analysis is worthwhile because it prepares people to deliver effective speeches in front of an audience. The goal of giving speeches is to share information and persuade the audience to believe what the speaker says. In this case, Senator Sonny Angara attempts to persuade his audience, preferably the MPSPC family, of his optimistic vision of the Mountain Province State Polytechnic College (MPSPC) becoming a university in the near future. Senator Angara, as a politician, must persuade the audience to believe and agree with what he says. To elicit a favorable response from the audience, he must provide appropriate proofs in his argumentative speech. The researcher is employing Aristotle’s Theory of Rhetoric to analyze Senator Sonny Angara’s speech at the time, elucidating his strategies and techniques for becoming a persuasive speaker. The findings of this investigation would add to our understanding of political language, particularly how candidates use it to gain an advantage in the race for elections through popular voting.

  • Review of Related Literature

Rhetoric

According to [1], rhetoric has been with humans since time immemorial, but Aristotle was known to have begun its systematic study. It is commonly defined as the art and science of persuading others through effective communication. Rhetoric used to mean learning how to be a great speaker. With the passage of time, its connotations have shifted. “Rhetoric is the subject concerned with the use of discourse, whether spoken or written form, to motivate the hearer, whether the hearer is a single person or a group of people.”

Aristotle’s classical concept of rhetoric is a seminal and foundational concept that is still used and held to be true today. He proposed that in order to make a persuasive speech, a speaker should consider three important elements: the speaker himself/herself, the audience, and the subject—all of which comprise Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle. According to Roskelly (n.d.), as cited by [1]:

       Consider the subject means that any writer or speaker evaluates what they already know and what they need to identify or recognize, studies and examines any points of view, and limits or controls any evidences that appear most beneficial and advantageous. Keeping the audience in mind entails speculating on the reader’s prospects or potentials, familiarity, and character in relation to the subject writers or speakers explore. Any use of experiences and observations conveys Aristotle’s three-way relationship argument to the speaker. Writers use who they are, what they know and feel, and what they have seen and done to determine their attitudes toward a subject and their comprehension of a reader.

The aforementioned elements serve as the foundation for the three rhetorical appeals: ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos is an appeal in which the speaker establishes her credibility by demonstrating her knowledge and character. It enhances the speaker’s credibility by emphasizing the speaker’s competence, virtuous character, and goodwill. Furthermore, the purpose of a persuasive speech is to gain the audience’s trust. As a result, in order to successfully influence the audience, the speaker must master the features of speech delivery prior to delivering his or her speech. According to Quintilian, a famous Roman rhetorician, the speaker must be a “good man speaking well.” Pathos is also known as emotional appeal because speakers appeal to the emotions and interests of the audience. To some extent, this appeal is the most overused because it is the most convenient and, at times, the most powerful appeal because it elicits emotions and makes it easier for the speaker to connect with the audience. Finally, logos is at work when speakers provide reasonable premises and evidence to back up their claims. A speaker’s tools for persuading the audience are meaning, logical thinking, and reasoning.

  • Statement of the Problem

This research study is focused on the rhetorical analysis of Senator Sonny Angara’s speech during the MPSPC’s Silver Charter Anniversary. Specifically, this paper answers the following questions:

  1. What are the rhetorical appeals used by the speaker?
  2. What are the rhetorical strategies used by the speaker to make his speech sound persuasive?
  3. How does the speech delivery used by the speaker help to create effective speech?
  4. Theoretical Framework

This part will preview the theories which are relevant to the paper. This part will elaborate the Theory of Rhetorical Appeals by Aristotle, Rhetorical Discourse Analysis (RDA), and Aristotle’s The 5th Rhetorical Canon, rhetorical strategies, by Nikitina (2011).

The Three Types of Rhetorical Appeals

Aristotle was the first to methodically label the psychology of persuasion. According to him, and many other authors that would later echo him, persuasion comes in three different kinds of persuasive appeals. These three persuasive appeals are ethos, pathos and logos and are found in the character of the speaker (ethos), in the emotional state of the audience (pathos) or in the argument itself (logos) ([2]). According to [10] these three rhetorical proofs extend from the credibility and emotional response to the inner logic of an argument. Pathos is connected to the interest of the audience as well as how receptive they are. Ethos looks at the people engaging in sense-making and how trustworthy they are, and logos looks at the reasonableness and logical consequence of an argument.  Cited from [11] they explained what these three are below.

Reference [2] describes Ethos as the credibility of the speaker and the reason why people should believe what they are being told. It was argued by [4] that it takes both time and effort to build ethos and that is important in cases where there is room for doubt. In order to demonstrate ethos, [6] gave an example of leaders who display strong levels of character and integrity, which convinces the receivers that the leader knows more than they, the receivers, do. Such personal traits ultimately create credibility and, thus, cannot be rationally doubted by the audience ([2]).

Pathos, on the other hand, is the temporary appeal to the emotions of the audience (Aristotle, 2014) and essentially the reason why the audience believes what they are being told matters to them ([6]). It can therefore be said that the success of the speaker’s persuasive efforts is largely determined by the audience sense of judgement ([14]). Such judgement varies, as people’s emotional disposition differs from one another, and the challenge for the speaker is therefore to evoke emotions that can modify their judgements. Reference [2] responded to this challenge by stressing the importance of the speaker’s ability to understand the characteristics of the emotions he tries to evoke.

Aristotle believed that Logos was the most important of the three appeals to master ([13]) and can today for example be seen in the way leaders express logical ideas in compelling and clear ways to influence outcomes ([6]). Adapted from Durham Teaching Learning Center, this means persuading by the use of reasoning. Logos (Greek for ‘word’) refers to the internal consistency of the message–the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence.

The second theory is the Rhetorical Discourse Analysis (RDA) in which the focus is placed on the rhetoror, the speaker as the source of discourse and on how he/she uses rhetorical devises to attempt to convince the audience.

The third theory is the Theory of the 5th Rhetorical Canon, Speech Delivery, by Anna Nikitina, a Russian born personal coach and goal setting expert who had been helping people to achieve their goals since 2002. This theory is used to observe the speech delivery strategies used by the speaker while delivering the speech. This theory is suitable in helping the researcher find out whether the speaker delivers his speech or not.

Analysed in this paper is the speech of Senator Sonny Angara, Chairman on Ways and Means/Committee on Local Government, during the 25th Charter Anniversary of Mountain Province State Polytechnic College, on January 27, 2017 at Eyeb Gym, Bontoc, Mountain Province.

METHODOLOGY

  • Research Method

To answer the given problems, content analysis was employed. It is used as a method to study the human behaviour in an indirect way through an analysis of their communication. The document which is to be analysed in this paper is the exact speech transcript given by the speaker to the researcher after the program.

The speech that was delivered on January 27, 2017 will be based from the checklist prepared anchored in the Theories of Aristotle and Nikitina.

  • Data Gathering Technique

To answer the first problem, the researcher requested the original speech transcript from the speaker after his delivery. The researcher also observed how the speaker delivered his speech based on the checklist that had been prepared ahead of time. This technique was adapted from what Setiawan (2014) did, in which he created checklists that included rhetorical proofs and speech delivery characteristics. These checklists aided the researcher in responding to the prepared questions based on rhetorical appeals and speech delivery strategies.

The checklists are based on three theories, which include rhetorical appeals such as logical, ethical, and emotional proofs, as well as sub-categories and their descriptions. The other theory includes speech delivery guidelines like storytelling, body language, gestures, and so on, as well as rhetorical devices used by the speaker to persuade his audience. These rhetorical proofs guidelines assisted the researcher in categorizing each sentence in the speech. Table 1 below provides guidelines for rhetorical appeals.

Table 1: Rhetorical Appeals Guideline

Categories Sub-Categories Description
Logical appeal (Logos) Assisting a privilege using non-transferable standards The use of logical explanations emerged in Sen. Sonny Angara’s speech, specifically on the part where he was discussing his platforms for the college.
Showing a Topic through Cause-and-Effect Another technique used by Angara in his speech to support his propositions by pointing out the possible, desirable, and concrete outcomes of his programs in behalf of the college.
 Ethical Appeal (Ethos) Perceived intelligence It is used by Sen. Angara in explaining and sharing his competence and experience as a public servant to prove his knowledge.
Virtuous character It is used by Sen. Angara to tell his experiences, values, motives, establishing his image to the Igorot people.
Goodwill This was used by Sen. Angara to greet, complement, and thanks the people of Bontoc in a vernacular language.
Emotional Appeal (Pathos) Confidence It was shown by the speaker by telling good things about the place.
Admiration/Appreciation It was shown by the speaker that he admired Bontoc through positive descriptions about the place.
Family referencing To create further emotional response from the audience, Angara also referenced his family in supporting his ideas.
Empathy Emerged in Angara’s speech his attempt to make the audience feel that he is one with them, particularly on their aspirations, hopes, challenges and daily struggles.

            The speech delivery guideline helped the researcher categorized the performance according to the speech delivery features in each category. The guideline of speech delivery is provided in Table 2 below.

Table 2: Speech Delivery Guideline

Categories Sub-Categories Description
Storytelling Flashback Sen. Angara recalled his experiences in the CAR through storytelling.
Body Language Posture Another technique used by Angara in his speech to support his propositions by pointing out the possible, desirable, and concrete outcomes of his programs in behalf of the college.
Perceived intelligence The way Sen. Angara stands in front of the audience
  Body Movement It includes Angara’s body language on stage..
Tone of Voice Pitch The highs and lows of Sen. Angara’s speech
Volume The loudness and softness of Angara’s voice during his delivery.
Pauses Long Pause Sen. Angara used this after telling a very important message to the public
Short pause Sen. Angara used this to review some of the unfamiliar vernacular words he has to deliver.

The rhetorical devices helped the researcher categorize the performance of Sen. Sonny Angara to make his speech sound persuasive in the ears of the audience. The guideline of rhetorical devices is provided in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Rhetorical Devices Guideline

Rhetorical Devices Descriptions
Rhetorical Questions In Angara’s speech appear some rhetorical questions that emphasize his ideas and show his creativity.
Use of Pronouns “We” and “I” In the case of Senator Angara, he used “we” when discussing issues and concerns that need the cooperation of the whole or when pointing out positive things about the school.
Modality: will, should, can Used to help reflect the speakers’ ideas and intentions

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section presents the results and discussions guided by the questions that aim to identify the rhetorical appeals and the rhetorical strategies used by the speaker to make his speech sound persuasive and to seek an answer as to how does the speaker’s speech delivery used help to create effective speech.

  • Senator Sonny Angara’s Rhetorical Appeals

Logos Analysis: Assisting a privilege using non-transferable standards

The use of logical explanations also emerged in Angara’s speech, specifically on the part where he was discussing his platforms for the college, although minimal only. Some of his statements are the following:

         I’ve heard that in 2013, this college applied to be a state university but unfortunately did not make it due to some factors. Maybe this year, your dream of expanding your services farther will finally go the distance. Tutulong po tayo sa hangaring maging isang state university and MPSPC. (Let us work together to achieve MPSPC’s dreams to become a state university.)

Another statement:

         Batid po natin ang malubhang suliranin ng kakulangan ng trabaho sa kabataan lalong lalo na sa mga “at-risk” o wala sa iskwela o walang trabaho. (We were informed about the problem regarding jobs for the youth especially the “at-risk” or those out – of- school youth and no jobs at all.) This gave us more than enough to seek the passage of Republic Act 10869 that institutionalized the Job Start Program.

In the above statement, he tries to prove the importance of his membership in the Committee on Ways and Means and Committee on Local Government by pointing out standards such as source of income and the right to education for the attainment of MPSPC’s dreams to become a university. According to him, education is the basic needs of the people, which obviously, the government should provide.

He also pointed out his help to the youth about the Job Start that provides life skills training and internship sessions that expose jobless youth making them equipped to go into actual work.

Logos Analysis: Showing a Topic through Cause-and-Effect

Another technique used by Angara in his speech to support his propositions is by pointing out the possible, desirable, and concrete outcomes of his programs in behalf of the college.

              Some of his statements appear below:

      Hopefully, our government will continue to work hand-in-hand with all public colleges and universities—supporting them equitably and continuously, making sure that no learning institution is left out. Where a student from the Mountain provinces, South Cotabato, or Baler can get the same quality education—succeed—as any other are of the country.

Another statement:

         As a vice-chairman of Sub-Committee on Finance for SUCs, we have also been successful in putting additional funding to the MPSPC. This year’s national budget allocates P10 million for the construction of an academic building at your Tadian Campus; P1.5 million for rehabilitation and construction of multi-purpose buildings, including P5000,000 for sports facilities; and P3.5 million for the repair and improvement of facilities, and the purchase of equipment.

The above statements show that Senator Angara wanted to influence on the public (the audience during the occasion) that his platforms (the cause) will directly result in the achievement of the desired ends (e.g. universal, quality education, support for MPSPC’s progress). This further recommends that Sonny Angara wanted to give the MPSPC family an assurance that his programs would be the better way to accomplish the objectives of the government for MPSPC (effect).

Ethos Analysis: Perceived intelligence

Showing off the intelligence of Angara in his speech in adding some lines out from his scripted speech is one of the techniques he used to persuade his audience. One of his statements appears below:

         I am optimistic that just like MPSPC, this new administration will carry the lessons of the past in order to wield a better future for all of us. And while this may seem like it might take a while or that we are a long way off—(he added some story line in here)—remember, the distance doesn’t matter.

Senator Angara gave a short story factual information about he perceived education, his experience as a student, and a neophyte politician showing his competence and credibility to the audience that made his “resolution” speech sounds more convincing.

Ethos Analysis: Virtuous character

In obtaining s successful speech, Senator Angara created trustworthiness of the audience by showing his virtuous character to arouse the trust of his listeners. He employs his experiences, values, and motives to establish trustworthiness. Of his statements, he mentioned the following below:

         Napapawi po talaga ang pagod sa byahe dahil sa inyong mainit na pagtanggap. (You will be relived from being tired if you are warmly welcomed me.)  MPSPC, I thank you for your incredibly warm welcome! I’d specially like to thank the students who are currently inside the Eyeb [pronounced “uh-yeb”] gymnasium today. I heard today is the deadline for dropping of classes. Is that correct? If that’s so, is your presence a sign that you have no intention of dropping? Good. Sana nga po, (I hope so), wala sa inyo ang may balak mag drop. (No one from you have plans to drop.)

Senator Angara showed his humility and respect to thank everyone especially MPSPC for being warmly welcomed as the guest speaker. He emphasized MPSPC in this part showing his concern about the college’s faculty, staff, and students who help him establish responsibility. The last sentence indicates his optimistic character of concern about students ending his statement with the Filipino word of respect “PO.”

Ethos Analysis: Goodwill

Goodwill is an insight the audience forms of a speaker who they believe understands them, empathize with them, and is responsive to them (Verderber, Sellsnow, & Verderber, 2012). When the audience believes in the speaker’s goodwill, they are willing to believe what the speaker says like the statements below of Senator Angara:

         But it doesn’t matter. We are happy to see our brothers and sisters form MPSPC personally. The promise of meeting the educators, school workers, and students of the MPSPC—not to mention the allure of your famous pinikpikan (native chicken), etag (smoked pork), and patupat (sticky rice)—drew us here today. Every faraway place is home to somebody else. And isn’t it that seeing someone at their home is the best way to get to know them?

In this speech, it is very obvious that Senator Angara is very responsive to the audience, knows how to appreciate the native delicacies of the Bontoks, thanking the MPSPC family for the personal meeting with them. With this, he uses the local terms to gain positive responses from his audience.

Pathos Analysis: Confidence

According to [2], confidence comes when someone believes that he or she is superior to others and often experiences success. Senator Angara shows his confidence by saying:

         In fact, in the country we want to build—in the country we are dreaming of—distance won’t matter. The government of that country will be just as willing not only to get to know its people, but also to help them—no matter how far or remote they are. Theirs is a saying, “Everything is within walking distance, if you have the time.” In my view, everything is within walking distance, depending on how far you are willing to walk. And the country we want is ready to travel far and wide—willing to go the distance, so to speak—as long as we arrive where we want to go.

By expressing his confidence, he shows his optimistic character to the audience.

Pathos Analysis: Admiration/Appreciation

Admiration comes when someone obtain life’s goods through hard work rather than mere luck ([7]). He also said that admiration grows when people see other’s wealth and beauty. Angara shows his admiration towards the beauty of Mountain Province and wealth towards MPSPC as demonstrated below:

         Right now, we are about 5,000 feet above sea level, compared to Metro manila, which is just around 30-50 feet above sea level. There is not a building or skyscraper in sight. Instead, we are surrounded by vast green vistas of mountain and rice terraces. Where we in Manila are used to see bright lights at night, you see stars. In many ways, you live closer to the sky. And maybe that is why you are used to aiming high, evidenced by the storied achievements of your institution.

Other statements of appreciation:

         Good morning to us all! Gawigawis ay wi-it taku am-in [Igorot]! Naimbag nga aldaw kadatayu amin [Ilocano].

         Either way, a happy 25th anniversary to MPSPC! What started in 1992 has clearly blossomed into one of the most respected colleges in the region. Congratulations!

         You can see this already happening all around the Philippines—including here at the MPSPC. In 2007, you achieved SUC level 111 status from the previous level 1 status in 2004 and have maintained this path towards excellence up to this day. In fact, you Criminology graduates have consistently been put in the spotlight due to you high passing rate in the licensure examinations. Some of your passers even go as far as getting to the top 5 of the entire country.

Pathos Analysis: Family Referencing

To create further emotional response from the audience, Senator Sonny Angara also referenced his family in supporting his ideas. These include his father, whom he implies as influential individual to him. Centring on his father, he said:

         It ay pagpapatuloy po sa sinimulan ng aking ama na si dating Senador Edgardo Angara na naging malapit na din ang puso sa Cordilleras. In fact, in 2007, he funded the construction of the P7M Indigenous Peoples Centre in your Tadian Campus. As an advocate of quality and innovative education, he has also provided funds for the conceptualization and organization of a research program called “Restoring the Grandeur of the Cordillera” which was conducted by the six SUCs in the region—including the MPSPC.

Pathos Analysis: Empathy

Lastly, it also emerged in Angara’s speech his attempt to make the audience feel that he is also an Igorot, particularly on their goals, anticipations, trials and daily struggles. The promise to be with every Igorots (MPSPCians, rather) in searching for quality education and in attaining an excellent university during his term as senator is a kind of empathy. Furthermore, he used his being a senator as basis specifically on the issue of quality infrastructure, to quote:

         It is a place where everyone is free to go anywhere within the country with ease. We are glad to note that the DPWH’s 450 billion pesos budget for 2017 has been set to implement what the administration dubbed as the “most ambitious infrastructure project in the history of the country.” This ensures that even the remotest of communities are connected with the rest of the country.

Still, he continues on inclusive opportunities, to quote:

         We are working to bridge not only ourselves to one another, but also to job and livelihood opportunities. Mithiin po natin ang hinaharap kung saan hindi na kailangan magtungo sa mga syudad na sentro ng komerso para makahanap ng trabaho o negosyo. (Let us face the future that jobs can’t be offered only to the cities which are centre of commerce.)

From his lines, it is obvious that he is connecting himself to the audience in relevance to the question he wants to impart: So what is that country that we want to get to?

  • Senator Angara’s Rhetorical Strategies

This is to answer the second problem in this paper. The researcher analysed four (4) components anchored from Nikitina’s speech delivery styles.

Storytelling

Reference [12] explained that this speech delivery style is a medium used by public speakers in sharing a story for a variety of purposes. Take for instance, that Angara shared his experiences when he was still a student that the CAR is not a new place for him since his family used to be connected to the famous “Café by the Ruins” in Baguio city and he used to hang out with Igorot friends from the region.

He also shared his story how he was able to co-sponsor the Senate Bill No. 1304, to quote:

         …and realizing that school infrastructure and facilities should be complemented by the student’s willingness to educate themselves, just this Tuesday, I also co-sponsored the Senate Bill No. 1304 of the “Free Higher Education for All Act,” making all SUCs tuition fee free.

Body Language

This is a type of nonverbal communication that is also an important part of speech delivery. Sen. Sonny Angara uses body language to emphasize some of his key messages to the audience as he delivers his speech. Several significant body movements can be seen during his speech on stage. They are the posture and positioning of the body in front of the podium.

These body movements were observed to demonstrate Angara’s relaxed and upright posture in front of the audience while avoiding unnecessary body movements. The delivery of the Senator’s speech on stage is so clear that the audience feels comfortable expressing their interest in the Senator’s speech. He only pauses for a moment when he brings up important issues, eliciting a flurry of applause from the audience.

The researcher noticed that Angara had already established a connection with the audience and won their hearts at the start of the speech. Throughout his speech, he frequently moves his right hand to convey most of his important messages, such as free tuition, MPSPC’s achievements, how he pronounces some of the vernacular words he learned, and so on. He turns his body to face the audience and maintains eye contact with everyone in the gym, especially those in the bleachers on his left side and the MPSPC staff and Bontoc officials seated on stage.

Tone of Voice

His tone of voice performance was carried out at such a rate that even those in the back of the gymnasium could hear him hold every word he expresses. To be precise, he delivered his speech in 48 minutes, with a volume of voice that varies depending on the impression of his lines. If the lines are as important as they are boldly highlighted in his transcript, he creates a high volume to emphasize these marks, and when he narrates a story about his experiences, he tones down his voice and delivers a slow and clear narration.

Pauses

Senator Angara achieves the limit of his speech by pausing during it. He clearly pauses whenever there are external and internal punctuation marks in his transcript. When he mentions a very important and significant message that causes an uproar in the audience, he tries a long pause to allow the audience to calm down before continuing his message.

  • Senator Angara’s technique utilized to create effective speech?

Rhetorical Devices

Senator Angara also utilized some rhetorical devices to make his speech sound persuasive in the ears of the audience.

Rhetorical Questions

In Angara’s speech appear some rhetorical questions that emphasize his ideas and show his creativity. This statement includes:

So what is that country that we want to get to?

Angara’s question above is essentially a rhetorical question that must not be answered because the answer is already expected and expected to be complimentary to him. As a result, the purpose of this question is to emphasize that Senator Sonny Angara is the answer to the people’s question about the future of MPSPC.

Use of Pronouns “We” and “I”

The use of the personal pronouns “we” and “I” in specific instances in speeches is common among speakers. Senator Angara, for example, frequently used the pronoun “we” when deliberating problems and concerns that are critical to the cooperation of the entire MPSPC family, or when directing out encouraging and optimistic things about the college and his travel experience in coming to the Mountain Provinces. Some examples are as follows:

   We are glad that we are about 5,000 feet above sea level.

   We are surrounded by vast green vistas of mountain and rice terraces.

   Where we from manila…

   We travelled close…

   We don’t often travel this far…

   We are happy to see our brothers and sisters…

   We are dreaming of-…

   Where we want to go..

The examples above are just a few of Angara’s declarations using the pronoun “we.” In fact, the pronoun was used 21 times in his speech, indicating Angara’s intention to send a message that his aspirations and desires are for MPSPC and always involve the MPSPC family. Angara used the first-person personal pronoun “I” in addition to the plural personal pronoun “we,” implying that he attempted to emphasize his own self and personal stand on certain issues in order to stand out to the audience. Here are a few examples:

              I thank you for your incredible warm welcome!

              I would specially like to thank the students…

              I heard today is the deadline…

              I have heard that in 2013, this college…

              I am hopeful, that with your support…

              I am optimistic that just like MPSPC, this new administration…

              I congratulate you all for your 25 years of excellence!

In this case, Angara focused on himself as the doer of the actions, which suggests that together with the help of the people, his aims for MPSPC would successfully materialize. In doing so, he sends a message to thank the people of Bontoc for a warm welcome to the town.

Modality: will, should, and can

The rhetorical strategies that Angara employed was his continuous usage of modal verbs will, should and can. Therefore, modal verbs’ purpose is not only used as auxiliary words but also as evocative and suggestive lexicons that provides reflections to the speakers’ ideas and intentions. Established in his speech are the following:

(Can) But of course, we can do more.

You can see this already happening all around the Philippines…

(Will) Hopefully, our government will continue to work hand in hand…

Tutulong po tayo para sa hangaring maging state university ang MPSPC. (We will help one another to attain the aim of MPSPC of becoming a state university.)

(Should) And realizing that the school’s infrastructure and facilities should be complemented by the student’s willingness to educate themselves.

Angara’s use of the modal “should” imply that the topic or issue he revealed is of enormous importance, and that he must apply them and make them happen and materialize. Semantically, the modal “will” be also used to reveal a fact or action that will happen or be done with certainty in the future. In other words, it is used to make a promise that the speaker will undoubtedly keep. According to this point of view, Angara appears to excite and motivate the audience by stating that he is dedicated and faithful to fulfilling the promises he made in his speech that captivated the audience.

CONCLUSIONS

Senator Angara understands that words are a powerful tool in his speech as a good orator. His appropriate word choice is as important as the distribution of his purpose in his speech. To persuade the audience, he tried to choose words that are clear, accurate, descriptive, and short, as well as words that are organized efficiently, coherently, and correctly. In his speech, every word has value, meaning, and performance. Indeed, rhetoric is more than just empty words in political speeches because it is concerned with language and how the speaker used it on the occasion. The examination of Senator Sonny Angara’s speech revealed that rhetoric embraces countless and limitless reputation as a political mechanism in any political race. As a result of elections being a conflict and meeting of influential and influential skills, politicians should develop and employ such skills comprehensively to their advantage. The techniques of classical rhetoric can be seen in the further analysis of the linguistic features of Sonny Angara’s speech, which still resemble the Greek archetypal structure of persuasive speech that employs the three types of appeal, ethos, pathos, and logos, to generate an appropriate persona that would eventually encourage and convince the spectators. The researcher applied Nikitina’s theory of speech delivery to determine the effectiveness of Senator Angara’s speech delivery style.

Moreover, by using different sorts of rhetorical strategies in his work, Senator Angara is talented and capable of fashioning this accurate and detailed remarkable impression style to arouse emotional responses in the audience during the 25th Charter Anniversary of MPSPC in Bontoc, Mountain Province last January 27, 2017.

RECOMMENDATIONS

It is advised that additional studies with rhetorical evidence be taught, not only as guidelines for developing a strong persuasive speech in communication arts, but also to help students improve their ability to develop strong justifications for their claims in literary analyses about social realities and social awareness.

Political speeches should be studied as a distinct genre in the lessons on Discourse Analysis and Persuasive Communication for the students in English.

Aristotle’s Theory of Rhetoric and Nikitina’s notion of speech delivery should be studied in more depth by students.

REFERENCES

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