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Supply Chain Management Practices and Problems Encountered by a Catering Business in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya Using SCOR Model

  • Doria, Charm Sherie M.
  • Madronio, Alexandria Vea M.
  • Napudo, Breneth S.
  • Perez, Joewell, C.
  • Salcedo, Jamieca, A.
  • Villanueva, Joan Valerie, P.
  • Garra, Angela C.
  • 1602-1626
  • Jun 15, 2024
  • Business Management

Supply Chain Management Practices and Problems Encountered by a Catering Business in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya Using SCOR Model

Doria, Charm Sherie M.1, Madronio, Alexandria Vea M.2, Napudo, Breneth S.3, Perez, Joewell, C.4, Salcedo, Jamieca, A.5, Villanueva, Joan Valerie, P.6, Garra, Angela C., MBA7

1,2,3,4,5,6Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management, School of Accountancy and Business, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

7Faculty of the School of Accountancy and Business, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines


Received: 21 April 2024; Revised: 09 May 2024; Accepted: 14 May 2024; Published: 15 June 2024


Catering is necessary, as a large part of any event or party revolves around food. Food catering can provide meals and services smoothly and prepare for an event. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the supply chain management practices and problems encountered by a catering business using the SCOR model in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. This study is a qualitative descriptive research design. It is a case study with interview guide questions as a major instrument in gathering the data. It is utilized to obtain information about the practices and problems encountered by food catering businesses using the SCOR model. Meetings and menu planning are part of the planning process for food catering; the ingredients and supplies needed were sourced from various vendors and bought the day before the event. They observe food handling guidelines when preparing and doing mise en place, and if the food is packaged safely, their hired cars will deliver it. After the event,the food is taken home by the guests. The inconsistency of clients decisions regarding their events and their high expectations but low budget were the problems faced in planning and sourcing by the food catering sector. The shortage of goods and raw materials required for production was the issue with sourcing. They prepare meals on time, and when it comes to delivery, their hired cars are used to deliver the prepared and finished food. Regarding food returns, the food catering establishment has not experienced any issues.

Keywords: Changing weather, Food catering establishment, High expectation, Leftover food, Rented vehicles.


Supply chain management is delivering a product from raw material to the consumer. Supply chain management enables the interchange of goods between firms and customers, laying the groundwork for economic progress. The entities that compose the supply chain make the significant role of supply chain management and its impact on economic growth possible. Strategic supply chain management activities can have an advantageous impact across the organization (Anaplan, n.d.).

Most ingredients in food and beverage businesses are from natural foods: vegetables, fruits, and spices. The vegetables, fruits, and spices are locally grown by the farmers in their places and distributed to their customers, who are the owners of the food and beverage businesses that produce the goods they offer. Producers and farmers, processors, distributors, retailers, and food establishments are only a few of the food system sectors involved in local and regional food supply chains. Global, national, regional, and local are just a few of the scales at which food supply networks can be viewed (Bates, n.d.).

The food supply chain refers to the process food products go through from producer to buyer and consumer. Food supply chains have recently expanded remarkably, with more legal actions than ever (Lewis, 2022).

Doing business is not as easy as it seems; that is why many starting businesses are on a good track in their early growth. However, after a few months of operation, they struggle to sustain what they gain in their early growth. However, supply chain management will help the business be organized in its production flow. It will be a huge help in sustaining the business. Supply chain management systems minimize costs, waste, and manufacturing cycle time. The industry standard is a just-in-time supply chain in which retail sales automatically convey orders for restocking to manufacturers. Then, as soon as an item is sold, shops may be restocked (IBM, n.d.).

At this time, the rapid growth of the catering business was seen in each place, especially after the pandemic, wherein many people missed the celebration of special occasions with their relatives, friends, and neighbors; that is why many people get a catering service. By availing of a catering service, people can experience less hassle and have more time to spend with their relatives, friends, and neighbors instead of preparing and serving their guests. Admin (2020) states that considering your many food choices is a fantastic place to start when planning an event. Each variety has a unique planning, pricing, and ordering process.

Catering is not just about the decorations and equipment needed for an event; food catering is included as lifestyles change because of urbanization worldwide. The demand for food catering increases, especially during the pandemic, as catering and food services offer services on a contractual basis.

Catering is a service that provides food to the client’s location and may also cook and serve it there. Full-service caterers that prepare, distribute, set up, and serve during an event are also available everywhere. A catering service may purchase or cook food from a contractor or third party to deliver to the client. Waiters, waitresses, and busboys are typically dispatched to prepare tables and serve meals on sit-down eating occasions. The caterer may send personnel to put up chafing dishes, bowls, and platters full of food, replace them, and serve food to attendees at buffets and formal and informal parties. Carpilio (2022) stated that a company that uses supply chain management can forge closer ties with its customers and suppliers. Your needs and the chosen providers will be better aligned, and you will have more options, better prices, and orders completed on time.

In every restaurant, the flow of the operation inside and outside of it is very important. It starts with purchasing the ingredients and materials that must be supervised and monitored until the delivery and putting the food on the customers’ table. With an organized flow, a good service will reflect on the outcome, and the process is the key to providing it. Food supply chain management is the basis for manufacturing, processing, and transforming raw materials and semi-finished goods from significant activities like forestry, agriculture, zoo technology, finishing, and many more (Dubey et al., 2017).

The researchers conducted this study because of the limited studies about catering businesses’ supply chain management practices. The findings of this study assist any food catering business in improving their supply chain management practices and identifying the problems they encounter to become more efficient and effective in providing their services. In addition, due to the limited studies conducted on supply chain management, specifically on food catering, the findings can be used as instructional material in the supply chain management course in the hospitality industry as an example in the discussion of the lessons. Also, this research is useful for future researchers who want to do a similar study with a wider scope and another point of interest.

Supply Chain and Supply Chain Management Practices of Businesses in the Hospitality

Supply chain management in the hospitality sector requires understanding how it differs from other sectors regarding operating principles. Operating costs are relatively cheap compared to the substantial capital costs in the industries (Fire, 2016). Key Practices include integrating C-SCRM throughout the organization, developing a formal C-SCRM program, and identifying and managing critical suppliers. It is advisable to understand the organization’s supply chain, work closely with important suppliers, include them in resilience and improvement initiatives, assess and monitor the relationship with suppliers throughout the relationship, and plan for the full life cycle (Winkler, 2022).

The best supply chain management techniques have become vital to stay competitive in the global race (Okongwu et al., 2017). Supply chain management practices at businesses focus on supply chain performance, top management commitment, and innovation. The study’s primary goal is to examine the relationship between supply chain management methods and supply chain performance and the role played by innovation and top management commitment (Xu & Zhao, 2022). Sandhu et al. (2018) stated that Supply chain management processes are the essential tasks and actions determining a supply chain’s effectiveness and success. By combining operations, activities, and processes both internally and externally with other partners, the supply chain management concept aims to increase a company’s supply chains’ long-term competitive performance.

With that, supply chain management is not only seen in food catering. It is also present in the automobile industry. According to Muhibbulla (2019), the automotive industry’s biggest challenges are market competition and uncertainty. The vehicle industry may overcome this challenge by developing better technologies, raw materials, and finished goods. They must lessen their heavy reliance on regional and international technology agreements and local markets despite the limited consequences of the current global crisis. Malaysia’s automotive industry does not export much; this is only a brief respite. However, the automotive industry’s ability to profit during the crisis is falling, as is domestic demand. The supply chain management process was present as they devised the solution to the obstacle.

The pandemic enormously affected food establishments; many are now unable to operate. As a result, airline catering findings indicate that the supply chain needs to adjust its performance criteria, particularly those linked to responsiveness and reliability. The performance indicators for effective asset management tend to be less effective. It is concluded that prioritization techniques, e.g., In an emergency circumstance like the COVID-19 pandemic, Moscow will assist airline catering supply chain performance metrics considerations to help them manage service delivery and effectiveness in highly uncertain times (Rajaratnam, 2021).

The handling of the supply chain at McDonald’s is particularly unique, and there are very few workers paid by McDonald’s. The external organizations are admirably well-controlled. McDonald’s has adequately built its processes and rapidly expanded in response to the fast food market. The method can also be applied to other sectors (Sharma, 2013).

Businesses that deal in specialty order items should use the agile model. This model enables flexibility, which is essential in responsiveness-focused supply chain models. It is primarily used by businesses in sectors with erratic demand. This model uses a “made-to-order” approach, which enables the creation of things after receiving a customer order instead of finishing pre-production. The capacity to accommodate additional capabilities in the event of large orders and the capability to complete buy orders in the smallest batches possible are required for this model to function optimally (Curoe, 2020).

The supply chain management practices were used in different businesses like Automobile, McDonalds, and Airline Catering, but food catering businesses have limited research; thus, the researchers conducted a study about supply chain management in catering businesses using the SCOR model.

Supply Chain Management Problems in Food Establishments

The challenges of physical distribution, quality performance, delivery dependability, cost-effectiveness, agility to respond to changes in supply and demand, inadequate logistics, and a lack of shared vision among the parties are just a few of the issues that can arise in supply chain management in production settings. Other issues include supply disruption, ineffective integration and coordination of functional units, capacity, and resource availability issues, a failure to adapt to market changes, organizational bottlenecks within supply chain facilities, inaccurate information shared between extended enterprises, and delays in financial transactions (Ongbali, 2019).

Every partner firm’s processes must be planned and managed with the supply chain in mind. Suppose the supply chain is properly managed by all parties involved. In that case, its challenges and risks can be eliminated. Supply chain management is a tool that will change the business world. By engaging in this discipline, a company will gain the competitive edge and tools necessary to conduct successful and strategic business (Kumpukwe, 2016).

SCM has become a significant issue for manufacturers, professionals, and researchers. Adequate awareness of the overall structure of the supply chain is perceived to be vital to good management. Organizing the primary supply chain activities methodically provides state-of-the-art information in SCM (Borade, 2007).

Food Industry in Catering Business

The changing lifestyles and urbanization in the world have changed the demand for food catering services in the past years. The food catering industry provides services every day or at a particular event. Catering services like banquet halls, airline services, and canteen catering are all included in catering and food service(“Catering and Food Service Market Impacts Higher Demand Due to Increasing Contribution by Major Player. – Free Online Library,” n.d.)

One of the most flexible business sectors in the food and beverage industry is catering services. In particular, many catering businesses have been established in the past ten years. Generally, fusion cooking was one of the dishes catered by these businesses. This case study involves a comprehensive analysis of the catering industry’s operations and practices to contribute original, distinctive knowledge from real people in a real organization and assess how they provide services to their clients and comply with hygienic standards (Umblero et al. 2016). Since the catering sector is unregulated, anybody can start a catering firm and identify herself as a caterer. Therefore, there is a lot of competition going on. Another way to think of catering is as a service that offers a pleasant change of pace from homemade meals. People enjoy food and drink, such as meals and snacks prepared and served in various pleasant settings (Modern Concept in the Catering Industry, 2017).

The benefit of having food catering at a wedding is that it allows young people to focus on getting ready for the wedding instead of being stressed; the catering will do everything. Comfort was present at a residence wedding, and this is one example. It is convenient and comforting when the company arrives home with its materials, food, and service staff. Many people find themselves more at ease at home. Additionally, you might save a lot of time traveling if the house is far from restaurants and the city center. Due to the difficulty of creating the desired atmosphere in a restaurant, decoration is another significant benefit of wedding catering that they can offer. Many restaurants aren’t even permitted to make changes to their dining areas. Any menu could be formed, as caterers can create a suitable meal based on their clients’ preferences. For example, a menu for vegetarians. Catering will help us in this, as the restaurant won’t be able to make that meal because they have a regulated, unique menu. Individuality in the design and menu choices greatly benefits many people. In addition, the primary advantages of this service are the dishes’ portability and expert delivery, made possible by the use of special equipment (thermal boxes) by catering businesses (Vafokulova, 2022).

Catering in the Philippines

Corporate catering is a trend that is expected to continue in the Philippines. Companies constantly seek experts who can offer more than just delicious food. They desire an overall experience that will serve as a lasting and memorable event in the company’s existence (Corporate Catering Philippines, n.d.). The Philippines’ increasing popularity was rapid because of the different variety of foods. The capital of the Philippines is recognized for the multiple dishes, foods, and most especially street foods that can be bought at Quiapo Market, Legazpi Sunday Market, and our nation’s famous market Chinatown, Binondo (Know before you go: the Philippines, 2021). Alba Catering, Agusteau Verde Baguio Catering, Pampangueos Catering, and Super Mart are among some of the best caterers in the Philippines (Top Caterers in the Philippines – List of Caterers Philippines. n.d.).

Catering in Nueva Vizcaya

Nueva Vizcaya is one of the provinces on the Luzon island of Cagayan Valley Region. Bayombong serves as its capital. Due to its lovely temperature, Nueva Vizcaya is often known as lowland Baguio. The province primarily has an agricultural economy, and trade, industry, and commerce contribute to its growth and progress (Patrick, 2022). Catering services are one of the expanding industries in Nueva Vizcaya. Catering is important since food plays a major role in almost every event and party. An expert catering business saves time by offering delicious food and high-quality service. It helps lift a heavy burden off their clients’ shoulders. Decades ago, Didipio used to be a tranquil community where farming and small-scale mining were both important sources of income. Years later, the region has a bustling multi-modal awareness of the supply chain’s overall structure, which is vital to good management. Million-dollar community business that offers top-notch services to satisfied customers, primarily a large mining corporation. DiCorp’s staff works continuously day and night to prepare various dishes for shifts that last all day and night at the mining site. DiCorp’s extensive menu features many fish, poultry, meat, and vegetables catering to Western and Filipino delicacies. Over a thousand employees and about 700 campers consume an average of 2,536 buffet dinners daily from Didipio Camp Catering. “We give our workers exceptional service training. “Our goal is to provide memorable and satisfying food experiences for all of our customers, including campers, VIPs, and visitors, and to be consistently hospitable and friendly,” As stated by DiCorp General Manager Simplicia Ananayo, three times per day, seven days a week, The Didipio Restaurant and Catering Services feed more than 1,000 employees and visitors (RGEntRibirthFURD, 2019).

In the province of Nueva Vizcaya, there are a lot of caterers. These are some of the top-rated caterers: Ate J’s Event and Catering Services, located in Solano, Nueva Vizcaya; Odeth Event Management Services is located in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya; Vhal’s Catering is located in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya; and Tasha’s Catering Wonders is located in Bonfalwest, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.

Tasha’s Catering Wonders is a budget-friendly catering and event planner. It specializes in once-in-a-lifetime events, just like weddings and birthday celebrations. It offers different packages for different occasions that suit the client’s wants at a low budget-friendly price.

SCOR Model

The Supply Chain Council (SCC) recently made some changes and developments to supply chain management, which refers to the Supply Chain Operation Reference Model or SCOR model. It helps the company communicate the value chain practices, including the levels that help satisfy customer demands.

The SCC global nonprofit organization was established in 1996. The SCOR model helps any firm have or create a management procedure. The model created will nurture the systems and practices in achieving excellence in a supply chain that creates a benchmarking that companies must achieve the stabilization of supply chain practices by use of standardized technology and processes. To identify the scales of future operational and financial progress, this benchmarking assists in monitoring and measuring operational performance and links it directly to the company’s financial performance (Ahmed, 2014).

Knowledge regarding supply chain management will be quite useful when entering the business sector. “Success in business knows no age,” according to the Mark Angelo M. Mangalino case (Mae, 2022). As one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Philippines, at the age of 20, he opened a catering business, Kusinegro Catering Services, and held events at Kusinegro’s Kitchen House of Sizzling. The SCOR model has led to great success as he starts from planning up to delivering and returning. The same is true of Steve Tamayo, a native Bulakeño, who established Tamayo’s Catering Services and Restaurant in 1995 and brought his years of experience in the food and beverage sector. He had previously worked for several renowned hotels, including the Le Meridien in Kuwait and the Hyatt in Manila. Tamayo worked hard to provide his customers with satisfaction and an outstanding level of service as a sole proprietorship, with only a handful of employees (and friends from the industry) believing in the striving company (Tamayo’s Catering, n.d.).

Figure 1 SCOR Model (Sketchbubble, 2022)

The above figure shows the supply chain drivers of the SCOR model of supply chain, which are:

– Plan

– Source

– Make

– Deliver


The SCOR Model is structured by sections and organized according to the five fundamental management processes: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, and Return. The process-building elements can be described using common meanings, either simple or highly complicated supply chains. Hence, global projection and site-specific projects link various industries that depict almost any supply chain; this model will describe efficiently and offer a framework that helps in value chain management and improvement of supply chains (AIMS, n.d.).

Analytical and Conceptual Framework

Supply chain management helps a business to its competitor as it includes the company’s operations and can be used as a competitive edge in the market because it involves the procedures from raw materials into finished goods, and this involves the management of the cycle in the movement of the goods and services (Fernando, 2022).

Figure 2. Diagrammatic Information (Source: Supply Chain Council)

The SCOR model was used as the framework for our research. A normal situation comprises six main components: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, Return, and Enable.  The plan includes activities related to supply planning, demand planning, and forecasting; sourcing and procurement of materials fall under source; manufacturing and production activities fall under make; deliver covers maneuvering and warehousing of the stock and delivering the product to the customer; and post-sales activities such as after-sales service, feedback, and customer care fall under return.

Any supply chain organization can use the supply chain operations references model (SCOR) to gauge its efficiency and effectiveness in benchmarking the reference point. In collaboration with 70 of the world’s leading manufacturing companies, this model was developed by the Supply Chain Council (SCC). Due to its broad scope and flexibility, this model is the “most promising model for supply chain strategic decision-making.” The variables of our study are the six components of the SCOR model, which include Planning, Sourcing, Making, Manufacturing, Delivery, Return, and Enabling.

Planning: Activities that create a blend of balanced demand and supply and help in meeting demand and supply requirements.

Sourcing: Activities involved in the procurement process of goods or hiring process of services to aid in meeting the demand.

Manufacturing: Activities that help in the production of goods and services to fulfill the demand requirements.

Delivery: Activities that help deliver the final product to the customer on time.

Return: Activities that ensure the implementation and evaluation of recycling and customer feedback strategies.

The Research Paradigm

Figure 3 Research Paradigm

The diagram presented above shows the three variables presented in the study. The first box contains the profile of the informants, such as their age, position, and year of service. The second box shows the supply chain management practices and problems encountered by food catering businesses and how they addressed the problems regarding planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return. It also includes the research tools used: interviews and document scanning for their qualitative-descriptive type of research. Finally, the last box presents the expected results of the interview and the recommendation based on the study results.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the supply chain management practices and problems encountered by a food catering business in Bayombong using the SCOR model theory for the first quarter of 2023.

 Specifically, the researchers sought to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the profile of the informants in terms of:

1.1 age;

1.2 position; and

1.3 years of service?

  1. What are the supply chain management practices of the food catering business in terms of:

2.1. planning;

2.2. sourcing;

2.3. making;

2.4. delivery; and

2.5. return?

  1. What are the problems encountered by the food catering business, and how they addressed these problems:

3.1. planning;

3.2. sourcing;

3.3. making;

3.4. delivery; and

3.5. return?


Research Design

The case study approach is used in the study’s qualitative-descriptive design. Qualitative because the researchers employed interview guide questions to gather data about the supply chain management practices and problems encountered by a food catering business in Bayombong Nueva, Vizcaya, using the SCOR model theory. The qualitative descriptive method summarized factual information about the human experience with more attention to the feel of the data’s subjective content. It is concerned with the circumstances of relationships that exist, the methods that are used, the results that are perceived, or the trends that are emerging. Document scanning was also conducted to substantiate the findings of the study. The face-to-face interview was conducted for at most 20 minutes with the owner and employees in charge of the supply chain activities of the catering business.

Research Locale

Hailed as the citrus capital of the Philippines, Nueva Vizcaya is such a spectacular sight to behold. Like elsewhere in the country, it is a paradise full of friendly locals, exquisite cuisine, and priceless, unforgettable memories just waiting to be explored. In addition to being the lowland Baguio, as most travelers refer to it, because of its calm temperature and prominent location on the national map, it is also the location of various resting places (Haven, 2022). Due to this, some tourists and local people chose to hold their events in this beautiful province. For their convenience, people here in Nueva Vizcaya chose to go to catering. There are many catering businesses around, and the researchers approached several first before choosing the one that consented to be part of the study. This study was conducted at one of the catering businesses in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. This catering business provides catering services and event planning, specializes in wedding and birthday celebrations, and has been actively operating for over four years. The establishment is located in Bonfal West, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. With their tagline “Finest Budget Event Planner.” Mostly, they cater to the places around Nueva Vizcaya, such as Aritao, Bagabag, Bambang, Bayombong, Lamut, Sta Fe, and Solano.

Research Informants

The identified food catering business informants are the key players in the supply chain management activities of the business establishment using the SCOR model. All regular employees willing to participate in the study, including the owner, were considered informants. The new contractual employees who have been with them once were not included in the informants. The identified population included those who are in charge of each of the activities, including the owner. The activities are planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return. In choosing informants, the researchers used purposive sampling, a non-probability sampling technique. It is used to identify the specific informants with all the information needed for this study.

Research Instruments

The researchers used interview guide questions as a major instrument in gathering the data. It is utilized to obtain information about the practices and problems encountered by food catering businesses using a SCOR model. The interview guide questions have four parts. Part 1 consists of the profile of the informants, such as their age, position in the department, and years of service. Part 2 comprises the question regarding the supply chain management practices of the catering business in terms of planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return. Part 3 consists of the problems encountered by food catering businesses and how they address them in planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return. Part 4 contains recommendations to improve the supply chain management of the food catering business.

Data Gathering Procedure

Figure 4 Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers presented the interview guide question to the adviser-promoter and panelists for their input and approval. The researchers laid out and presented the mandated interview guide questions for content confirmation to guarantee that the questionnaire items were evident and understandable to the informants.

Next, the researchers sent a letter to the owner to identify the employees who could be interviewed per variable, and the researchers sent individual letters to the employees asking permission for their willingness to participate in the research study. Then, the researchers administered the Informed Consent Form to the informants to seek their approval to be interviewed.

After this, the researchers conducted the interview. The informants are interviewed one-on-one personally since face-to-face contact is now allowed. The duration of the interview is approximately 20 minutes.

Lastly, the researchers transcribed all the collected data, and the analyst checked it.

Treatment of Data

This study used interview guide questions to collect relevant information aligned with the research objectives. It utilized a qualitative descriptive analysis. The recording was thematically analyzed. A thematic analysis analyzes a set of experiences, ideas, or actions across data to find a similar pattern. Furthermore, in thematic analysis, some steps are conducted by the researchers that include the following: familiarization of the data, input of data, creating themes, assessing themes, defining and labeling themes, and lastly, writing all the analyzed data. Thematic analysis is one of the most common forms of qualitative research analysis. It emphasizes identifying, analyzing, and interpreting patterns of meaning within qualitative data.

Ethical Considerations

This study was approved by the Saint Mary’s University Research Ethics Board (SMUREB) at Saint Mary’s University, Ponce Street, Don Mariano Marcos, Bayombong, 3700 Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines, with a cellphone number: 09177053041 and email:

There is no personal relationship between the researchers and the informants to the study. There is no conflict of interest between the study’s researchers and informants.

There is no known risk in the informants’ participation in the study and no direct benefit to the informants either. However, their contributions were valuable in assessing the supply chain management practices and problems encountered by a food catering business in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, using the SCOR model and the problems they encountered in the supply chain.

An informed consent form is addressed to the informants. The purpose and significance of the study are discussed with the concerned participants. To secure the informants’ privacy, their names are not included. After the study is completed and bound in a book, all the data will be deleted for good.

The study involves conducting a personal interview with the informants. The time to conduct the study is at the convenience of the participants. The planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return employees will participate in this study.

Their participation is voluntary, and they could withdraw without explanation.

Information and ideas from various authors are cited throughout the paper using the APA citation style.

Saint Mary’s University is the sole owner of the intellectual property of the study, but the researchers remain as authors.


This chapter includes a summary of the data collected from the heads and employees of the Department of Food Catering. The data obtained from the informants was first subjected to analysis. The researchers categorized the data by compiling similar responses among the heads and employees per department regarding planning, sourcing, manufacturing, delivery, and return. In such a manner, it was easier for the researchers to identify the practices and problems that food catering encounters. Furthermore, data from document scanning done on the catering company’s given documents relevant to its planning is also presented. They were analyzed and interpreted in response to the problem.

Section 1. Profile of the Informants

Table 1 Age of the Informants

Age Frequency Percentage
21 2 20%
22 1 10%
23 3 30%
24 1 10%
30 1 10%
40 1 10%
44 1 10%
Total 10 100%

Table 1 presents the age of the informants. Among the ten identified informants, there are 2 (20%) 21 years old, 1 (10%) 22 years old, 3 (30%) 23 years old, 1 (10%) 24 years old, 1 (10%) 30 years old, 1 (10%) 40 years old, and 1 (10%) 44 years old. This implies an age diversity in the business; the highest percentage is 23 years old. Studies show that an age-diverse workplace improves a company’s overall performance. Age diversity improves employee turnover rates, meaning more skilled and experienced employees at your business. While younger employees may have a tighter grasp on technology, older workers may have strong interpersonal skills. Combining these talents in an age-diverse workplace strengthens your company as a whole (Mt,2020)

Table 2 Position in the Department

Position in the Department Frequency Percentage
Planning 2 20%
Sourcing – Making 3 30%
Delivery – Return 3 30%
Return 2 20%
Total 10 100%

Table 2 presents the positions of the informants in the department. Two (20%) informants are assigned to the planning; they meet with their clients and plan for their event. Three (30%) said they were assigned to Sourcing and Making, where they choose suppliers for food preparations. Three (30%) of the informants said that they were part of the delivery and return, where they delivered the food to the venue and returned the equipment and tools that were used in the event, and two (20%) of the informants said that they were only part of the return, where they ensure the implementation and evaluation of recycling and gather feedback. This implies that there are more employees in sourcing-making and delivery-return.Caterers have a much larger workforce for cooking and serving meals at various events. In charge of preparing, delivering, and serving (Top Duties and Qualifications, 2023).

Table 3 Years of Service

Years of Service Frequency Percentage
5 years 2 20%
4 years 1 10%
3 years 2 20%
2 years 3 30%
4 months 1 10%
2 months 1 10%
Total 10 100%

In terms of years in service, there are 2 (20%) of the informants who have worked at food catering for 5 years already; one (10%) of the informants has worked for 4 years; and 2 (20%) informants stated that they have been in the service for about 3 years. Three (30%) informants also shared that they have been in the service for about 2 years, and one (10%) said it’s been 4 months. One (10%) shared that it’s been 2 months since he started working in the catering business. This implies that the catering business has a lot of loyal employees. Generally, loyal employees are punctual, do their jobs well, contribute to the company’s culture, and are committed to the success of your company (Cleave, 2023)

Section 2. Supply Chain Management Practices of the Food Catering Business

Figure 5 Diagrammatic Presentation of SCM Practices

Supply chain management practices tend to coordinate supply, demand, and relationships to successfully and profitably satisfy customers. Tracking a supplier’s performance in terms of delivery, quality, and cost, doing site visits, certifying the supplier’s goods and operations, and creating performance objectives are all examples of such activities (Hamid & Ibrahim, 2014).


Planning involves making plans to help achieve the objectives and determine what action should be taken. The researchers gathered data about the planning process, including how they met the orders or needs of customers, planned the menu, and purchased goods. Also, the researchers asked if they had encountered problems in terms of planning. This part aimed to determine the result of practices that blend balanced demand and supply and help meet demand and supply requirements.





There is a document that shows the transaction between the clients and the owner, wherein they collect the details of the event, which include the event, event venue, date, time, motif or theme, food package deal, and supplier, among other inclusions. This is what they do

When the informants asked how they meet the orders or needs of their customers, one of them answered, “Well, basically, we do an initial meeting, we present them the menu, and we ask them the details of the celebration. Well, initial planning is the first step in the catering industry; you have to know what they want and need”.  The informants also said that they meet the orders and needs of their customers by communicating, providing options, and purchasing the required ingredients. This implies that in planning, they communicate by having an initial meeting to get the information needed, as shown in the above figure. It is a document transaction between the clients and the owner. They collect the details of the event, which include the event, event venue, date, time, motif or theme, food package deal, and supplier, among other inclusions. This is what they do as a practice to know the client’s needs, wants, and suggestions. These practices contribute to meeting the clients’ expectations and ensuring the event’s success.

According to Hueffner (2023), customers’ needs urge them to purchase from a firm and maintain loyalty. Businesses must identify unmet customer needs and provide solutions to succeed. For the catering industry, this entails holding meetings to determine the event’s specifics, such as the date, the location, and the expected attendance. They adhere to all requirements necessary to live up to client expectations.

Concerning the activities involved in planning the menu, one informant said that, Basically, at the initial meeting with the client, we do menu planning already. We are trying to show them packages of us para mas mapadali ang magselect.  (Basically, in the initial meeting with our client, we did the menu planning already. It is by showing the packages we had to the clients for them to decide easily). Hence, they practice doing menu planning. Menu planning is crucial since it helps to know how long it will take to prepare the recipes, have the ingredients on hand, understand what people will enjoy and dislike, and determine the days and times they will be available to eat the meals (Johnson, 2021). On the other hand, upon asking the informants, “What if the clients request a specific menu that is not on the package?” the informants answered, E cocosting na namin yun, pwede naman kasi yun. (It can be by doing costing.) The other informants agreed by saying, “They do costing. Thus, it shows that the informants plan their menu according to the demands of their clients.

In terms of scheduling in purchasing goods to meet the expected date for the event, the informants answered: Basically, or most likely a day before, we need to keep our ingredients fresh, kasi may mga madaling masira, like, for example, yung mga gulay natin, and then meat na kailangan fresh from the market. (Basically, or most likely a day before, we must keep our ingredients fresh since some vegetables and meats are perishable and must be purchased from the market.) Since the planning and scheduling application closely links the purchasing function with every aspect of the business, purchasing professionals could provide suppliers with an in-depth schedule of what the company needs (Purchasing in the 21st Century, n.d.). The other informants agreed by saying Yes, and usually, they purchase their ingredients a day before.  Therefore, the schedule for purchasing goods is the day before the event to meet the expected date of the event and, at the same time, keep the goods fresh for the event. This means they must purchase the goods a day before the event and store them properly to have fresh ingredients.


The sourcing process includes evaluating, choosing, and managing suppliers who can offer the inputs required for a business to function daily. The researchers acquired data about the locations where they buy the ingredients and other raw materials and supplies needed for the production of food, their regular suppliers, and how they contact them. The researchers also asked if they have a one-stop shop to purchase the ingredients they need or if they have multiple suppliers, what products they buy from each supplier, and their procurement process.

Figure 7 Public Market and Private Market

It was said that in sourcing, they practice having a regular supplier for their needed ingredients, and the above photos are of their mentioned sources and suppliers. It includes Mely Dychitan, where the food caterers buy meat, fish, and chicken. The food catering business has been a long-time buyer of Mely Dychitan because they sell fresh, quality products. Dychitan is located in Bayombong wet market, which is near the third gate of the market. The public market in Bayombong has a lot of vegetable vendors, and one of them is Mrs. Evelyn. The food caterer trusts Evelyn Gulayan a lot, for they serve fresh-quality but cheap-priced vegetables. Evelyn Gulayan is near the meat and fish sections in the vegetable section.

When the informants were asked where they buy ingredients and other raw materials and supplies needed for the production of foods, one of the informants stated: Five years in the service, we already know a lot of market source that offers the freshest and pinaka magandang quality of raw materials from meat, vegetables to groceries (Five years in the service, we already know a lot of market sources that offer the freshest and best quality raw materials, from meat to vegetables to groceries, and everyone responded that they already have regular suppliers just like Mely Dychitan Meat Shop for meats, Evelyn Gulayan for vegetables, Messie Groceries, and  private market for the rest of the ingredients that they can’t find on the public market, like fish fillet. This implies they already know where to find fresh ingredients and good-quality raw materials, as shown in the figure above. Mely Dychitan, where the food caterers buy meat, fish, and chicken. The food catering business has been a long-time buyer of Mely Dychitan because they sell fresh, quality products. Dychitan is located in Bayombong wet market, which is near the third gate of the market. The public market in Bayombong has a lot of vegetable vendors, and one of them is Mrs. Evelyn. The food caterer trusts Evelyn Gulayan a lot, for they serve quality but cheap-priced vegetables. Evelyn Gulayan is near the meat and fish sections in the vegetable section. They buy herbs and spices at Private market in Bayombong, Solano, or Bambang.

In food supply chain operations, technologies are primarily used as a means of communication and information sharing between those involved, facilitating uninterrupted flows (Kannusamy, 2018). Since we are already living in the techno period, they contact their suppliers through text, call, or chat using Messenger. One of the informants said: May mga number na sila sa akin para pag kailangan ko itatawag ko nalang para ready for pick-up agad (I already have their phone numbers so that if I need something, I will make a phone call  to inform them what I needed so that and they can prepare it and ready for pick-up.) This implies that the use of technology is very convenient for them. They use it to communicate with their suppliers, order what they need, and pick it up later. This helps them to save time. The informants said that their procurement process starts with communication with their clients, the communication with the head chef, followed by costing, purchasing of ingredients needed, which usually happens a day before the event, packaging, and delivery.


Making is the process by which the product is made. It involves washing, cutting, and combining ingredients to produce foods. It shows the production process. The researchers acquired data on how they prepare their foods, how they avoid food-borne contamination, and what food packaging they use.

Figure 8 Cooking Process

The photo shows the making part of food catering, where the head chef cooks the prepared ingredients into a delicious dish for the event.

According to Okpanachi et al. (2020), planning and organizing “mise en place” must be practiced by everyone. The fact is that even at the most basic level, preparation is required. Food catering prepares its foods by doing mise en place. One of the informants stated:“Prior to the event day, we prepare things; basically it is a mise en place, a French term for putting in place. We prepare needed in the following day kasi mahirap yung patakbo takbo ka sa palengke So we need to plan everything from marketing to preparing food.” (Prior to the day of the event, we prepare things; basically, it is a mise en place, a French term for putting things in place. We prepare what is needed for the following day because going back and forth in the market is hard. So, we need to plan everything from marketing to preparing food.)

This implies that food catering is well prepared in terms of making. This also means that business practices, as mentioned earlier, help reduce hassle. For example, in the figure above, the head chef cooks dishes without problem because she prepared everything needed.

In addition, other informants said that they prepare a day before the event, like doing mise en place, but they don’t prepare everything a day before the event, just like those that are most likely easy to spoil once prepared. For instance, bell peppers must be used immediately, especially when chopped, because they will wither once stored for a long time. The same goes for onions and garlic; if they are chopped and stored overnight, their aroma will be lost. The only preparation they do is cut meat and peel other vegetables that don’t rot or dry quickly.

Regarding how they avoid food-borne contamination, one of the informants answered,“We see to it that we follow the standards of food handling, follow “First in, First out,” and use the freshest materials for the preparation.” This practice only implies that the food catering company wants to serve their clients the best, as portrayed in the figure below, in which the head chef uses a glove and an apron to cut the cordon bleu dish. A simple mistake in the handling and preparation of food can result in serious illness (10 Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes, 2023).

Figure 9 Preparation of Food Party Trays

The above portrait is of the catering business’s head chef, who is the one who prepares and cooks the food for every occasion at the food catering business. The cordon bleu was cut using a knife and then transferred to the food tray. It was covered in cling wrap and plastic roll bags before being delivered to the venue. The other informants said that in handling food, one must be hygienic; they use gloves and wash the vegetables thoroughly, and after cooking the food, they need to seal it. They put it in the food tray, then covered it with a plastic roll bag. One of the informants said, Kung kailangang, I cling wrap iclicling wrap (if it needs to be cling wrapped, they will do so). They use the same chopping board for meats and vegetables and wash it thoroughly. One of the informants added that: Minsan merong time na kailangang malinisan sa mainit na tubig (There are times that the chopping board must be washed using hot water. In that way, food-borne illnesses may be avoided). This implies that the food catering business is doing its best to achieve quality for its clients. They make sure that their clients are safe and will not be harmed in eating the food they serve. The plastic wrap keeps foods fresh by covering them from the air, which can hasten deterioration and oxidation and prevent unnecessary drying and moisture absorption. They can also aid in the containment of food odors. Plastic wraps are crucial in food preservation and safe transit, helping keep our goods fresh and safe, which can help reduce food waste (Li, 2021).

According to Nisbet’s article (n.d.), chafing dishes are perfect for warming food during a buffet display. In addition, Food trends are increasingly favoring bento boxes. They appear excellent and are quickly gaining popularity in event catering. (Robert & Victor, 2022). The food caterers pack their clients’ food depending on their preferences and based on their events. Usually, they use food trays, chafing dishes, bento boxes, etc. Food trays and chafing dishes are buffet style.

In contrast, bento boxes are used for individual food packaging. They also use hinged cups for salads. This only implies that the catering business knows the good packaging for their products and that they are not just using ordinary food packaging.


Delivery is preparing, packaging, and transporting the product or service to clients. It aims to determine the activities to help the final product be delivered to the customer. The data gathered is on how they deliver and transport food without losing the taste or the right temperature. Also, problems were encountered in terms of delivery.

Figure 10 Food Delivery to the Venue

The food catering uses an air-conditioned vehicle and jeep to deliver the food to the venue. The air-conditioned vehicle is used when transporting food to faraway places, just like other municipalities, to avoid food spoilage due to weather. Still, in some instances, they are using the rented jeep to deliver food to nearby venues. Hence, they rent and use different vehicles to deliver their product to the customers. Previously, they owned a delivery vehicle; however, circumstances have led them to adapt by opting for jeep rentals or borrowing their relatives’ cars for deliveries. The decision to sell their vehicles arose from the need to address a malfunctioning vehicle and the owner’s imperative to construct a house.

The owner stated: “For the first 4 years of catering, we had our car, but I sold it so ngayon nagrerent nalang kami for service and transportation. Nagrerent nalang tayo, dati may sasakyan tayo pero nagpapagawa tayo ng bahay kaya binenta.” (We had our car for the first 4 years of catering, but I sold it, so we are renting for service and transportation right now. Before, we had our vehicle, but because we needed to build a house, we sold it.)  This implies that the food catering business transports foods using their car. Still, due to some circumstances, they sold it, that’s why they are renting right now, as shown in the above figure. They rent air-conditioned vehicles and jeeps to deliver the food to the venue. The air-conditioned vehicle is used when transporting food to faraway places, just like other municipalities, to avoid food spoilage due to weather. Still, in some instances, they are using the jeep to deliver food to nearby venues. Every caterer’s operation requires food delivery vehicles. Vehicles made specifically for moving food from one place to another are intended to bear high loads without consuming excessive fuel or harming the vehicle’s frame. Additionally, they provide safe food transportation, guaranteeing that your meals arrive at their destination in the same condition as when you first packed them (Mommacuisine, 2017).

Food catering transports foods without allowing them to lose their taste. It keeps them at a constant temperature by delivering them immediately to the venue or the customer. In addition, food trays with dishes must be covered by cling wrap and plastic roll bags. In the venue, they use a chafing dish and alcohol to maintain the right temperature of the food. Furthermore, in some cases, if the event is a bit far away, they need to use “Kalan” for sauces. One of the informants said, “Well, nakita niyo naman if we transfer food from here to the event place. Naka cling wrap yan and then naka plastic siya para iwas tapon and then sa service ginagawa namin nilalagay namin siya sa food burner or chafing dish then with the help of denatured or methyl alcohol  umaapoy siya for the longest time.” (Well, as you observe how we transfer food from here to the event place. We wrapped it using cling wrap, which is then covered in plastic to prevent it from spilling. Then, during the service, we put it on a food burner or chafing dish, and with the help of denatured or methyl alcohol, it burns for the longest time.) Temperature control and monitoring are usually the first things people think of and do to keep food safe. This implies that the food catering business is very careful in handling food, especially regarding delivery, as they ensure that the food is delivered on time and at the right temperature. Temperature control stops the growth of food-poisoning organisms by reducing or raising the temperature to the point where the bacteria either die or stop proliferating (Temperature Control, 2019).


The last part of the SCOR model is the return. The foods cooked for every event are rarely exact. Still, there will always be leftovers, especially in food catering. “The size of the event had a large influence on the generation of buffet leftovers, while other variables such as event type, season, or menu prices had a comparatively smaller effect” (Leverenz et al., 2020).

Figure 11 Empty Food Trays after the Food Service

The informants were asked about what they do with the leftovers. Some of them said that if there are leftovers, inuuwi nang clients namin yung mga natira kasi bayad (our clients usually take them to their home as they pay it). The leftovers in the food catering business were mostly taken home by their clients as they were still included in what they paid. Still, in some instances, if their clients did not get the leftovers, they were mixed and fed to the dogs or pigs for their consumption. Unfortunately, leftover food from a catered event cannot usually be donated because it has been sitting out for a long time and has been exposed to many people by the end of the event. By the time it could be packed and shipped somewhere else, it would be too high for food-borne illness (“Fighting Food Waste,” n.d.).

For the five years of service, there is still no experience in returning the food, as they stated that: Hindi pa naman naming na experience na may binalik silang food dahil sa panis ito or ayaw nila (we still don’t experience a client returning our food because it is spoiled or they don’t want the food). This implies that the catering business has been doing its best to satisfy its customers, as shown in the figure above. Customers are satisfied that some trays have been emptied and are not left over. Although no serious issues have been identified in food supply chains, they remain unknown in the face of an uncertain future (Aday and Aday, 2020). The food catering continues to provide healthy and tasty food. They were also able to share how they gathered their customers’ feedback. Having feedback on the service or product is important, and in the food catering business, they gather their clients’ feedback by sharing that: Sa mismong event kapag hindi na busy ang lahat at free sila nag iikot ikot ako para magtanong ng experience at kung kamusta yung food (during the event if the guests are not busy and they have free time I usually go around and ask for their experience and their feelings towards the food.) This shows that the catering business is open-minded because they give time to finding out customer feedback. Further, it was stated by Olmstead (2021) that customer feedback enables you to please your customers by doing exactly what they want you to do at the right moment. And if you don’t fulfill their expectations, it helps you figure out what you need to work on; that was a huge help for businesses. Furthermore, the informants said that “Minsan nga sila na yung nagsasabi na masarap daw yung pagkain”. (In some instances, they are the ones who will tell us that the food was delicious.)  This shows that it is a positive response from satisfied customers.

Section 3. Problems Encountered by Food Catering Business and How They Addressed These Problems

The catering industry is considered one of the largest food industry sectors. However, it is important to consider how frequently the catering industry encounters food safety accidents. Since this industry is well known for being labor-intensive, there is a high possibility of food safety problems due to human mistakes.  The sector’s food safety experts bear the bulk of the responsibility for resolving and preventing these food safety events from happening in the first place (Suraj 2022).


Planning is one of the key components of managing a catering business. Goals, tasks, and deadlines enable planning, which establishes strategies that provide a competitive edge (Bragg, 2023). This section shows the problems encountered in the supply chain management regarding their food catering services and how they overcame them.

Inconsistent Client’s Decision and Unpredictable Weather

Concerning the problems encountered in the planning of the food catering service and how they overcome them, the informant stated: “Inconsistency ng client yung pa iba-iba and then yung weather sometimes sa planning kasi sobrang mahalaga ang weather yun lang most probably inconsistent client’s decision and weather.”(The inconsistency of the clients’ decision and the weather affects the planning.) Thus, this indicates that the problem in planning is the inconsistent client’s decision and the weather. Before everything, a meeting is important in planning. Still, in an immediate case like inclement weather during the event week, the precaution is to keep an eye on the weather forecast so that the management can make alternate arrangements as needed (Elkins,2019). On the other hand, upon asking the informant how they overcame it, the informant answered: We try to meet in the middle and compromise kung ano yung kailangan nila. (We compromise what they want.) Other informants answered: Ang dami nilang sinasabi na hindi namimeet dahil kulang sa badget nila. (They suggest a lot that we cannot afford to meet because they don’t have enough budget.) This implies that if the budget provided by the clients is not commensurate for their expectation, both parties will meet, at least, at the middle for win-win situation by providing satisfying food and services. Planning is necessary to achieve goals, yet rarely do things go as anticipated (Fehr, n.d.). The problems encountered by Food Catering affect their planning.


This portion contained the problems that the food catering business encountered in terms of sourcing, including ways in which they were solved. In some instances, the demand for food is growing, and there is a scarcity. This causes a big problem for food caterers, not only in terms of their time but also in terms of the price and the high cost of transportation needed to find those stocks.

Scarcity of  Goods and Raw Materials

All informants agreed that the scarcity of goods and other raw materials is the main problem in sourcing. Raw materials are unprocessed products such as vegetables, fruits, etc. At the same time, goods are processed products or finished items for sale, such as canned peas, pineapple, canned liver spread, etc. One of them also said that: Pagka walang stock, kung kinakailangan nakakarating ka pa talaga sa ibang lugar para hanapin kasi hindi ka naman makakaluto ng maayos kung may isang wala sa ingredients ng lulutuin mo (If there is no stock, we really need to find it even if it requires us to go to other places because you can’t cook well if there are missing ingredients). This implies that the food caterer should have a lot of resources because you can’t change your menu just because you lack some ingredients. The food caterers should know where to get those ingredients if they are unavailable from their regular suppliers.  Scarcity can limit the choices available to consumers, who ultimately make up the economy. Understanding how commodities and services are valued requires knowledge of scarcity (Scarcity, n.d.). One of the informants shared that: We have to at least look for another source, kasi hindi pwedeng sa market ka lang ng Bayombong at Solano. We have to go to other places. Punta tayo ng Bambang or Aritao kung may problema sa source ng foods. Kapag sobrang limited is the time that we offer alternatives. Kunwari chicken siya ngayon pero pag walang chicken, so why not fish? (We must look for another source because you can’t just go to Bayombong and Solano markets. We have to go to other places. We go to Bambang or Aritao if there is a problem with the food source. When it’s really limited, that’s when we offer alternatives. Supposedly, we need chicken now, but why not fish when there is no chicken?)


Making is the act of processing components or raw materials into final goods. It enables companies to sell completed goods for larger sums than what they paid for the raw materials they used (Kenton, 2022). This section shows the problems encountered in supply chain management in manufacturing and how they are overcome.

Shortage of ingredients and other raw materials

 The informants were asked about the problems they encounter with making, and most of them answered that it is always on a case-by-case basis, like shortages of ingredients, expensive LPG, and packaging that is not durable. Before, they only used sauce cups for salad, which are not sturdy and easy to loosen up, so food gets spilled while delivering. Still, they are already using hinged cups, which have a tight seal perfect for delivering the products. Most of the time, their problem is weather. This implies that many problems will come along the way in the catering industry, so there is a need always to be ready and be creative in solving those problems as soon as possible.

Spoilage of food due to hot weather

One informant said that: Pag sobrang mainit ang panahon nakaka apekto ito sa production ng food dahil madaling mapanis ang pagkain (If the weather is so hot, it affects the production of the food because it deteriorates easily.) This shows that food caterers should be wary of the weather because it can affect production. In the summer, high temperatures boost chemical reactions, which cause food to degrade and lose some nutritional content. Food deterioration is detectable by changes in its characteristics, flavor, and aroma (Arabiaweather, 2020).

Simultaneous Scheduling and Preparation of Foods

The informants said that“mostly talaga is time, kailangan talaga kung anong time na sinabi ng client hahabulin mo talaga, example sa isang araw tatlong event, kailangan malutuan mo lahat yun. Minsan nagsasabay sabay, minsan naman may umaga, may hapon, kailangan habulin ko lang talaga yung oras na sinabi nila. So kailangan may time management talaga.” (The most encountered problem in the making is time; you have to catch up with the client’s given time; for example, if there are multiple events in one day, all of that has to be served on time. In making time management is important.) This implies that time management is very important in the food catering industry because there are instances where there are multiple events in a day. The food caterer should meet the client’s given time. Time management is crucial in all aspects of life, but it’s crucial in the workplace. You’ll gain a lot of advantages from sensible time management. It might be challenging to remember deadlines and appointments. If you’re not diligent, it’s easy to lose track of the information given. Ensure you begin on time to stay on task and complete your work on schedule. You must also be sure to break your job into reasonable portions that you can do within the designated time frames. (Clockify, n.d.).


Delivery means meeting the client’s satisfaction; delivery is one way to impress the clients and earn their loyalty to the business. This section shows the problems encountered in delivering the food to the clients.

Lack of Transportation, Vehicles, and Delivery

Regarding the problem encountered during delivery, some informants shared that if they need to deliver a lot of food and other items to the event, they must rent another tricycle, which is a hassle for them. In addition, before, the catering business didn’t accept events at faraway venues because they didn’t want to experience deteriorating food, especially in hot weather. One of the informants said, “Dati ayaw namin mag deliver sa malayo lalo na kung mainit baka kasi masiraan kami ng pagkain.” (Before, we don’t want to deliver in a far area, especially if the weather is hot because we might experience food spoilage.) But after a while, they managed to overcome this, and now they can deliver in faraway areas. Because they rent air-conditioned vehicles or sometimes borrow the air-conditioned vehicles of the owner’s brother. This means they avoid delivering to distant places, especially if the weather is hot, because this may result in food spoilage. But now they can deliver food to faraway areas since they are renting and borrowing an air-conditioned vehicle from the owner’s brother. A catering business must guarantee that its food will be delivered securely and effectively. A vehicle that can safely transport products is one of the most critical equipment a catering must invest in. Most catering happens locally, meaning drivers will go in and out of side streets while looking for parking. They’ll also drive back and forth from the business place to other locations throughout the day. A van can quickly load food and fit the vehicle anywhere it needs to go. It can also go to farther locations when needed while keeping the food in good condition (Dickman, 2022).


Return is the activity that makes sure recycling and consumer feedback initiatives are implemented and evaluated. The informants mentioned that they have no particular issues with the return stage of their food supply chain management and that they can continue to use their current strategy to run their business successfully even though they prepare the food at home rather than at the event site, so there is no return of food done. In connection with this, off-site catering involves cooking food somewhere and bringing it to the event venue. This is frequently the case with catered business lunches and private events (Team, 2023).



               The following are the conclusions drawn from the analysis and interpretations conducted:

  1. The profile of the informants regarding their age ranges from 21 to 44 years old. For the positions in the department concerning SCOR model theory, sourcing, making, and delivering have the most assigned personnel than the other departments. It is also concluded that the catering business has many loyal employees who have stayed with them for years.
  2. The catering business has a lot of best practices. In planning, meetings with clients are practiced, after which they plan the menu and schedule the purchase of the needed ingredients. The ingredients are sourced from public markets, supermarkets, and other suppliers. In the making stage, they follow the mise en place strategy and the standard in food handling to avoid any prior problems that may occur. After the food is made, it is delivered as soon as possible with proper packaging, and they tend to rent different vehicles depending on the convenience of the food transportation. In the return stage, they properly separate leftover foods and plastics; the leftover food will be taken home by the clients.
  3. The catering business encounters problems and how they were overcome. In terms of planning, it is the inconsistency of clients’ decisions, a low budget but high expectations, and limited stock at a specific time, so the owner offered different suggestions. For the sourcing, it is the scarcity of goods and raw materials needed, but that will not be a reason to stop them from serving the best food catering experience; instead, they try their best to search for other sources, and if it is not possible, they provide alternatives for those specific ingredients. For making, the struggle to meet the proper time and the changing weather lead to different cooking strategies. In delivery, their concern is the vehicle they use to transport the food, as they do not have their own vehicle. In the past five years of operation as a catering business, no return problem has been encountered.


The researchers recommended the following based on the findings of the study:

  1. Owner- Manager. The owner-manager should ensure quality service to customers. Through their planning, the manager should adapt easily and quickly to provide solutions if their clients change their decisions. They should monitor the weather forecast always to be ready. He should also have contingency plans. For example, in sourcing, the manager should add a greater variety of dishes with ingredients that are more accessible within the town. In terms of making, the owner should hire more manpower. For delivery, the owner must buy their own air-conditioned transportation vehicles to deliver food to distant places without worrying about food spoilage due to hot weather.
  2. Employees. The employees involved in sourcing must be resourceful in looking for ingredients, and they should find more suppliers for raw materials from nearby municipalities in case of supply shortage or scarcity. Employees who are involved in making must attend proper seminars like food safety, food handling, and sanitation to acquire more knowledge and enhance their work performance.
  3. Future Food Caterers. For Future Food Caterers, this research paper will serve as a basis for acquiring information and expanding their knowledge about how supply chain management practices are implemented in the industry and how to cope with problems encountered. They can also use this study to guide planning, sourcing, making, delivery, and return.
  4. HTM faculty and students. To the HTM faculty and students, this research can be used as a teaching and learning material in some subjects like Introduction to MICE (HPC 7), Risk Management as Applied to Safety, Security, and Sanitation (THC2), Supply Chain Management in Hospitality Industry (HPC 4), Catering Management (HMPE 10).
  5. Future Researchers. This research paper will serve as a basis for providing insight and additional information to future researchers on the catering business. Future researchers may also expand this study by including other topics like the Sustainability of Supply Chain Management by Catering Businesses and Supply Chain Management using the SCOR model, a tool to succeed in a catering business. They may also include topics like Prevention of Problems that may arise in catering services.


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