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Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Foreign Language Grammar Instruction at the Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

  • Zakia Ahmad, Ph. D
  • Tasmiah Aktar
  • 1400-1410
  • Nov 9, 2023
  • Language

Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Foreign Language Grammar Instruction at the Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

*Zakia Ahmad, Ph. D1, Tasmiah Aktar2
1Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Asia Pacific 74/ A Green Road, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Lecturer Department of English, University of Asia Pacific
*Corresponding Author

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.701108

Received: 03 October 2023; Accepted: 11 October 2023; Published: 10 November 2023

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on a survey carried out to investigate the beliefs of teachers about grammar instruction in the EFL classroom at the tertiary level. English is a compulsory component of the syllabus at the undergraduate level across all disciplines in Bangladesh. Grammar instruction is an integral part of English language teaching at all academic levels. This study was undertaken to assess the beliefs of tertiary level teachers regarding the effectiveness of grammar instruction. The research was carried out at three private universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants of the study were teachers who were teaching English as a foreign language at the undergraduate level. The questionnaire was administered both in-person and online due to the pandemic restrictions. Attempt was made to find out the beliefs English language teachers have about the pedagogical procedures related to focus on form, specifically explicit grammar instruction. Data was analyzed quantitatively using percentages. The findings indicate that teachers believe grammar instruction is important for language learning, however there are varying opinions on the best way to teach grammar.  Some teachers believe that grammar should be taught through explicit instruction, while others believe that it should be taught implicitly through discovery and practice using real-life simulations.

Keywords: teachers’ beliefs, foreign language grammar instruction, private universities, tertiary education.

INTRODUCTION 

English is taught at all levels of education in Bangladesh starting from primary to the tertiary level. This emphasis on English being taught at all levels of education is government endorsed. According to some educators, teaching grammar to kids is crucial for them to become fluent in a foreign language (Gordon, 2007). Though English is not recognized as the official second language, it is widely used for educational purposes and it holds the status of a foreign language (FL). At all private universities of Bangladesh, English is the compulsory medium of education. A firm importance is given to the acquisition of the language from a young age, though the methods and results vary. A sound knowledge of grammar is considered an essential component of language learning and is seen as a prerequisite for developing proficiency in the language. All undergraduate programs in the country have at least one basic language course in the curricula and students at the tertiary level are expected to have a certain level of language proficiency. Lack of proficiency in the language leads to poor results, which is why grammar teaching is still done at the tertiary level. Grammar instruction is seen as a way to help students refine and improve their language skills.

There are some conventional ideas regarding teaching grammar in Bangladesh that have long persisted in the country’s educational system. Grammar instruction still tends to be teacher-centered and was once thought to be best learned by rote learning (Rahman, 2019). These traditional views of grammar instruction are not widely shared, and there are a variety of creative and successful approaches to grammar instruction being developed by educators in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, they offer some insight into the cultural and educational context in which language learning occurs in the country. Teaching grammar is a crucial component of teaching foreign languages since it aids students in understanding the rules and grammar of the language they are learning (Wang, 2010). Research on teaching foreign languages (FL) in Bangladesh has looked into a variety of topics, including instructors’ methods and views, curriculum and supplies, and student learning outcomes (Rahman et al., 2019). To help students improve their grammar skills, however, FL teachers can employ a number of efficient techniques, such as recognizing the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of their students, providing contextualized grammar instruction, utilizing technology to supplement grammar instruction, incorporating collaborative learning, etc. The techniques which teachers plan to employ will depend largely on their beliefs about the efficacy of these techniques.

Teachers’ beliefs are their opinions and convictions towards their subject matter, teaching, and learning in general (Borg, 2003). These beliefs shape the teachers’ interactions with students and the learning environment as well as their teaching strategies and decisions (Gilakjani & Sabouri, 2017). The beliefs of teachers encompass their assessments of the skills and potential of their pupils, their comprehension of the learning process, their methods of instruction and evaluation, and their perspectives on the role of the teacher and the classroom. Teachers’ own educational background, life experiences, and morals also have an impact on their beliefs (Borg, 2015).

Tertiary level research on teachers’ attitudes toward foreign language grammar instruction has shown that teachers have various opinions and behaviors about grammar instruction (Borg, 1999). Advocates of Grammar-translation place a strong emphasis on explicitly teaching grammatical rules through exercises and drills, frequently utilizing the students’ original tongue as a guide. They also think that the secret to fluency in a language is to grasp grammar (Mondal, 2012 a).

However, modern research has also demonstrated that factors including a teacher’s own foreign language training, teaching experience, and appraisal of their students’ needs and abilities affect how they feel about grammar instruction (Horwitz, 1996). Also, it is generally agreed that for pupils to become fluent in a foreign language, there needs to be a balance between communicative practice and grammar instruction. The strategy should also be modified to fit the situation, the needs and objectives of the students, and the teacher’s personal values.

As an alternative, some people think grammar education should be reduced or even ignored in favor of more communicative or task-based strategies (Swain & Lapkin, 2002). Instructors that employ communicative and task-based methods frequently place more emphasis on the acquisition of communicative skills than on grammatical knowledge and think that children can learn grammar through purposeful language usage.

In the setting of South Asian nations, a multitude of elements, including cultural and socioeconomic background, the educational system and policies, as well as their own individual experiences and values, have an impact on teachers’ attitudes about teaching, learning, and the beliefs about the subject matter they teach (Adhikari, 2017). Due to the region’s learners’ varied linguistic and cultural backgrounds, teaching grammar in a foreign language setting can be particularly difficult in South Asia. In the classrooms here, traditional teaching techniques like memorization and rote learning are still widely used. This is demonstrated by teachers’ opinions that emphasize memorization of data and information over critical thinking and problem-solving. Teachers, on the other hand, also hold views that place a premium on teaching that is student-centered, and on the abilities of  critical thinking, and problem-solving (Mondal, 2012 b; Qingmei, Wenhua, & Yang, 2011).

Although Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has been in use for about 30 years in Bangladesh, Roy (2016) believes students have yet not achieved the expected level of communicative competence. Daisy (2012) asserts that in South Asian countries teaching English is frustrating and that the existing syllabi do not reflect the objectives of CLT. This disconnect proves that it is important to conduct research in order to have a better understanding of teachers’ beliefs about grammar teaching in Bangladesh to ensure quality education. Such research should include their perceptions of students’ abilities and potential, their understanding of the learning process, their approach to teaching and assessment, and their views of the role of the teacher and the classroom.

Understanding teachers’ beliefs about grammar instruction is crucial for improving the effectiveness of FL education at the tertiary level in Bangladesh. This knowledge can inform curriculum design, pedagogical approaches, and professional development programs, ultimately benefiting both teachers and students. Bangladesh’s unique linguistic and cultural context necessitates research that explores how teachers perceive and approach grammar instruction. Such insights can provide context-specific recommendations and solutions to enhance FL learning outcomes. Research on teachers’ beliefs can also facilitate cross-cultural comparative studies, allowing for insights into how FL grammar instruction is approached in Bangladesh compared to other regions or countries. This can promote a broader understanding of effective language teaching practices.

Keeping this in mind, this paper attempts to examine teachers’ beliefs about grammar teaching. Findings from the paper can contribute to the development of evidence-based policies and guidelines for FL education in Bangladesh. Policy makers can use this research to make informed decisions regarding curriculum revisions and resource allocation. The paper can serve as a valuable resource for teacher training and professional development programs as well. It can help educators gain a deeper understanding of their own beliefs and practices, fostering continuous improvement in teaching methodologies. This paper also hopes to contribute to the academic discourse on language education, adding to the body of knowledge on the beliefs and practices of FL instructors in tertiary education contexts.

The investigation was guided by the following research question:

What are the beliefs of Bangladeshi English language teachers regarding Foreign Language grammar instruction at the tertiary level?

LITERATURE REVIEW

Importance of Beliefs

“The information, attitudes, and assumptions that teachers hold about language, language learning, and language teaching” is how Borg describes teacher beliefs (2003). He explains that teacher beliefs play a significant role in language education because they affect how instructors organize and carry out their lessons, as well as how they view their students and pursue their own professional growth. Borg (2003) divides teacher beliefs into two categories: pedagogical beliefs and personal beliefs. The former refers to the teacher’s own experiences and values and how they affect their teaching, while the latter refers to the teacher’s views on how languages are learned and the methods and techniques that are used to teach them (2003). This provides significant insight as to why it is important for teachers to be aware of their beliefs, and to reflect on how these influence their teaching and how they can adapt their beliefs to better serve their students.

Gilakjani and Sabouri (2017) also cover the significance of teacher beliefs in language teaching and professional growth. As they can affect how instructors plan and carry out their lesson, as well as their attitudes toward their pupils and their own professional development, they explain that teacher beliefs are a crucial component of language teaching. Since they affect what instructors do in their classrooms and how they perceive their experiences as teachers, Hiver contends that teachers’ ideas about teaching, learning, and the subject matter they teach are crucial (2013). Brody & Davidson (1998) also go on to say that a number of things, including a teacher’s educational background, life experiences, and the society in which they operate, affect their beliefs.

Teachers beliefs regarding FL/L2 teaching

The importance of grammar education and error correction in teaching foreign languages is covered by Schulz (1996). Her research looks at how both students and teachers feel about employing methods regarding grammar education and error correction in language classes. The results indicate that although students frequently respect grammar teaching and error correction, they do not always like how teachers use these methods. Similar to students, teachers could lack confidence in their ability to apply these strategies successfully. According to the study, in order to enhance student learning results, a more cooperative approach to grammar education and error correction is required. Schulz contends that grammar teaching should be introduced into the study of foreign languages in a way that balances accuracy with communicative proficiency.

According to Schulz (2001), grammar education for foreign language learners is seen as an essential component of language training, and the emphasis placed on it relies on the requirements and objectives of the learners as well as the particular environment in which the language is being taught. Additionally, she thinks that both teachers and students should be aware of the cultural variations in how they view the function of grammar education and corrective feedback. Schulz looks at how students and teachers in Colombia and the United States perceive the importance of grammar instruction and corrective feedback from a cultural perspective. The study found that in the United States, students and teachers tended to view grammar as a set of rules to be memorized and tested, while in Colombia, grammar was viewed as a tool for effective communication. The study also discovered that while both groups appreciated corrective criticism, American students and instructors tended to perceive it more negatively as a sort of punishment while Colombian students and teachers tended to view it more positively as a way to improve communication. The research makes the case that these cultural distinctions have an impact on language learning and teaching, and it emphasizes the importance of teachers being conscious of their own cultural prejudices and also that of their students’.

Andrews (2003) analyzes the opinions of English language instructors in Hong Kong about the teaching of grammar in the context of Asia. He contends that many of these educators take a “quick-fix” approach to teaching grammar, relying on rote memorization and direct instruction rather than getting their pupils involved in fruitful communicative activities. According to Andrews, this strategy is impacted by things like teacher training programs, exam specifications, and cultural perceptions of language learning. He supports an approach to grammar instruction that is more communicative and student-centered, where students are encouraged to interact with the language in real-world situations and utilize it to meaningfully express themselves.

Bacus (2021) investigates the attitudes and behaviors of English language instructors to discover more about their perspectives on the nature of language, language learning, and language instruction. The majority of the teachers polled in the study held the opinion that learning a language is challenging and time-consuming, and students must master vocabulary and grammar rules to succeed. The study also discovered that many of the teachers polled were instructing students in English using the conventional grammar-translation technique, which places a strong focus on grammar and vocabulary. The study came to the conclusion that for teachers to understand the communicative approach to teaching languages and to develop the skills necessary to use authentic materials and task-based activities in the classroom, they must be exposed to alternative methods of teaching English and given opportunities for professional development. Bacus contends that in order for teachers to effectively use authentic materials and task-based learning strategies in the classroom, their beliefs and practices should be in line with the needs of the students. Teachers should also have access to professional development opportunities to help them do this.

Beliefs about FL Grammar Instruction in Bangladesh

The education system in Bangladesh is diverse and complex; various schools and organizations employ various methodologies. Although there is lack of evidence on teachers’ opinions regarding foreign language grammar instruction at the tertiary level in Bangladesh, it is believed that teachers there, like anywhere else, have diverse opinions about the material they teach and how it is taught.The cultural and educational framework in which teachers work, their educational background, experiences, and values have an impact on their views (Karim, 2004). Nonetheless, the classic grammar-translation approach is frequently utilized in FL instruction in Bangladesh, where the development of communicative ability is less of a priority and more of a secondary concern. (Azad, 2013). The audio-lingual method, which is based on behaviorism and stresses language learning through drill and practice, is another approach employed in Bangladesh. The repetition of language patterns and improvement of speaking and listening abilities are the main goals of this approach (Rashid & Islam, 2020). Yet, as time has passed, there has been a move toward Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which stresses the use of language in everyday circumstances and focuses on the development of communicative competence. This method stresses the use of real materials, speaking the target language in class, and the development of all language abilities (Ansarey, 2012). Depending on their resources, the backgrounds of their teachers, and the requirements of their pupils, secondary schools and institutions in Bangladesh employ a variety of techniques and strategies. Bangladesh’s educational system has been dealing with issues like packed classrooms, lack of resources, and paucity of trained teachers. Little exposure to authentic language use, lack of motivation, overemphasis on rote memorization, and lack of adequate instructional resources all impact teachers’ beliefs and practices at all levels of education. These factors can make it challenging to deliver instruction or change previously held perspectives on the teacher and the classroom (Prodhan, 2016; Ahsan, Sharma & Deppeler, 2012).

Research on grammar instruction in Bangladesh typically concentrates on the strategies used to teach grammar, the tactics and methods employed by teachers, and the efficacy of various approaches. Recent research has also centered on how teachers’ attitudes toward grammar instruction influence their classroom management. (Mirza, Mahmud & Zabbar, 2012). The effectiveness of various methodologies, instructors’ perceptions of grammar instruction, and the use of technology in grammar instruction are only some topics covered in this study. The study has also demonstrated the transition away from conventional approaches and toward CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) and task-based instruction.

There have been some studies and research that have been conducted on foreign language (FL) teaching in Bangladesh (Rahman et al., 2019; Rahman & Pandian, 2018). These studies have investigated various aspects of FL teaching in Bangladesh, such as teachers’ beliefs and practices, curriculum and materials, and students’ learning outcomes. At the tertiary level in Bangladesh, the foundational courses are designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of English grammar, including its rules and usage where grammar instruction typically focuses on teaching English grammar. Some studies have looked at the effectiveness of different approaches to teaching grammar (Ansarey, 2012), while others have investigated teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards grammar instruction (Azad, 2013).

For instance, the studies by Ahsan, Deppeler and Sharma (2012) and Hossain (2016) that looked into the issues and future of teaching English in secondary schools in Bangladesh discovered that lack of qualified teachers, lack of materials and resources, and few opportunities for students to practice their language skills outside of the classroom are some of the biggest obstacles for thorough language acquisition.

Al Mamun (2016) and Joydhar (2021) aimed to assess the attitudes, perceptions, and motivations of English language learners in Bangladesh and found that the attitudes of students toward learning English were generally positive, but their motivation and self-esteem were poor.

The challenges faced in secondary school English education in Bangladesh, as highlighted by the mentioned studies, indicate that tertiary teachers may need to play a crucial role in addressing these issues by focusing on skill development, resource adaptation, communication practice, and fostering motivation and confidence among their students.

METHODOLOGY

This study was conducted through a questionnaire survey to investigate beliefs of Bangladeshi teachers regarding English Language grammar teaching at the tertiary level. The questionnaire used was Schulz Teachers Questionnaire (2001) comprising 12 questions regarding foreign language grammar instruction. The reliability of the scale has been validated by studies conducted by Schulz (1996, 2001). The survey was conducted at 3 private universities of Dhaka, Bangladesh and the questionnaire was administered to 45 EFL teachers teaching at these universities. Sampling was done using a mixture of convenience and purposive methods. All ethical issues were taken into consideration while conducting this research by assuring participants that their identity and responses would be fully confidential. The questionnaire followed the Likert-type scale with the responses ranging from a scale of 1-5. On the scale, 1= strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=strongly disagree, 4=disagree, and 5= undecided.

The data was collected in person from one university with 20 participants. Among the rest, one university had 15 participants and the other had 10. Data was collected online in both cases due to pandemic restrictions. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively using percentage to examine the belief of teachers regarding English grammar teaching at the tertiary level. All fractions were calculated to the nearest whole number.

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 presents the data as received from the 45 respondents through the questionnaire (Schulz, 2001) survey. This analysis was conducted by recording all questionnaire responses on MS Excel data sheet and the responses have been calculated in percentages. The questionnaire used a Likert-type scale with the responses ranging from a scale of 1-5, where 1= strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=strongly disagree, 4=disagree, and 5= undecided. The data in this table presents the results of the survey on teachers’ beliefs about FL grammar teaching and language learning among a sample of 45 individuals from 3 private universities in Dhaka.

Table 1. Teachers’ beliefs about grammar pedagogy in FL/L2 learning

    SA A SD D U
1. For adolescents or adults, the study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of an FL/L2 , when language learning is limited to the classroom 20% 63% 0% 10% 7%
2. Generally speaking, students’ communicative ability improves most quickly if they study and practice the grammar of the language. 10% 21% 14% 55% 0%
3. The study of grammar helps in learning an FL/ L2. 17% 77% 7% 0% 0%
4. Students generally like the study of grammar. 3% 10% 13% 53% 20%
5. Generally, there should be more formal grammar study in FL/L2 courses than is presently the case. 7% 17% 10% 50% 17%
6. Students usually keep grammar rules in mind when they write in an FL/L2 or read what they have written. 17% 40% 7% 27% 10%
7. It is, generally, more important to practice FL/L2 in situations simulating real life (e.g., interviews, role-plays etc.) than to analyze and practice grammatical patterns. 67% 27% 0% 7% 0%
8. Most students dislike it when they are corrected in class. 3% 50% 10% 23% 13%
9. Teachers should not correct students’ pronunciation or grammatical errors in class unless these errors interfere with comprehensibility. 13% 40% 17% 23% 7%
10. Most students feel cheated if a teacher does not correct the written work they hand in. 30% 60% 3% 0% 7%
11. Generally, when students make errors in speaking the target language, they should be corrected. 7% 40% 10% 30% 13%
12. Generally, when students make errors in writing the target language, they should be corrected. 43% 50% 3% 0% 3%

The data presents a survey on teachers’ beliefs related to grammar teaching in foreign language learning. The first 1-5 statements in the questionnaire assessed the teachers’ beliefs regarding grammar teaching for FL/L2 and items 6, 10 and 12 dealt with beliefs regarding writing in the target language while 9 and 11 worked with speaking in the target language. It should be noted that item 7 showcases teachers’ beliefs regarding inductive grammar teaching where utilizing real-life simulations is prioritized for FL/L2 practice and statement 8 deals with teachers’ perspective regarding error correction.

When it comes to the belief of the essentiality of grammar study (Q1), the majority of respondents (63%) believe that the study of grammar is essential for adolescents and adults to eventually master an FL/L2, when language learning is limited to the classroom. For question 1, while 63% of respondents agreed, 10% disagreed.

However, there is a split in opinions when it comes to the role of grammar in improving students’ communicative ability. For question 2, only 21% of respondents believe that students’ communicative ability improves most quickly if they study and practice the grammar of the language, while 55% disagree, indicating that other factors play a more important role in improving communicative ability.

In question 3, a significant percentage of respondents (77%) agree that the study of grammar helps in learning an FL/L2. When it comes to students’ preference for studying grammar, only a small percentage (10%) of respondents believe that students generally like it.

For question 4, 53%, which is the majority of the respondents, disagreed with the statement that students generally like the study of grammar.

Additionally, respondents are divided on the need for more formal grammar study in FL/L2 courses, as in question 5, half of respondents, i.e. 50% believed that there should not be more formal grammar study in FL/L2 courses than is presently the case with 17% being undecided on the matter.

The survey also explored whether students keep grammar rules in mind while writing or reading what they have written in question 6, where a major proportion of respondents (40%) believe that students usually keep grammar rules in mind when they write in a FL/L2 or read what they have written while 27% disagreed.

Moreover, the majority of respondents believed that it is more important to practice a FL/L2 in situations simulating real life than to analyze and practice grammatical patterns. For question 7, 67% of respondents strongly believed that it is generally more important to practice an FL/L2 in situations simulating real life than to analyze and practice grammatical patterns, focusing more on inductive grammar teaching with only 7% disagreeing.

In terms of error correction, the majority of respondents believed that students should be corrected in speaking and writing, although there were differing opinions on when and how this should be done. Respondents are also divided on the issue of error correction. In responding to question 8, 50% of the participant teachers agreed that most students dislike it when they are corrected in class.

For question 9, 40% of respondents believed that teachers should not correct students’ pronunciation or grammatical errors in class unless these errors interfere with comprehensibility.

For question 10, 30% strongly agreed that if their written work has not been corrected, most students feel cheated and a higher percentage of teachers (60%) agree, while only 3% believe that most students dislike being corrected in class. 7% of the participants remain undecided on the matter.

There is also a split in opinions on whether students should be corrected for errors in speaking (40% agree) and writing (50% agree). For question 11, only 40% of respondents believed that generally when students make errors in speaking the target language, they should be corrected. For question 12, 50% of respondents believed that generally when students make errors in writing the target language, they should be corrected.

Overall, the findings suggest that while the study of grammar is considered important, it should be balanced with communicative practice in real-life situations as advocated by Andrews (2003). Error correction is also seen as important, but teachers should be mindful of the appropriate timing and approach for correction to maximize student learning and motivation, as mentioned by Schulz (1996).

The differences found in the beliefs regarding essentiality of grammar studying and error correction while practicing the target language may have implications for classroom practice and the effectiveness of language teaching. Based on the results of the study, it can be inferred that the majority of study participants thought that grammar was important for mastering a foreign language and that it assisted with FL/L2 acquisition, as Mondal (2012 a) showcased in his study.  Also, a sizable portion of respondents felt that there should be more formal grammar study in FL/L2 classes than there is now because students generally like the study of grammar. The majority of respondents agreed that students should receive feedback on their speaking and writing, while there were differences of opinion regarding the best times and methods to do so. Also, the majority of respondents said that using a FL/L2 in situations that mirror real life is more crucial than studying and using grammatical patterns as reflected in Ansarey’s (2012) study.

CONCLUSION

Teachers’ beliefs are significant in all fields of education, especially so for FL instruction. Beliefs have an effect on professional growth as well. When it comes to FL/L2 grammar instruction and error correction, the reception varies from nation to nation. Similarly in Bangladesh teachers’ beliefs regarding FL grammar instruction and effectiveness of the methods used vary at the tertiary level of education, especially when it comes to accessibility, essentiality and pedagogy. Overall, the results of this study show that while grammatical instruction is valued, it should be paired with communicative practice in authentic settings.

The survey results reveal nuanced beliefs regarding the role of grammar in FL/L2 instruction. While most agree on the importance of grammar in classroom instruction, there is some disagreement about its direct impact on communicative ability. Nevertheless, a majority recognizes the importance of grammar instruction for FL/L2 learning.

Responses of participants express skepticism about student enthusiasm for grammar and show a split opinion on the need for more formal grammar instruction. A significant portion believes students consider grammar when writing or reading. Overall, respondents prioritize real-life language use over grammar analysis. These findings underscore the need for a balanced FL/L2 teaching approach, integrating grammar study with practical communication. The findings suggest a need for a balanced FL/L2 instruction approach, accommodating diverse beliefs on the efficacy of grammar instruction. Educators should adapt pedagogy to engage students and motivate grammar study. Curriculum design, assessment methods, and professional development should reflect these insights.

Error correction is also viewed as vital. These variations might have an impact on how lessons are taught in the classroom and how well they work. The survey reveals diverse beliefs on error correction in FL/L2 instruction. While most agree on the importance of correction, opinions differ on timing and method. Notably, many students dislike in-class correction, but most feel cheated if their written work is not corrected. The findings emphasize the need for a balanced, student-centered approach to error correction. Teachers should be aware of the proper timing and method for error repair in order to enhance student learning and motivation. The findings underscore the imperative of a balanced approach to error correction in FL/L2 instruction, recognizing the diverse opinions on when and how to correct errors. With a substantial percentage of students expressing aversion to in-class correction but valuing correction in written work, educators must carefully navigate the delicate balance between promoting language accuracy and preserving students’ motivation and confidence. This necessitates a nuanced, individualized approach that aligns with instructional goals and takes into account the context in which errors occur.

Seeing the current state of grammar teaching in Bangladesh at all stages of education, it is crucial to give teachers opportunities for professional development so they can gain a better understanding of grammar education and acquire the abilities necessary to apply more effective teaching techniques. It is important to understand the beliefs and perspectives of grammar instructors especially at the tertiary level to ensure effective pedagogy; to develop, innovate and reform the curriculum to warrant student engagement as well as provide constructive teacher training and professional development.

Further research on a larger scale and with a more diverse sample is required to confirm these findings and better understand the beliefs and attitudes of language teachers toward grammar pedagogy. To enhance the standard of FL education in Bangladesh and to better understand the status and difficulties FL teaching now faces, further study in this field would be beneficial. Research will also shed light on current pedagogical practices, student learning outcomes which directly influence professional development which can enhance teachers’ effectiveness in the classroom and improve the overall quality of FL instruction. Continuation of such research stimulates cross-cultural insights which can influence educational policies related to language instruction as well as curriculum reformation. Pedagogical implications of such research allow teacher training and professional development to align their beliefs and practices with effective grammar teaching strategies, provide guidance for FL curricula development and materials design, as well as encourage feedback and evaluation of assessment practices through peer collaboration and policy recommendations emphasizing student-centered approaches.

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