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Teacher’s Burnout and Perceived Self-Efficacy as Predictors to Classroom Management: A Quantitative Inquiry

  • Pilos, Irish kaye H.
  • Cañete, Juralyn Jean A.
  • Calugas, Yahweh F.
  • Ecbat, Joven V.
  • Gozon, Nathaniel R.
  • Jamito, AJ N.
  • Nobleza, Gian Carlo E.
  • Ocay, Kurt O.
  • Pelandas, Jesraem A.
  • Retolla, Sheenah Nicole F.
  • Tandoc, Matthew L.
  • Versano, Naro Jr. S.
  • Krystal Joy M. Clamares
  • Anna Marie O. Pelandas
  • 2757-2771
  • May 23, 2024
  • Educational Management

Teacher’s Burnout and Perceived Self-Efficacy as Predictors to Classroom Management: A Quantitative Inquiry

Pilos, Irish kaye H1., Cañete, Juralyn Jean A1., Calugas, Yahweh F1., Ecbat, Joven V1., Gozon, Nathaniel R1., Jamito, AJ N1., Nobleza, Gian Carlo E1., Ocay, Kurt O1., Pelandas, Jesraem A1., Retolla, Sheenah Nicole F.1, Tandoc, Matthew L1., Versano, Naro Jr. S1., Krystal Joy M. Clamares, PhD2., Anna Marie O. Pelandas, MAEd2

1Department of Education, Senior High School Students, Philippines

2Department of Education, Senior High School Teachers Division of Davao de Oro, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.804261

Received: 27 April 2024; Revised: 14 May 2024; Accepted: 18 May 2024; Published: 23 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study dealt with the influence of Teacher’s Burnout and Perceived Self-Efficacy to Classroom Management among High School Teachers in Mawab, Davao de Oro. The primary goal of this study was to determine the level of teacher’s burnout and perceived self-efficacy to classroom management in terms of their respected indicators, the significant difference between burnout and perceived self-efficacy to classroom management, and what domains of burnout and perceived self-efficacy substantially influence classroom management. Also this study utilized a quantitative-correlational design with 113 respondents among teachers in three chosen High Schools’ in Mawab, Davao de Oro. The average weighted mean, Pearson-R, and Multiple Regression analysis were the statistical tools used in this study. Along with this, result showed a low level of burnout among teachers in terms of coping with job-related stress, attitude towards students, and perceived administrative support, and very low level in terms of career satisfaction. In another independent variable which was perceived self-efficacy, it showed a very high level in terms of instructional self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy to enlist parental involvement, while efficacy to influence decision making, and disciplinary self-efficacy got a high level. Likewise, the result showed a very high levels in every indicator of classroom management. Additionally, only perceived self-efficacy had moderate correlation towards classroom management, while teacher’s burnout got a negligible correlation. Hence, this led to the rejection of null hypothesis in terms of perceived self-efficacy and not rejecting the null hypothesis in terms of teacher’s burnout. Also all domains of teacher’s burnout had low ratings and perceived self-efficacy as most perceived by teachers. This meant that teachers were showing lower levels of burnout and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy which led them to have an effective classroom management. This result led the teachers to be aware that having a self-efficacy is very important to lessen their burnout in managing their classrooms.

Keywords: GAS, Teacher’s Burnout, Perceived Self-Efficacy, Classroom Management, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

In Chile, teachers were facing problems about dealing with the negative behaviors of students particularly in situation of aggression towards the teacher which raises conflict in classroom management (Sepulveda-vallejos et al, 2023). Therefore, classroom management strategies play a crucial role for teachers to impose an effective teaching and decrease negative behaviors of students, effective classroom management established an organized and positive classroom environment which is good for both teacher and students (Stueber, 2019).

In Philippines particularly in Bulacan, regression analysis found that the mental health status and stress level or burnout of teachers impacts their learning resource development (Jimenez, 2021).The mental health and stress level of teachers are two important factors that allow them to become holistic classroom managers and leaders as they are the front lines of the Department of Education in delivering its curriculum, services, and skills mastery to the learners (Asio and Bayucca, 2021).

In addition, the effectiveness of teachers also depends from their perceived self-efficacy, as what a study conducted from Filipino teachers, teacher’s efficacy beliefs are related to their behavior in classroom and their amount of effort invest in teaching, this beliefs lead them on how to interact and work effectively with their students in the classroom, there is a significant relationship between what a teacher believes and how they manage and communicate with their students in the classroom, selfefficacy beliefs produce their effects through cognitive, motivational, affective, selective processes (Dalanon and Matsuka, 2017).

In Davao Region it has been observed that most of the teachers complained about how could they manage their classrooms, most of them said that how the students behave inside the classroom depends on their attributes and how they interact with their students, and their self-efficacy beliefs (Suico, 2021).

Research Objectives

  1. To determine the level of teacher’s burnout in terms of:

          1.1 attitude towards students;

          1.2 career satisfaction;

          1.3 coping with job-related stress; and

          1.4 perceived administrative support.

  1. To determine the level of teacher’s perceived self-efficacy in terms of:

           2.1 disciplinary self-efficacy;

           2.2 efficacy to create positive school climate;

           2.3 efficacy to enlist parental involvement;

           2.4 efficacy to influence decision making; and

           2.5 instructional self-efficacy.

  1. To determine the level of classroom management in terms of:

           3.1 organization of the lesson;

           3.2 interaction during lesson; and

           3.3 teacher-student personal communication.

  1. To determine the significant relationship between teacher’s burnout and classroom management among High school teachers.
  2. To determine the significant relationship between teacher’s perceived self-efficacy and classroom management among High school teachers.
  3. To determine which of the domains in teacher’s burnout influences classroom management.
  4. To investigate which of the domains in teacher’s perceived self-efficacy influences classroom management.

METHODOLOGY

This study employed quantitative non-experimental research design that uses descriptive correlational technique to describe the hypothetical existence of a relationship between two defined variables and to determine the direction and degree of that relationship if one exists. When the purpose was to describe the condition of the situation as it existed at the time of the study to investigate the causes of a particular phenomenon, the descriptive correlation method was considered appropriate. Correlational research design investigates relationships between variables without the researcher controlling or manipulating any of them.

A correlation reflects the strength and direction of the relationship between two or more variables (Bhandari, 2021). Correlational research was the best quantitative method of research in which you have two or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects (Gay et al., 2006).

Population and Sample

The subjects of the study were the 158 different High school Teachers  inMawab, Davao de Oro. Moreover, the study employed stratified randomsimple random sampling which enabled the researchers to obtained a sample population that best represents the entire population being studied, making sure that each subgroup of interest was represented. The teachers were randomly selected among the three chosen High Schools’ in Mawab, Davao de Oro.

According to Mohapatra and Chamola (2020), a sample size of 100 – 200 respondents was considered medium. In the case of Teachers in Mawab, out of total population of 158 individuals, a random sample of 113 of respondents were selected. The sample size was computed using Raosoft sample size calculator (Raosoft, 2004).

Statistical Tool

The following statistical tools were utilized for the data analysis and interpretation.

Mean. This statistical tool was used to determine the level of teacher’s burnout, perceived self-efficacy to the classroom management of the teachers in Mawab, Davao de Oro.

Pearson (r). This statistical tool was employed to determine the significance on the relationship between the teacher’s burnout, perceived self-efficacy to the classroom management of the teachers in Mawab, Davao de Oro.

Multiple Regression Analysis. This statistical tool were used to determine the influence of teacher’s burnout, and perceived self-efficacy to the classroom management of the teachers in Mawab, Davao de Oro.

RESULTS

Level of Teacher’s Burnout

Table 1 shows the level of burnout among teachers in terms of career satisfaction, coping with job-related stress, attitude towards students, and perceived administrative support. The overall mean is 2.02 described as low, with a standard deviation of 0.58. Among all of the four indicators, attitude towards students got the highest mean of 2.55 which is low, and a standard deviation of 0.50, followed by coping with job-related stress with a mean of 2.23 which is also low, with a standard deviation of 0.52.  Perceived administrative support got a mean of 1.94 which is low, and a standard deviation of 0.82, and finally career satisfaction which attained a mean score of 1.38 which means very lowand got a standards deviation of 0.47. All indicators have a total descriptive equivalent of low. This further indicates that burnout is less manifested among teachers.

Table 1. Level of Teacher’s Burnout

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Career Satisfaction 1.38 0.47 Very Low
Coping with Job-related Stress 2.23 0.52 Low
Attitude Towards Students 2.55 0.50 Low
Perceived Administrative Support 1.94 0.82 Low
Overall 2.02 0.58 Low

Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy   

Table 2 presents the level of perceived self-efficacy by the teachers in terms of efficacy to influence decision making, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy in enlisting parental involvement. The overall mean is 4.22 with a verbal equivalent of very high, and a standard deviation of 0.64. This indicates that perceived self-efficacy is very much manifested among teachers.

Among the five indicators, efficacy to enlist parental involvement got the highest mean of 4.41 and is described as very high with a standard deviation of 0.45. This is followed by efficacy to create positive school climate with a mean of 4.29 with an equivalent description of very high, and a standard deviation of 0.58. Next is instructional self-efficacy with a mean of 4.24 which is considered very high, with a standard deviation of 0.59. Disciplinary self-efficacy got 4.18 which is high, with a standard deviation of 0.64 and lastly, efficacy to influence decision making got 3.98 which is high, with a standard deviation of 0.92.

Table 2.  Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Efficacy to Influence Decision-Making 3.98 0.92 High
Instructional Self-Efficacy 4.24 0.59 Very High
Disciplinary Self-Efficacy 4.18 0.64 High
Efficacy to Create Positive School Climate 4.29 0.58 Very High
Efficacy to Enlist Parental Involvement 4.41 0.45 Very High
Overall 4.22 0.64 Very High

Level of Classroom Management 

Presented in Table 3 is the level of classroom management as perceived by the teachers in terms of organization of lesson, interaction during lesson, and teachers-student personal communication. The overall mean is 4.43 described as very high, and a standard deviation of 0.50. This indicates that classroom management are very much felt among teachers. Among all the indicators, organization of lesson got the highest mean of 4.46 with a standard deviation of 0.49, followed by teacher-students personal communication with a mean of 4.44 and standard deviation of 0.47, and interaction during lesson got a mean score of 4.41, and standard deviation of 0.53. All of the indicators have descriptive equivalent of very high.

Table 3. Level of Classroom Management

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Organization of Lessons 4.46 0.49 Very High
Interaction During Lessons 4.41 0.53 Very High
Teacher-Student Personal Communication 4.44 0.47 Very High
Overall 4.43 0.50 Very High

Significance on the Relationship Between Teacher’s Burnout and Classroom Management   

Presented in Table 4 reveals that there is no significant relationship between Burnout and Classroom Management among Teacher’s. The R-value is -0.131and got a p-value of 0.166 which is greater than p<0.05. This means that teacher’s burnout and classroom management shows a negligible correlation.

Since the table shows that burnout and classroom management have a probability level of 0.166 which is greater than the level of significance at 0.05, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant relationship between burnout and classroom management among teachers is not rejected. The negligible correlation of the variables shows that almost all indicators have no significant relationship to classroom management.

Significant Relationship Between Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management             

Shown in Table 5 is a moderate correlation between the level of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management among Teachers. The R-value between Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management is 0.526 with a p-value of <0.001 which shows a moderate correlation. This means that perceived self-efficacy and classroom management has significant relationship.

Table shows that Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management have the probability level of <0.001 which is obviously less than the level of significance at 0.05. Thus, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant relationship between Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management among Teachers is rejected. The strong interdependence of the variables shows that all indicators; efficacy to influence decision making, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy to enlist parental involvement have significant relationship towards effective Classroom Management.

Multiple Regression Analysis on the Influence of Teachers’ Burnout on Classroom Management

The result reveals the F-value of 1.969 and a p-value of 0.104 which is greater than the 0.05 level of significance. This enables the researcher tonot reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no domain of Burnout that significantly predicts Classroom Management among teachers.

The coefficient of determination (R2) which is 0.068 connotes that 6.80% of the variation in the level of burnout experienced by the teachers could be attributed to the level of classroom management experienced by teachers. The remaining 93.20% is a chance variation which suggests that other factors beyond the scope of this study may also be attributed to classroom management among teachers.

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Influence of Perceived Self-Efficacy on Classroom Management

The table shows the F-value of 18.728 and a p-value of <0.001 which is evidently less than the 0.05 level of significance. This enables the researcher to reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no domain of perceived self-efficacy that significantly predicts classroom management among teachers.

The coefficient determination (R2) which is 0.467 connotes that 46.70% of the variation in the level of perceived self-efficacy by teachers could be attributed to the level of classroom management experienced by the teachers. The remaining 53.30% is the chance variation which suggests that other factors beyond the scope of this study may also be attributed to classroom management among teachers.

DISCUSSIONS

Level of Teachers’ Burnout

Presented in the previous chapter was the result of the level of burnout among teachers. It was found that the level of teacher’s burnout was described as low which further indicates that burnout was less manifested among teachers.

Thisfindings concurred to the proposition of Scott PhD, (2022), that burnout refers to psychological condition with physical, emotional, and mental dimensions, burnout often associated with the feeling of exhaustion, long term fatigue, negative self-concept, despair or hopelessness, frustration, and lack of productivity at work. In accordance also with the statement of Billingsley and Bettini (2019), that burnout also affects how teachers likely to stay in their job since their stress lead them to be unproductive. With this, teachers with high level of burnout affect students experience and outcomes (Madigan and Kim, 2020). Correspond to this, the notion of Tikkanen et al, (2017) also aligned in this study which states that consistent and discrepant burnout profiles can be found among teaching professionals, consistent profiles where characterized by systematically high, moderate, or low levels of all burnout symptom, whereas teachers with discrepant profiles reported increased or high levels of one or two burnout symptoms.

The result also showed that the levels of career satisfaction, coping with job-related stress, attitude towards students, and perceived administrative support were described as low and very low. Thus, this means that this four indicators was   less manifested and never manifested among teachers. The teacher’s burnout in terms of career satisfaction was described as very low and was interpreted as never manifested among teachers. This means that most of the teachers are satisfied with their career since this indicator means that they’re stress because they’re not satisfied with their job. This result substantiates to the assertion of Baluyos et al, (2019), that career satisfaction is requirement for the work performance of the teachers, career satisfaction plays an important role in the overall commitment to the organization, the career satisfaction of teachers significantly influenced their commitment in the organization, teachers who are satisfied with their job are also committed to work. In aligned also to the notion of Toropova et al, (2020) that career satisfaction is not only related to teacher retention, but it also contribute towards the well-being of teachers and students, clearly speaking, school cohesion enhanced the status of teaching profession.

Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy

The level of perceived self-efficacy was presented in previous chapter. It revealed that perceived self-efficacy is very high. All five indicators for this variable were also described as very high and high. It implies that perceived self-efficacy is always manifested and often-times manifested among teachers.

This findings accompanied to the proposition of Watt and Richardson (2020), that teacher’s self-efficacy for classroom management is an important component of teachers identity with implications for their teaching quality. This also further supported Barni et al, (2019), that teacher’s self-efficacy is the teachers beliefs in their ability to handle the task, obligations, and challenges related to their professional activity which influenced the important academic outcomes and well-being in the working environment. Further, In concomitant with Wray et al, (2022), teaching experience, context of the teaching, understanding of educational policies about inclusive education, pre-service teachers education, and experiential learning opportunities for teachers impact teachers self-efficacy.

Level of Classroom Management

The level of classroom management was presented in previous chapter. It revealed that classroom management got a mean of very high. It implies that classroom management was always manifested among teachers. Similarly, it aligned with the conclusion of Ahmed et al, (2018) that classroom management in general, includes all tools and techniques that teacher utilized during their stay in the classroom, different classroom management strategies found are; communication skills, student management skills, time management skills, and pedagogical skills. This findings attest also to the standpoint of Stueber (2019) that  effective classroom management is an important teaching skill which enhances the learning of all students, classroom management not only increase academic proficiency and decrease negative behaviors, it also establishes an organized and positive classroom environment.

Classroom management in terms of organization of lesson yielded a result of very high and interpreted as always manifested among teachers. This results coexisted with the findings of Lyness (2022) that organization skills are essential particularly in school, this skills will help individual to make their lifestyle to be better, everything is easier when things were organized. Correspond to the statement, it aligned with the proposition of Roksa et al, (2017) stating that organization of lessons highly affect the motivation of students, also their performance and persistence. Further, it conforms also to the notion of Anderson (2023) that teachers need to organize their lessons so that they could not waste their time, a disorganized teacher will waste a lot of time which lead to the entire topic to be lost.

Significant Relationship Between Teacher’s Burnout and Classroom Management

The result of the study revealed that there is no significant relationship between burnout and classroom management among teachers. The computed R-value indicated a negligible correlation implicated that even if the level of burnout of teachers is low it cannot affect their classroom management or their classroom management still goes high as burnout has nothing to do with classroom management as long as they have a high level of perceived self-efficacy.

With this findings, it negates to the anchored theory of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory which posits that the relationship between teacher’s burnout and self- efficacy in having classroom management can be described as a reciprocal and interdependent process. He stated that a teacher with low self – efficacy in managing their classroom may struggle to effectively handle challenging behaviors, establish appropriate routines, and create a positive learning environment. As a result, they may experience high levels of stress and frustration, leading to burnout.In contrary, this study upheld to the proposition of Mahmoodi et al, (2022) that there is a negative correlation between burnout and classroom management, the correlation between emotional exhaustion and depersonalization which are the two subcomponent of burnout, and student’s English learning were found to be negative. The findings indicated that teacher’s perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of learners English learning. In other words, teachers with higher levels of perceived self-efficacy in classroom management are less likely to experienced burnout. Burnout has negligible relationship towards classroom management as long as the teachers achieved a higher levels of perceived self-efficacy in managing their classroom.

Significant Relationship Between Perceived Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management

The result of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between perceived self-efficacy to classroom management among teachers. The computed R-value indicated a moderate correlation between this two variables. The moderate correlation implies that as perceived self-efficacy goes high, classroom management also become high and burnout can be lessen.

This findings reaffirmed to the anchored theory of Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory which assert that perceived self-efficacy affects the teacher’s choices of activities, effort, and persistence. Teacher’s who have a low sense of efficacy for accomplishing a task may avoid it; those who believe they are capable should participate readily. Individuals who feel efficacious are hypothesized, to work harder and persist longer when they encounter difficulties than those who doubt their capabilities.

Multiple Regression Analysis on the Influence of the Domains of Teacher’s Burnout on Classroom  Management

The regression analysis on the influence of the domains of burnout to classroom management among teachers revealed that one out of four domains namely; career satisfaction has significant influence on classroom management among teachers. Other domains found to be not significant in influencing classroom management. Though career satisfaction was less felt by the teachers, surprisingly it can still influence classroom management.

In aligned with the statement of Lazarides et al, (2020), a teachers who are unsatisfied with their career can have an influence on classroom management, contextual influences such as job demands and resources play a role in the development of teacher self-efficacy for classroom management. This suggest that when a teacher face excessive demands in their career, their self-efficacy for classroom management may be affected, which in turn can impact their classroom management. Therefore, an unsatisfied career can potentially lead to challenges in classroom management.

However, coping with job-related stress did not shows influence on classroom management. This finding affirmed to the notion of McCarthy et al, (2022), that when the teacher perceived that the demands of classroom exceed their coping resources, they experience stress. This stress can lead to job dissatisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and burnout, which can ultimately result in teacher leaving the profession. High level of stress can also reduce a teacher’s motivation, leading to alienation from workplace, absenteeism, and attrition.

Multiple Regression Analysis on the Influence of Perceived Self-Efficacy on Classroom Management

The regression analysis on the influence of the domains of perceived self-efficacy to classroom management among teachers revealed that efficacy to influence decision-making, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy to enlist parental involvement have significant influence to classroom management. Among the five domains, efficacy to influence decision-making and efficacy to enlist parental involvement has the most influence, followed by disciplinary self-efficacy, next is efficacy to create positive school climate, and the last one is instructional self-efficacy. All of this have an influences on classroom management.

In terms of efficacy to influence decision-making, Chatterjee (2021) assert that teacher play an important role in assisting students in decision making and weighing the benefits and drawbacks of various career options, this give a significant impact on and influences the choices the students makes, so the teacher plays an important role in shaping the students as who they want to be. In relation also wirh McCarty et al, (2021), teacher influenced decision making of students with the used of various factors including teacher characteristics, context factors, planning decision and implementation decisions. Also, Prenger and Schildkamp, (2018) propose that decision making can help students increase academic achievement.

CONCLUSION   

In conclusion, the result of the study revealed that the first independent variable which is the teacher’s burnout got an overall level of low, within its indicators;  coping with job-related stress, and attitude towards students, and perceived administrative support got a low levels, followed by career satisfaction,  which got a very low level. In contrary, the second independent variable which is perceived self-efficacy got an overall level of very high, within its indicators; instructional self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy to enlist parental involvement all got a very high levels, whilst efficacy to influence decision-making, and disciplinary self-efficacy all got a high levels. On the other hand, the dependent variable; classroom management got a level of very high, with its indicators; organization of lessons, interaction during lessons, and teacher-student communication all got a very high levels.

In addition, there is a negligible correlation between teacher’s burnout and classroom management, whilst perceived self-efficacy and classroom management shows a moderate correlation. The regression analysis also showed that in terms of teacher’s burnout, only career satisfaction significantly influenced classroom management, while coping with job-related stress, attitude towards students, and perceived administrative support were all not significantly influencing classroom management. In terms of perceived self-efficacy, all its indicators; efficacy to influence decision making, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy, efficacy to create positive school climate, and efficacy to enlist parental involvement were all significantly influencing classroom management.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Base on the preceding, and conclusions, the following recommendations are made; Department of Education officials may take the following supportive actions such as provide teachers with opportunities to improve their skills and knowledge through training programs, workshops, and seminars. These programs can focus on teaching strategies, classroom management, and other areas that teachers may need support in. Recognize teachers for their hard work and dedication. This can be done through formal recognition programs or simply by providing positive feedback and support. By implementing these supportive actions, the Department of Education can help teachers feel more confident in their abilities and better equipped to handle the challenges of teaching. This, in turn, can help reduce burnout and improve job satisfaction among teachers. Similarly, school administrators may create an open door policy where teachers feel comfortable sharing their concerns and ideas. Also, they should actively listen to their feedback and work towards addressing their needs and create a supportive school environment that values teachers and encourages collaboration. This can include providing teachers with access to resources, supporting professional development, and fostering a sense of community within the school. Likewise, it is better for a teacher to perceived self-efficacy in managing their classroom as this can help them to avoid stress that lead to burnout, being able to deal with students with perceived self-efficacy, teachers may able to provide effective learning outcomes to students which improve classroom management.

Additionally, teachers should communicate regularly with parents about their child’s progress and any concerns they may have. This can help build a positive relationship with parents and reduce stress. Teachers also should set boundaries with their students and parents, this includes establishing clear expectations for behavior and communication, and maintaining a healthy work-life balance, by implementing these strategies, teachers can improve their well-being and perceived self-efficacy, which can lead to more effective classroom management and reduced burnout. Parents can also support their child’s teacher by communicating openly, respecting boundaries, and supporting school policies and procedures. Lastly, it may offer future researchers a starting point for expanding the scope of the research in terms of variables mentioned in the study.

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