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The Critiques of a Viral TikToker on Lampung Government using a Critical Discourse Analysis and Speech Act Theory

  • Nontje Pangemanan
  • Donal M. Ratu
  • Intama Jemy Polii
  • Abdul Muqit
  • 1591-1601
  • Jun 15, 2024
  • Language

The Critiques of a Viral TikToker on Lampung Government using a Critical Discourse Analysis and Speech Act Theory

Nontje Pangemanan1*, Donal M. Ratu1, Intama Jemy Polii1, and Abdul Muqit2

1Department of Language and Education, State University of Manado North Sulawesi, Indonesia 95618,

2 English Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, East Java Indonesia 65141,

*Corresponding Author

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.805113

Received: 13 April 2024; Revised: 08 May 2024; Accepted: 13 May 2024; Published: 15 June 2024

ABSTRACT

TikTok has become a medium for sharing many things. Some time ago, in 2023, the very popular TikTok video presenter, Bima, went viral on social media in Indonesia. He openly dared to criticize the Lampung provincial government’s policies in meeting the needs of its people. Because it was so viral, the president of the Republic of Indonesia, MrJokoWidodo, immediately reacted. This research aims to analyze the speech acts used by Brother Bima which have become very popular and received the attention of the public throughout Indonesia, especially social media users. This research approach uses descriptive qualitative research methodology initiated by Rukin, Miles, Huberman, and Saldana. This research found that critical discourse towards Lampung was dominated by assertive speech acts. This shows that the nature of the information in speech acts is factual and based on reality. Then, this research also uses directive and commissive speech acts to trigger people to express their responses to the criticism. This perlocutionary action was successful because it received a big response from the community and government, especially President JokoWidodo. As a follow-up, the president decided to take over all development carried out by the provincial government to the central government in response to Bima, the TikToker. This research concludes that social media such as TikTok is worthy of being used as a means and criticism to convey concerns, criticism and input on government policies in serving the community, considering that its scope is very broad.

Keywords: critics, government, developments, infrastructures, handle.

INTRODUCTION

Criticism is an action that attempts to spread a message to certain parties regarding a topic that is being discussed and is of special concern. Criticism should basically be factual and supported by solid data. This cannot be done haphazardly without data and facts. Otherwise, the criticism could be considered slander because it is unfounded. According to Michel Foucault, criticism must be supported by concrete evidence. He argues that claiming that something is not as good as it actually is does not constitute criticism. This involves identifying principles of freedom, uncritical thought patterns, and accepted practices (Foucault, 2020). He sees criticism as a method or platform for changing points of view and actions.

He uses criticism as a creative tool to change his perspective, thoughts and actions. By denying incoherence, incompleteness, hidden assumptions, unconsidered consequences, and the like, critique helps avoid reconsideration that might be taken for granted regardless of its truth value and operational effectiveness (Corvellec, Stowell, Johansson, 2023).

Discourse-based criticism can be shared on social media and other forms of mass communication. The popular TikTok appeared on Indonesian social media in early June 2023. The Lampung Provincial Government came under fire for the TikTok content. This criticism was expressed via social media after Bima uploaded it. The four points conveyed in the TikTok discourse are limited infrastructure, the main roads in Lampung Province are damaged, or the infrastructure is in poor condition. Lampung has poor governance, the second problem is education, and the third problem is excessive dependence on agriculture (Kompas, 13/4/2023).

This widespread criticism sparked a firestorm within the Lampung provincial government. The Lampung government then used lawyer Gindha Ansari to report Bima to the police for defamation. On Monday, April 17 2023, Gindha in the “Morning Dialogue Sapa Indonesia” program on Kompas TV stated that the report was on behalf of himself or residents in Lampung. This is not in accordance with the reality stated by the Lampung provincial government. Therefore, according to Mahfud MD, Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs, Bima has the authority to criticize the incident in Lampung. JokoWidodo visited Lampung Province on Friday (Kompas.com, 5/3/2023).

With the arrival of the President, it was emphasized that the TikTok uploaded by Bima was very appropriate to improve conditions in Lampung. The President responded directly to the problem raised by Bima by coming directly to Lampung. With the arrival of the President, the Lampung Provincial Government is making every effort to repair damaged infrastructure. The President of Indonesia, Jokowi, emphasized how bad the road conditions in Lampung Province are.

He gave instructions to the Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing (PUPR) to take responsibility if the district and Lampung Province were unable to repair damaged roads using the APBD (SindoNews.com, 05 May 2023). However, in the future, the governor will also take over several departments, some of which will be managed by the current regent. According to Mahfud MD, “Bima has the constitutional right to state this, especially for the sake of (Lampung’s) progress” (Datiknews, 15/4/2023). Mahfud MD made this claim in a YouTube video. H DjokoWidodo, President of the Republic of Indonesia, hurriedly rushed to Lampung to review the situation there after there was a lot of chatter on TikTok. To inspect the condition of damaged roads in the area, President JokoWidodo.

According to Jokowi, people “should not just follow the central government” (Republika.com, 5/5/2023). When Austin and Serle’s speech act methodology is applied to TikTok dialogue it becomes quite interesting. An extraordinary thing was shown when TikTok discourse was analyzed using the Speech Act Theory technique. Several previous studies have been carried out by scientists. Literat, Shabtai, and Vilenchik (2022) conducted research entitled “Protesting the Protest Paradigm: TikTok as a Space for Media Criticism”. This study investigates how users interact with the app in response to reports of protests in mainstream media. López, Bautista, and Campos (2023) conducted a study on TikTok and active audiences in the process of political and structural change. These findings suggest that this type of material on TikTok has a significant audience reach, but it is impossible to say for sure whether it has any particular influence or effect. An exploratory study based on the Scottish referendum. (Vijay and Gekker (2021) researched how politics is presented on TikTok and how the design of the platform shapes that expression and its circulation. They examine how politics is practiced on TikTok in this article, as well as how the design of the platform influences such manifestations and their spread.

Baikulova (2023) examines the modern speech of children aged 2-3 to 14 years and examines how other languages ​​and cultures influence it. This article explores how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting contemporary fashion consumption and reconciling the meaning of men’s knitwear. Septora (2021) researched describing the types, forms and purposes of speech acts used on social media in Indonesia, especially on YouTube. Even in India, TikTok is used for political purposes. The types, forms and purposes of Indonesian speech acts used in YouTube social media posts are described in this research. Pahwa (2020) states that currently, TikTok’s political potential is clearly visible. A year later, in June 2020, the Indian government outright banned the app (along with 58 other Chinese apps), citing national security concerns. Therefore, in the US, TikTok is planned to be banned. As stated by Lerman (2020), a similar move was also exhibited two months later by the US government, and at the time of writing this article, it appears that TikTok will be banned in the United States unless purchased by an American company.

This research discusses the discourse “Lampung is not moving forward.” Lampung is not moving forward. This research uses Jean Austin and Searle’s Speech Act Theory approach to analyze discourse.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Critique

According to Merriam-Webster, “critique” is a more formal term for a carefully expressed judgment, opinion, or appraisal of something’s excellent and negative aspects, such as novels or movies. Contrarily, criticism is most frequently used generically to describe the act of criticizing someone or something adversely (“I’m more interested in encouragement right now than criticism”) or a statement or comment that conveys disapproval (“She shared a minor criticism about the design”). Meanwhile, the philosopher Michel Foucault stated that a critique does not simply state that something is flawed in its current state. It involves determining what types of self-evidences, liberties, acquired and non-reflective modes of thought, the practices we accept rest on” (Foucault, 1982). He uses criticism as a creative tool to alter his ways of seeing, thinking, and behaving.

Critique prevents things from being taken for granted, regardless of their truth value and practical efficacy, by disproving incoherence, incompleteness, concealed assumptions, unanticipated consequences, and the like. This point of view on criticism served as inspiration for me as a way to draw attention to problems that would otherwise go unnoticed.

Two kinds of critiques

The first tradition, critique for improvement, derives from the conventional, mainstream literature on leadership and management development but adds critical reflection as a way to enrich and improve existing practices. The knowledge interest within this body of literature could be characterized as primarily technical (Habermas, 1972), concentrating on aspects of utility, rationality, and the requirement to acquire specialized technical or managerial information. This custom is based on the rationalistic idea that organized activities are tools that have been carefully prepared to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization (Ellström, 1992).

Studies on management and leadership that are typically linked to the tradition of critique for improvement have come under fire for having a performative undertone and an excessively commercialized justification for critical reflection. A critical theoretical viewpoint on management and leadership is taken by the second tradition, critique for emancipation. This custom has its roots in the critical theory created by Frankfurt School academics (Reynolds, 1999). Critical theory is fundamentally focused on analyzing and transforming society. It frequently takes a pejorative posture towards positivist social phenomenon research because it doubts the feasibility of producing unbiased knowledge about a social reality that the researchers are actively shaping (Benton & Craib, 2001). Instead, it is believed that the critical researcher must reject what has been

accepted as true in favor of using dialectic reasoning to examine the subject under study (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2017).

Critical Discourse Analysis

The use of spoken or written language to communicate and convey meaning within a particular context or group is referred to as discourse. It includes the ways that language is used to negotiate and create social connections as well as to express ideas, beliefs, and opinions. Discourse is frequently utilized to convey a specific level of theoretical understanding in literary and non-literary works in ways that are ambiguous and occasionally obfuscatory, according to Sara Mills (2004). Discourse analysis, on the other hand, concentrates on the analysis of spoken language discourse, including speeches, comments, and interviews (Crystal, 1987).

The language of critical discourse analysis is next on the list. Critical discourse analysis (CDA), according to Fairclough, looks at discourse to uncover hidden meanings. In 2020, Ghanizadeh and others. It serves as the conceptual bedrock (CDA). Critical discourse analysis is a theory or paradigm that examines power dynamics in discourse analysis. Bastone (1995) defined CDA as a method of linguistic analysis that searches texts for sub-textual ideological constructions. CDA is a discourse model that deals with the social power of institutions or groups, claims van Dijk (1993). Agbedo (2011) asserts that language is a tool of power in the sense that those in positions of authority communicate this through their language and that it can shape beliefs and actions.

The formal elements—such as vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and sentence consistency—from which discourses and types are linguistically realized are the subject of the text analysis (Fairclough, 2014). The analysis of discursive practice focuses on the ways that writers of texts draw on pre-existing discourses and how to compose a text, as well as the ways that readers of texts also use the discourses and forms that are readily available in their consumption and interpretation of the texts. Texts and social practice are connected through digressive practice. As a result, language use in rambling practice—the process by which people produce and use texts—is the only way that social practice can be established and has been.

Analysts of critical discourse are aware of how social dominance and power operate. As a result, they create hypotheses about how discourse influences the distribution of power. It covers traits that influence how social groups communicate with one another. According to Van Dijk (1993), CDA is a sort of discourse analysis research that primarily examines how texts and speech in social and political contexts reinforce, perpetuate, and oppose the misuse of social power, domination, and inequality. Discourse, according to Fairclough (1992), is “a practice that not only serves to represent the world but also marks the world, shapes the world, and in a sense constructs the world.”

Speech Act

A branch of pragmatics called speech act theory examines how words are used to perform activities in addition to conveying information. The Oxford philosopher J.L. Austin first proposed the speech act theory in his book How to Do Things With Words, and American philosopher J.R. Searle expanded on it. According to him (Oishi, 2006), meaning is described in relation to linguistic rules associated with words and phrases, the context in which the speaker really addresses the hearer, and the speaker’s underlying intents. The concept of acts effectively illustrates the idea that meaning occurs between these relations: when a speaker uses linguistic conventions to produce a phrase, they are performing a linguistic act to the listener with a specific goal. It takes into account how often speech is thought to perform perlocutionary, illocutionary, and/or locutionary activities.

The use of language is a topic that the speech act theory addresses. Although Austin started it, Searle developed it. The theories of Austin and Searle are explained, and a number of issues are pointed out. Speech actions are recognizable as units of language, therefore if speech act theory is to be a useful theory of language usage, it must be able to integrate with a theory of discourse structure (Smith, 1991).

The study of speech acts by philosophers and linguists helps them to comprehend how people communicate with one another. From a strictly first-person perspective, one of the pleasures of studying speech acts is being continually reminded of the myriad, shockingly diverse things we do when we converse with one another (Nordquist, 2020).

According to Searle, speakers can only make the following five illocutionary points on propositions in an utterance: the assertive, commissive, directive, declaratory, and expressive illocutionary points. The assertive point is what speakers achieve when they represent how things are in the world, the commissive point is what speakers achieve when they commit to doing something, the directive point is what speakers achieve when they try to persuade listeners to do something, the declaratory point is what speakers achieve when they act in the world at the time of the utterance simply by saying that they act in the world, and the expressive point is what speakers achieve when they express their attitudes about things and facts of the world (Vanderkeven and Kubo 2002), (Nordquist, 2020).

The following chart by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2018) provides more details:

Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2018)

Figure 1. Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2018)

A Speaking Act

According to the law of speech, commonly referred to as “speech acts,” linguistic expressions can be comprehended by using examples from the rules for doing speech actions, such as: admonishing, convincing, directing, summoning (yelling), and promising. Verbs include (promise), (question), (ask), and (warn). Locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts are the three main aspects that Searle commonly identifies. Words, phrases, and full sentences are used in speaking gestures referred to as sound acts (saying something) to communicate ideas. A speaking act performed with a specific purpose is known as an illocutionary act. Perlocutionary speech acts are ones whose main objective is to sway the listener’s opinion. On the basis of these three dimensions, Searle also developed a taxonomy of speech acts that is broken down into five categories: (1) assertive, which aims to link the speaker’s speech with the realization of what he will say in the future (promises, oaths); (2) directive, which aims to produce effects through speaker actions (commands, requests, and requests); and (3) compliant. Greetings, praises, and other expressions of the speaker’s attitude. I appreciate it. And (5) remarks (firement, employment, and confirmation) meant to change the truth of the circumstance in light of the connection.

METHOD

This research methodology is a qualitative descriptive approach. This research aims to examine the speech acts used to criticize the Lampung Provincial government. The speech acts used in conversation show the tendency of the speaker, TikToker, to utilize these speech acts in discourse. According to Rukin (2019), qualitative research often takes the form of various social phenomena and social truths, and humans are more often seen as social creatures than physical creatures. Data collection techniques include data collection, data reduction, data visualization, and concluding.

The discourse used to criticize the Lampung Government’s way of handling government problems is the main source of data in this research. This information was obtained through TikTok videos. The data is then transcribed using the YouTube program. The information is also translated into English. Data collection is the action taken. Furthermore, this information is not taken in general but specifically regarding criticism. These data are then displayed in the theories put forward. Finally, a conclusion is reached after the data is displayed. This is the final step in the data analysis process.

More cycles of data reduction (writing summaries, coding, identifying themes, assigning clusters, creating partitions, and writing memos) occurred as the data collection process progressed. Researchers can organize data and discard irrelevant data by using reduced data to arrive at conclusions that can be tested. The large, structured body of knowledge available from data views enables decision-making and action. They believe that improved data visualization, which uses various matrices, charts, networks, and graphs, is the key to successful qualitative analysis.

FINDINGS

Transcript of Bima TikTok

Hi, I am Bima. I come from a province called Dajjal and am now studying in Australia. Okay, I have already grown big enough, it is okay.

Next slide, please,

The first reason is the limited infrastructure. There are lots of projects from the government that are ineffective, for example, Kota Baru, bro. It has been from my elementary up to now, and I have never heard its news again. I got information that the flow of funds from the central government is hundreds of billions, BSD, and I don’t know maybe it has been a place of the devil to dispose of children, and the streets in Lampung which I often discuss the roads generally and commonly for economic mobilization in Lampung. However, the infrastructure like roads is in good condition for 1 km and in bad condition for 1 km. The roads are just pasted and pasted on. I don’t know whether the government plays Snakes and Ladders or what’s up….

The second reason is the weak education system. I don’t state that Lampung lacks smart people, okay. There are lots of smart people coming from Lampung, such as Eric Thohir, Sri Mulyani, and the Minister of Farming are from Lampung. I am also smart, okay….since I study in Australia. The screening process for students in Lampung has a lot of cheating in itself. Even, those who worked in the education sector were the master cause of this cheating. For example, the lecturer who put his children using the cheating model and the rector put his nephew using, what is it like? The answer sheets for the entrance test are spreading everywhere. Such cheating is conducted by those who are responsible for that activity. My parents are impossible to do that. If so, that’s crazy.

Next slide, please

The third matter is the weak government administration. Corruption is everywhere, and inefficient bureaucracy, and legal which are weak. It is like everyday food, full of money.

The last reason is the dependence on the agricultural sector. It is undeniable that Lampung is one of the provinces that produce a lot of agricultural products, such as corn, and heavy stick rice, and others. And its contribution is 40% to the government. You can check it from the website.

The transcript of the TikTok can be classified based on the sentence classifications and the types of speech acts. The classification can be seen in the following tables.

TABLE 1. Data on Sentence Classification

Types of Sentences Frequency Percentages
Simple sentences 24 77.4%
Compound Sentences 5 16.1%
Compound Complex Sentences 2 6.5%
Total 31 100%

TABLE 2. Data on the Speech Act

Types of Speech Acts Used     Frequency Percentage
Assertive 17 54.8%
Directive 4 12.9%
Commissive 2 6.5%
Declaratory 6 19.3%
Expressive 2 6.5%
Total 31 100%

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The total sentences used by Bima in TikTok constitute 425 words, 2,002 characters without spaces, and 2,424 characters with spaces. Declarative sentences, three interrogative sentences, and four instructions or requests make up the majority of the sentences in phrases.

Table 1 explains the sentence classification data. Simple sentences dominate the language of TikTokers who criticize the Lampung Government Office. There are a total of 24 sentences. These sentences cover 77.4% of all sentence types. A complex sentence consisting of five sentences and calculated to have a structure of 16.1% is the next sentence. Finally, 2 complex compound sentences make up 6.5% of TikToker’s phrase discourse.

Based on the description above, speakers often convey their criticism in short sentences. According to Bima, at least four points occurred in Lampung. Infrastructure is first, and it is insufficient. He emphasized that highways and main roads are indicators of poor infrastructure. He claimed that the road conditions in Lampung were very bad. He pointed out the need to maintain proper roads as the main means for people to carry out economic activities. The second is how inadequate the education system is. He emphasized that Lampung has a weak and very worrying education system. He provided many examples of past events in Lampung as evidence. For example, it is unfair to admit students. This is full of dishonesty. Third, an ineffective administrative structure is characterized by a lot of corruption. Dependence on the agricultural industry ranks fourth.

The second table explains that the discourse of criticism of the Lampung Resistance Government uses a lot of assertive speech acts. This speech act dominates the speech acts used as a whole. in percentage terms, assertive speech acts amounted to 54.8%, directives 12.9%, commissive and expressive each amounted to 2%. Meanwhile, Declaratory speech acts consist of 19.3%.

The meaning of table 2 in a discourse or news or statements that use assertive speech acts are the messages conveyed following the reality that occurs in the field. This speech act also implies a message that policymakers need to see the reality related to the needs of society in the field. The community needs to get and experience adequate public facilities. because the atmosphere is inadequate, assertive speech acts functions as a representation of facts felt by the speaker, in this case, Bima.

In detail, These four criticisms were conveyed in various ways. Seventeen assertive speech acts and four directive speech acts were used in the first criticism. The first criticism aims to highlight how bad the infrastructure in Lampung is. He admitted that the condition of the roads and infrastructure was bad from the time he had children until he was an adult. He wants the public or the public to understand how large government funds are. But He pointed out that nothing had changed at all.

The inadequate education system in Lampung was the second criticism leveled at him. He emphasized that his claims were supported by facts, such as the unfair university admissions process and the large number of intelligent people in Lampung. This verbal act makes an affirmation. The claim is supported by contradictory facts. Lampung Province has an education system that is very substandard on the one hand. But on the other hand, Lampung Province has many famous and intelligent people. He showed how Eric Tohoir, Sri Mulyani, and Zulkifli Hasan, natives of Lampung, advanced to ministerial positions in the government.

He claims that these are contradictory facts. So, through directive speech acts, the criticism is directed at the provincial government. He questioned and speculated why this incident occurred in Lampung. He illustrated this by asking, “How is she?” The third topic is how poorly the government is run. To elaborate, a forceful speaking act is used. This truth-based assertion is made through the use of assertive speech. Bima wants to inform people on the state of the political situation. Corruption is present all over the government, as evidenced by the facts. The legal system is quite flimsy, and the bureaucracy is dysfunctional. The majority of people have little trouble understanding them, and they are now part of everyday conversation.

Strong speech acts are also used to convey final criticism. Lampung, according to Bima, is very dependent on the agricultural industry. According to him, Lampung must consider alternative industries and develop them. He noted that the province relies heavily on the agricultural industry. It accounts for up to 40% of the country’s GDP. However, independent pricing does not necessarily follow a significant contribution. The federal government retains jurisdiction over these procedures. Because the situation is very unfair, he asks questions to show that this is true and at the same time conveys a directive speech act. With the taq statement, it is used. The purpose of this statement is to inspire people to adopt his ideals. Meanwhile, he shows it by using submissive speech behavior.

The description above shows that criticism of Bima uses aggressive speech patterns. They try to describe the truth and events that actually occurred in Lampung Province. He does not want to endanger his native nation. He sometimes uses directive speech acts to persuade listeners to follow or accept his beliefs. In addition, he uses commissive speech acts in which he apologizes to the note takers or parties who initiated the criticism. Assertive speech acts are used to discharge the criticisms. Because they express how they are, they are known as locutionary speech acts. To demonstrate that his criticisms are genuine, he employs both a direction and a commissive in every sentence. It is intended that by displaying this to the public, the provincial authorities in Lampung will become more aware of the requirements of the populace. The perlocutionary act is Bima’s ultimate goal.

The speech acts used in discourse to express criticism of the Lampung provincial government are dominated by assertive speech acts and followed by declarative speech acts. The third is directed, commissive, and expressive speech acts. The first discussion concerns infrastructure in Lampung. According to Bima, the infrastructure is inadequate and not good. He claims that poorly maintained roads and interstates are signs of inadequate infrastructure. He said that the road conditions in Lampung were bad. Because good roads are the main way for people to carry out economic activities, he describes the need for road maintenance. One sympathetic speech act and two aggressive speech acts are used to express the discourse. In his speech, Bima explained the facts and realities that show how minimal infrastructure is. He pointed out that the infrastructure must be in good condition as the federal government provides funds for road maintenance and improvements.

In the third clause or sentence, he emphasizes this by applying a strong speech pattern. He further shows his ignorance by displaying the saying “this is where the devil throws children” to further demonstrate his ignorance. This proverb or word is used to convey the speaker’s feelings of anger towards the irresponsible behavior of a ruling figure. By saying that the government is playing snakes and ladders, he also added the following saying. Children are offered this game. This shows that the government is trying to deceive its citizens by carrying out development programs without them knowing. The second discussion is about the inadequate education system in Lampung. He made a strong speaking action to note it. He hopes to convey the reality and facts of Lampung society by doing this. This should not happen in Lampung. Thanks to extraordinary figures such as the Minister of Sports and Youth, Pak Eric Thohir, Minister of Finance Sri Mulyani, and Minister of Agriculture Zulkifli Hasan, Lampung is prosperous. Given that all of them are from Lampung, the city shouldn’t have a subpar educational system. This situation is dangerous to him.

Even though it has many outstanding individuals, the education system in Lampung is still very underdeveloped. It shows how students are subject to an unfair system characterized by professors, chancellors, and other individuals who mislead and manipulate the system. And Lampung is where it happened. He accused many unfair practices that occurred in the entrance exam. He suggested that educators teach moral and ethical principles to their students. He uses a strong speech act to make this claim to avoid being judged personally. He also uses commissive speech acts. This aims to show that the statements he uses are not slander and are facts.

Assertive speech acts are used in the third discourse. He argued in his speech that the executive branch of government was largely ineffective. He demonstrated this fact by showing how weak and ineffective legal corruption is in the bureaucracy. He claims corruption or bad money is everywhere. He uses three assertive speech acts in conveying this discourse. The fourth argument discusses Lampung’s dependence on the agricultural industry. He suggested that Lampung should have resources other than agriculture. He argued that the provincial government should investigate other forms of dependency, including industry and other entities. According to him, the agricultural industry is unstable and vulnerable. He advised the government to look for new natural resources in imaginative ways. Assertive speech acts dominate this discourse in the fourth idea. He occasionally uses directive and commissive speech acts to arouse the listeners’ feelings and sensitivity towards the provincial government.

CONCLUSION

This analysis concludes that Bima’s criticism of the Lampung Provincial Government is based on the realities that exist within the province as a whole. He uses the act of speaking assertively to show that the action is grounded in reality and factual. He also uses directed speech acts to show the basis of the statements and ideas he conveys. After his speech, he used the word commissive. This was intended to express his desire to improve the development for the condition of Lampung and for the benefit of the entire community so that he apologized to everyone critical of him. His use of aggressive communication is driven by self-serving goals. He hopes that the people of Lampung in particular and the people there in general will be taught to be responsible for their actions. Locutionary acts include assertiveness, directing, and commissive. Illocutionary acts are what they are called, and they are made public in the hope that the government will be held accountable. It was an illogical action. TikTok is used as the main media for everyone in the form of debate.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to express their deepest gratitude to the Director of the Manado State University Research Center. Apart from that, they also expressed their thanks to Dr. Jemy Polii, Deputy Dean 1 of the Faculty of Languages ​​and Letters who has helped us carry out statistical and other research. The authors also express their gratitude to the head of the Center for Research and Community Service, Malang State Polytechnic who has helped provide permission to carry out this research collaboration.

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