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The Experiences of Student Employees on Managerial Supervision Approaches in Selected Fast-Food Chains in the National Capital Region

  • Rothlen May M. German
  • KaryllChea G. Biador
  • Kate S. Culile
  • Almea S. Santos
  • Lyhka Bernalyn M. Colar
  • Jovi Rosaine M. Dagala
  • Zandro T. Estella
  • 1450-1459
  • Jun 13, 2024
  • Leadership

The Experiences of Student Employees on Managerial Supervision Approaches in Selected Fast-Food Chains in the National Capital Region

Rothlen May M. German1, KaryllChea G. Biador2, Kate S. Culile3, Almea S. Santos4, Lyhka Bernalyn M. Colar5, Jovi Rosaine M. Dagala6, Zandro T. Estella7

1,2,3,4,5,6Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

7Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines


Received: 04 May 2024; Accepted: 11 May 2024; Published: 13 June 2024


The study delved into the experiences of student employees on managerial supervision approaches in selected fast-food chains in the National Capital Region. The researchers utilized qualitative research, in-depth interviews with semi-structured questions to gain insights into participants’ experiences.

The results showed that fast-food managers often strictly adhered to store policies, impacting the student employees’ work experience. Further, challenges were observed in scheduling adjustments and managers’ attitudes at work. These findings can inform the development of practical supervision approaches within the fast-food industry to address potential conflicts.

Keywords: managerial supervision approach, leader, student employees, employee experience, workplace


Individuals who are currently studying and working at the same time can be both rewarding and challenging. A student entering a particular job, either full-time or part-time, can earn income to finance one’s education and acquire work experience. However, being a student employee can bring difficulties in effectively managing their time and balancing their work and school responsibilities (Accion et al., 2019). The Freeman (2016) stated that the job options that students may consider are online jobs, blog sites, fast-food crews, school jobs, and paid corporate internships. Moreover, one of these job options mentioned, being a fast-food crew, is quite popular. It states that most fast-food employees are students. However, working in the fast-food industry can be challenging since it continuously expands based on the Philippines Quick Service Restaurants Market | Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2019-2026 (Priya, 2020).

Student employees often encounter a fast-paced environment and demanding customers as well. Considering this, supervision approaches employed by the managers or supervisors play a crucial role in ensuring that student employees feel satisfied, motivated, and valued in their jobs, which will help improve their overall work experience in the fast-food chain. Understanding the functions of each supervision approach can help one become a better leader and accomplish more remarkable outcomes with the team (Levinson, 2018).

Fast-food chains, also known as Quick Service Restaurants (QSR), are vital to the country’s economy. It is one type of food service in the country that is well-liked by most Filipinos due to its affordability, convenience, and quick service, making it a go-to option for individuals who need a quick meal. The fast-food industry in the Philippines has continuously grown and evolved and has gained vast popularity in recent years. Based on Allied Market Research’s new report, the quick-service restaurant market in the Philippines expects to grow from $4.6 billion in 2018 to $7.9 billion by 2026 (Priya, 2020). As the industry constantly expands, it requires a large workforce, and students are a convenient source of part-time labor.

According to Christensen (2018), the fast-food industry does not require much formal education or experience and offers plenty of part-time positions; thus, many are high school students. Several fast-food chains in the Philippines employ students, such as Jollibee, McDonald’s, KFC, Chowking, and Greenwich. As stated by Jon Viktor Cabuenas in the GMA News article (2017), McDonald’s Philippines, one of the well-known fast-food chains in the country, wants to employ more working students to support the education and employment opportunities of these young people. Furthermore, since many students are employed in this industry, it is necessary to consider how they will be managed inside the workplace to keep them satisfied and motivated, which eventually helps improve their job performance and reduce the intention of quitting their job immediately.

As such, the person who handles and manages them—their managers or supervisors—has a vital role in giving their student employees good work experience. According to the University of North Carolina (2023), the supervisor’s roles are to give student workers the onboarding, instruction, and guidance necessary to complete their duties and succeed. Supervisors need to ensure that no student employees work during planned class hours because it will impact how they perform. Additionally, supervisors are the ones who set expectations and guidelines for student employees’ conduct. Supervisors need to ensure an open line of communication between him/her and their student employees to avoid any miscommunications.

According to the findings of the study conducted by Hossain, M.K. & Hossain, A. (2012), supervisor relation is one motivating factor of employees which indicates that a good relationship between supervisor and the worker is a persuasive factor that leads to job satisfaction and impacts job performance. Good relationships between supervisors and student employees help improve performance inside the workplace. Studying while working is a challenging task. A manager or supervisor who helps student employees perform well and simultaneously enjoys what they do cannot be experienced in all lines of work. Furthermore, Dai, Zhuang, & Huan (2019), cited by Sagayno et al. (2019), employees with solid resilience reduce their purpose to stop but fuel the will to participate more. Excellent working conditions encourage cordial communication between staff and supervisors, which lessens the likelihood of disputes and misunderstandings.

At the local level, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) mandates work supervision to ensure protection for labor. Specifically, employers are obligated to exercise due diligence in supervising their employees. It means establishing suitable guidelines and instructions to protect the public and maintain positive relationships with individuals associated with the employer. Disciplinary measures should be implemented as needed to guarantee essential business operations and benefits for the employer. Furthermore, the employer must prioritize consistent enforcement and monitoring of these rules, which should be carried out by dependable supervisors providing regular reports on their supervisory activities (Work Supervision | Labor Law PH, 2022).

Since a fast-food chain is a high-paced work environment, employees play a vital role in this industry. They should be able to do their work accurately. According to BC Open Textbooks (n.d.), customers will be content and happy when a job is done correctly. When a job is done properly, there will not be any complaints or follow-up calls, and the customer or supervisor may even appreciate or recommend employees. The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) also mandates the responsibilities of employees to promote fairness and equitable employment practices further. Specifically, employees should perform the assigned tasks or duties diligently regardless of employment. They expect to carry out their work through their employment contracts. They are obliged to comply with the rules and regulations established by the employers if these are lawful and reasonable (Work Supervision | Labor Law PH, 2022).

The path-goal theory of leadership by Robert L. House (1971) served as the basis for this study, specifying the leadership style or conduct that best matches the person and work environment to accomplish a goal (House & Mitchell, 1974). It is intended to assist leaders in maximizing their impact on team performance by customizing their methods to the details of each setting (task structure, authority system, and workgroup) and the distinctive characteristics of their direct subordinates (ability, experience, and locus of control). It is a win-win situation, as when the manager succeeds, the employees will increase their productivity and be happier (McNamara, 2016). However, before the objective was achieved, several circumstances prompted managers to struggle with environmental contingency elements, such as task structure, formal authority system, and workgroup. Subordinate contingency factors include locus of control, experience, and perceived ability. This theory constantly reminds leaders that their primary responsibility as a leader is to help subordinates set their objectives and then achieve those goals most efficiently and effectively. This theory provides leaders with a strategic plan for increasing the satisfaction and performance of subordinates (Juneja, n.d.).

Despite the importance of the supervision approach used by managers in the fast-food industry, there needs to be more study on how such approaches affect the work experience of, especially, student employees. This study aimed to fill the gap by exploring the experiences of student employees on different managerial supervision approaches in selected fast-food chains in the National Capital Region. Further, this study can support the development of best practices for managers or supervisors in fast food chains, enhancing the work experiences of student employees and eventually contributing to the industry’s overall success.


This study used qualitative narrative analysis to gather firsthand data and learn about the experiences of student employees in the fast food industry. It involved conducting a virtual interview with semi-structured questions to understand the participants’ perspectives on managerial supervision and its impact on employee experience. supervision and its impact on employee experience.

The participants in this study involved key informants and secondary informants from different fast-food chains. Key informants are individuals who have specialized knowledge, experience, or expertise in a particular area or topic being studied. On the other hand, secondary informants are individuals who may have less firsthand knowledge or experience about the research topic than primary informants but can still offer valuable information and perspectives.

Specifically, the participants of the study are composed of seven (7) key informants, including the Undersecretary of the Department of Labor and Employment, the National Youth Coordinator of SENTRO (Sentro ng mgaNagkakaisa at ProgresibongManggagawa), and five (5) fast-food managers and supervisors. Moreover, this study consists of twenty-five (25) secondary informants who are student employees in fast-food chains in the National Capital Region.

The student employees were asked about their experiences with their managers, while the managers were queried about their supervision styles to ensure reliable and valid responses. The findings may not be generalizable to other fast food chains outside of Jollibee and McDonald’s within the National Capital Region. Consequently, insights from student employees and managers in different locations were not obtained, thus limiting the broader applicability of the study’s results.

The researchers utilized a purposive and convenience sampling technique in this study. Initially, they posted the public material (PUBMAT) on their respective Facebook accounts, providing specific criteria for participant selection. Subsequently, those individuals who met the predetermined criteria and were available to interview were provided with consent forms to ensure their understanding of the study and to secure their privacy.

These are the criteria for selecting the five (5) fast-food managers of this study:

  • Must be 18 to 60 years old.
  • Must have at least one (1) year of experience as a manager or supervisor in a fast food chain.

On the other hand, these are the criteria for the twenty-five (25) student employees of this study:

  • Must be 18 to 60 years old.
  • Must be a current student outside the PUP working in the fast food chain.
  • Must have worked for at least six (6) months in the fast food chain.

To ensure the safety of this study, vulnerable subjects were excluded, including:

  • Individuals below 18 years old, and above 60 years old
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Pregnant women
  • Indigenous people

The instruments used in this study for data collection were interview guide questions, audio and video recording, and transcriptions. These were prepared by the researchers with ethical considerations such as voluntary participation, informed consent, anonymity, and confidentiality approved by the PUP Research Ethics Committee (REC) given to and signed by the participants.

The interviews were mainly conducted using Google Meet, Messenger video calls, and Zoom Meetings for the convenience of the informants.

As this study is qualitative research, it focused on the most significant responses collected from the key and secondary informants during the interviews. The responses of these participants were the primary source of raw data, serving as the foundation of the research study. The researchers made a thematic analysis, specifically a narrative review, to gather key responses from the informants. By combining various sources of information and evidence, the researchers created an informative collection of themes that addressed the main points of the study academically.


Theme 1: Dynamic Supervision Styles

This theme explored the general observations of student employees regarding the supervision approaches. Eight distinct approaches were identified: bureaucratic, transformational, charismatic, coaching, affiliative, democratic, situational, and autocratic. It became evident that the managers/supervisors employed a bureaucratic style. As stated by Sophia Lee (2020), bureaucratic leadership is founded upon a well-defined hierarchy, stringent rules, and compliance from its adherents. Further, Capital One (2022) stated that this leadership style establishes a chain of command in which each leader has their area of responsibility. Also, a proposal is likely to be rejected if it contradicts stated norms or restrictions.

Most of the participants revealed that they are satisfied with the overall approach they had observed with their managers/supervisors. However, it is crucial to acknowledge the observations made by some participants regarding their managers who are always followed, while service crews are only doing the tasks given. In this case, it can be referred to as an autocratic supervision approach. This style is a form of leadership in which team members are given explicit instructions, without much input from the other employees. They administer rewards and penalties in accordance with the rules and processes they devised (Capital One, 2022).

Theme 2: Unveiling the Supervision Methods

This theme sheds light on how managers/supervisors handled their student employees. Various approaches were observed, including affiliative, coach, transformational, laissez-faire, and autocratic supervision styles. Most of the managers/supervisors expressed consideration for the school needs of their student workers, evident in their willingness to adjust work schedules. Their people/relationship-oriented approach indicates affiliative leadership. As stated by Personio HR Software (n.d.), affiliative leadership centers on prioritizing people’s needs. Leaders adopting this approach emphasize flexibility and strive to cultivate team cohesion, rather than fostering a culture of competition. While it is evident that most of the participants are taken into consideration. It is also important not to disregard the concerns raised by some participants regarding instances of excessive strictness exhibited by their managers, as well as failing to understand the situation of working students and showing no concern for their needs.

Theme 3: Effective Supervisory Styles

There were nine essential managerial supervision approaches perceived as effective for student employees. These are affiliative, charismatic, transformational, coaching, democratic, transactional, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, and situational. It was found that most participants preferred managers who considered their needs as students and avoided conflicts, particularly regarding work schedules. Additionally, some participants specifically mentioned that managers who inspired them, corrected when mistakes occurred, provided guidance, listened to suggestions, offered fair compensation and recognition, enforced appropriate rules, gave high freedom to do work tasks, and adapted their approach based on the situation were also effective supervision styles.

Theme 4: Manager’s Communication Styles

There were various managerial communication styles revealed by the participants. These include adapting to the work environment, using appropriate communication channels, considering students’ schedules, being assertive yet respectful, giving clear instructions, listening to concerns, offering alternatives, and maintaining a professional yet approachable demeanor. It was found that most student employees experienced direct and clear communication from their managers, which ensured that they received information effectively.

Open communication and truthful exchanges help eliminate skepticism or questioning approaches about methods, strategies, or behaviors employed by managers in their interactions with employees. Effective communication fosters trust between an employee and a boss. Explain why you assigned a task and how it relates to the larger objective when you delegate responsibilities (Indeed Editorial Team, 2023).

Theme 5: Treatment of a Manager

This theme reflected participants’ views on how they were treated in the fast food chain. The predominant experience reported was fair treatment, which includes equitable task distribution, open communication channels, attention, guidance, and support in day-to-day operations, fostering a positive working environment, opportunities for growth and development, and resolving conflicts fairly. According to Dowd (2021), when employees are treated fairly and consistently in the workplace, it cultivates trust, boosts morale, strengthens loyalty, and stimulates productivity.

However, some participants shared negative experiences, including instances where student employees were required to extend their shifts without compensation, their assigned schedules were disregarded, and biased decision-making was observed. Thus, it is essential to consistently adhere to the provisions outlined in the Philippine Labor Code, as it establishes the rights and responsibilities of both managerial and rank-and-file employees, playing a vital role in promoting fair and equitable employment practices (Labor Code of the Philippines | GOVPH, n.d.).

Theme 6: Work Schedule Management

This theme focuses on how the schedule of student employees was managed. Team leaders (TLs) were held primarily responsible for scheduling, and managers/supervisors assisted in making adjustments with the final decision ultimately resting on them. Supportive and adaptive supervisory approaches, characterized by affiliative and situational styles, were prevalent among these managers. It was found that most student employees’ requests for schedule adjustments were accommodated when valid explanations were provided. The use of time availability forms and school schedules demonstrated the managers’ commitment to meeting the needs of the students. However, managers/supervisors mentioned that student workers should give advance notice about their school activities to promptly acknowledge and facilitate the scheduling process.

Theme 7: Managerial Motivation

It highlighted how managers/supervisors motivate student employees. The responses revealed two motivational factors: monetary and non-monetary incentives. It was found that many student employees received non-monetary incentives, such as rewards, recognition, and emotional support, which motivated them to perform better. These incentives were valued more than mere salary increases or bonuses. A supportive and positive work environment also contributes to motivation. However, some students expressed no motivation, and it was noted by one official of the labor union—SENTRO—that not all fast food establishments provide managerial motivation.

Theme 8: Managerial Supervision Challenges

The participants revealed different challenges regarding the interaction between managers and student employees. Specifically, it explored the challenges faced by student employees in dealing with their managers, and also considered managers/supervisors’ perspectives to identify gaps and areas for improvement. Managers found adjusting work schedules or accommodating impromptu school activities challenging. For student employees, the attitude of supervisors is a significant challenge. This was especially true when managers displayed moody and grumpy behaviors, raised their voices when mistakes occurred, miscommunicated, or were unavailable to talk.

Another concern revealed was related to charity work, where student employees extended their working hours without additional pay. However, managers mentioned that there would be no need for charity work if employee hours were managed properly. Before clocking out, they need to finish a task called CAYGO, so if they had not completed it before the end of their shift, they had to extend their hours, which was considered charity work. In this case, employees may not have been fully aware of such policies, leading some to mistakenly claim overtime without compensation, which was not recognized as overtime in their industry.

Theme 9: Supervision Impact

The overall responses of participants revealed how managerial supervision impacts the employee experience. It was found that effective supervision, characterized by inspiration, understanding, support, and helpfulness, enhanced employee satisfaction, motivation, and overall well-being. A positive employee experience was built on fair treatment, good communication, and a happy work setting. Conversely, negative actions like lack of professionalism, favoritism, or lack of understanding were found to lower employee morale, self-esteem, and job satisfaction, leading to emotional and physical stress. As stated by Wigert and Maese (2019),

According to Evan Sinar, Ph.D., who is the head of Assessments at BetterUp, cited by Miles (2023), it is essential to make improvements to the employee experience (EX) because organizations that create a distinctive and positive lived experience for their workers will be successful in both attracting and retaining top talent. Sinar emphasizes the need for companies to prioritize the well-being and sense of belonging of their employees from a holistic perspective, including emotional, social, and physical health.

Theme 10: The Supervision Synergy

It presents the recommendations of participants to improve the supervision approach of managers/supervisors in the fast food chain. Suggestions included fostering open communication, leading by example, and properly teaching and guiding employees when they make mistakes. This emphasized that managers/ supervisors who possess positive characteristics can truly influence and contribute to a positive work experience for student employees. Additionally, an official from the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) highlighted the importance of both managers and student workers being willing to adjust to create symbiotic relations.


The study primarily focused on exploring the experiences of student employees regarding implementing managerial supervision approaches in selected fast-food chains in the National Capital Region (NCR). Its purpose was to gather firsthand experiences from these student employees regarding how their managers or supervisors supervised them. Several discoveries were made during this study.

The participants in this study consisted of key informants, including a government official, a labor union representative, and fast-food managers, chosen for their reliability as sources. Additionally, student employees served as secondary informants and constituted the primary focus of the study. Key informants predominantly fell within the age range of 27-32, with 3 to 5 years of experience in their respective roles and held bachelor’s degrees. Student employees, the main participants, were mainly aged 21-23, with 3 to 5 years of employment in their current fast-food chain, with a significant number of them being third-year college students.

There were several significant discoveries made during this study that may contribute to the development of a more effective supervision approach. The experiences of student employees varied due to their interactions with different managers or supervisors, highlighting the need for tailored approaches rather than a one-size-fits-all solution. The observed wide range of supervisory approaches emphasized the diverse management styles employed in the workplace. However, several participants generally mentioned that managers/supervisors employed a bureaucratic or strict approach to work protocols, which they believed contributes to maintaining order in the fast-paced workplace. Additionally, the study revealed that the perceived effective style of student workers’ managers was already displayed, characterized by compassion and consideration for their school needs—people-oriented, indicating an affiliative leadership style. Managers who prioritize their people and understand their needs ensure positive work experience. However, other concerns stated by some employees, such as excessive strictness, biases, or moods or attitude of their managers/ supervisors, should also be considered, as they were also part of the workplace. It was essential to ensure a positive experience for all rather than solely focusing on the majority while disregarding the concerns of a few.

Moreover, the experiences of student employees regarding their managers’ communication styles, treatment, handling of work schedules, and work motivation were also gathered by researchers, leading to numerous discoveries on these aspects.

Regarding communication styles, most participants mentioned that their managers effectively delivered clear and direct information. However, messenger apps were the most common communication channel to disseminate information.

Also, student employees were mostly treated relatively and satisfied with how they were supervised. However, it was important not to disregard the concerns raised by some participants, such as biased decision-making and extending shifts without compensation.

When it came to work schedule management, the academic commitments of student workers were generally accommodated. However, this study also discovered that the schedule was plotted by their team leaders (TLs), who then informed the managers about the employees’ work schedules. However, managers also helped regarding this matter, and there were instances where they directly received concerns from student workers about their studies. Thus, managers/supervisors mentioned that student workers should give advance notice about school activities to promptly acknowledge and facilitate the scheduling process.

Student employees were motivated mainly by non-monetary benefits, such as recognition and appreciation for their hard work. However, it was mentioned that not all fast-food establishments had the same managerial motivations, as pointed out by the labor union SENTRO.

This study has brought significant relevance to the challenges experienced by managers/supervisors and student employees. While most student workers mentioned that their work schedule was adjusted to accommodate school activities, managers/ supervisors experienced work schedule management challenges. They encountered impromptu school activities and sick calls, making schedule adjustments difficult, especially in cases where manual methods without technology or systems were employed and due to a high number of customers. On the part of student workers, however, although they generally appreciated the approach to work schedule adjustment, concerns were raised regarding charity work and the personality or attitude of managers/supervisors. They mentioned issues such as moody and grumpy attitudes, managers raising their voices when mistakes happen, miscommunication, misunderstandings, and unavailability for communication.

Based on these discoveries, all experiences by student employees with the supervision approach by their managers/ supervisors impact their overall work experience. Effective and supportive supervision could enhance job satisfaction, motivation, and well-being. Conversely, demanding behavior or unfair treatment could result in emotional and physical stress, negatively affecting employee morale and performance.

The researchers gathered recommendations from the participants to identify the best actions for improving the supervision approaches employed by managers and enhancing the employee experience. The findings highlighted the importance of fostering openness among managers/supervisors and student employees to avoid confusion or conflicts. Moreover, since fast-food chains employed students, they had to consider their school activities when adjusting their work schedules. However, student workers must comply with requirements and provide advance notice to facilitate prompt schedule adjustments. Emphasizing a symbiotic relationship between the two parties contributes to achieving their ultimate goals within the fast-food chain.


The authors of this research sincerely express their profound gratitude to the PUP Research Ethics Committee (REC) for approving the ethics clearance needed to begin the study.

Furthermore, completing this study would not have been possible without the invaluable help and cooperation of the government official, a labor union representative, fast-food managers, and fast-food student employees, who willingly participated and shared their knowledge and experiences despite their busy schedules.

The authors would also like to thank their families and friends for their unwavering support and understanding during the study. It became successful because of their assistance and motivation during the challenging phases of the study.

The authors acknowledge the valuable guidance of their thesis adviser, Assoc. Prof. Zandro Estella, whose help was instrumental in completing the study. They also appreciate the assistance provided by Mr. Khenrick Dulay, LPT, which significantly improved the overall quality of the paper.

Above all, the authors extend a heartfelt appreciation to the Almighty God, who provided inspiration, guidance, strength, and knowledge throughout the study.


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