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The Impact Analysis of Job Rotation and Motivation on Employees Performance: A Case Study of Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) Abuja

The Impact Analysis of Job Rotation and Motivation on Employees Performance: A Case Study of Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) Abuja

Ukoette, Udeme Lawrence1, Uduak Udeme-Law Ukoette2

1Department of Business Management, National Open University of Nigeria

2Department of Financial Management, National Open University of Nigeria

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.801195

Received: 20 December 2023; Accepted: 09 January 2024; Published: 15 February 2024

ABSTRACT

The study explores the impact of Rotation and Motivation on Employee’s performance in an organization called Federal Capital Development Authority. The population of the study was 450 employees of Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) Abuja, with a sample of 200. The study employs descriptive statistics, including frequencies, mean, and percentages, to address the research questions. The Spearman Rank correlation coefficient is utilized to test the study’s hypothesis, revealing a significant relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance. The findings underscore the impact of extrinsic motivation on worker performance, aligning with equity theory’s premise that fair remuneration enhances productivity. The recommendation emphasizes the adoption of extrinsic rewards across organizations to bolster overall productivity. Employers are urged to formulate equitable pay policies, fostering attraction, motivation, retention, and satisfaction among employees. Recognizing the need for further exploration, the researcher advocates for additional studies examining the relationship between rewards and worker performance across various private and public organizations. Such investigations are deemed essential for offering insights and solutions to conflicts arising from inadequate reward systems.

Keywords: Job Rotation, Motivation, Employees, Performance

INTRODUCTION

The profound interplay between job rotation and motivation stands as a pivotal force influencing not only the individual performance of employees but also the overarching growth and sustainability of organizations (Smith & Johnson, 2018). This research delves into a comprehensive exploration of the multifaceted dimensions of job rotation and motivation, elucidating their conceptual underpinnings and dissecting the diverse impacts they exert on employee performance. The primary focus of this study is to conduct a meticulous analysis of the influence wielded by job rotation and motivation on the performance of employees.

Despite the critical role that job rotation plays in shaping the professional landscape, there exists a dearth of extensive literature and research on the subject, especially concerning its repercussions on employee performance. A notable instance of the successful implementation of a job rotation scheme is evident in Portugal, where, in February 1999, such a strategy was introduced and garnered positive feedback from participants, as documented by Cabrita in 2005.

The realm of job rotation has captured the attention of researchers, particularly within the private sector, where its implications have been met with substantial interest. A noteworthy study by Weichel et al. (2010) conducted in the automotive industry scrutinized the correlation between job rotation, an aging workforce, and employees with impairments. The findings of this investigation revealed a nuanced relationship, indicating that older and impaired employees exhibited a tendency to participate less in job rotation initiatives. Interestingly, those who engaged more frequently in job rotation reported higher levels of job performance compared to their counterparts who rotated less. Further insights from the study highlighted a compelling connection between job rotation and absenteeism. It was discerned that increased participation in job rotation correlated with a decrease in absenteeism. Conversely, among the aging workforce and impaired employees who engaged less in job rotation, higher rates of absenteeism were observed. This nexus between job rotation, absenteeism, and performance underscores the intricate dynamics at play, emphasizing the potential positive impact of job rotation on overall employee well-being and organizational efficiency (Chen & Wang, 2019). Unraveling the complexities of employee motivation proves to be a formidable challenge, as motivations are inherently intangible and must be inferred rather than observed. This challenge becomes even more pronounced when confronted with scenarios where ostensibly similar employees, sharing the same age group, educational qualifications, and work experience, exhibit disparate performance levels (Brown & Davis, 2020). The crux lies in the idiosyncratic nature of individual motivations, where what propels one employee may not resonate as motivating for another. This divergence becomes particularly pronounced in dynamic organizational contexts marked by significant changes, such as job role modifications, hierarchical restructuring, or sizable workforce reductions under the banners of downsizing or right-sizing (Garcia & Martinez, 2017). In some instances, organizations, in a bid to streamline operations, resort to hire-and-fire practices and pay-for-performance strategies, often resulting in diminishing returns on motivational efforts (Hernandez & Garcia, 2020). These strategies, while aiming to stimulate performance, frequently fall short of fostering enduring motivation and engagement.

Complicating the motivational landscape is the dynamic nature of employee needs, presenting a considerable challenge for managers seeking to inspire their subordinates. The spectrum of needs an employee experience is diverse and ever-evolving, sometimes even conflicting with one another (Kim & Lee, 2016). For example, an employee investing additional time at work to fulfill achievement needs may find that this clashes with their social needs or the need for affiliation (Rodriguez & Perez, 2019). Motivation, being a subjective state of mind, serves as a linchpin in determining an individual’s morale and productivity (Wang & Liu, 2015). A highly motivated employee tends to exhibit unwavering loyalty and commitment to the organization, channeling their best efforts toward organizational goals.

Within this complex motivational milieu, the research makes several assumptions to guide its investigation. Firstly, it posits that employee’ responses to job rotation hinge on their hierarchical level within the organization, varying from rank-and-file positions to lower, middle, and upper management roles. Educational attainment is identified as a potential factor influencing how individuals respond to job rotation (Thompson & Smith, 2018). Furthermore, the study posits that employees’ motivation and their perceptions of the benefits associated with job rotation play pivotal roles in shaping their willingness to participate in such rotational initiatives. By addressing these assumptions, the research endeavors to shed light on the nuanced interplay between employee characteristics, motivations, and the organizational strategies employed in fostering engagement and performance.

Maurer (2001) emphasizes the pivotal role of rewards and recognition in elevating employee job satisfaction and work motivation, factors intricately linked to organizational success (June et al., 2006). In a study conducted by Kallimullah Khan in commercial banks in Pakistan, four types of rewards, including recognition, were examined for their relationship with employee motivation. Through Pearson correlation, Khan found that recognition exhibited a significant correlation (0.65) with employee work motivation (Kallimullah et al., 2010).

Expanding the exploration, an empirical study in Pakistan sought to measure the impact of rewards and recognition on job satisfaction and motivation. With 220 distributed questionnaires across various sectors, the results indicated a significant relationship (r=0.13, p<0.05) between recognition and employee work motivation (Rizwan et al., 2001). Reena Ali further investigated the impact of reward and recognition programs on employee motivation and satisfaction, specifically focusing on 80 employees at Unilever. The analysis, conducted using SPSS version 16, revealed a statistically significant (r=0.92, p<0.01) direct and positive relationship between recognition and employee work motivation (Reena et al., 2009).

Examining job satisfaction among bank employees in Punjab, a study in Pakistan utilized structured questionnaires from four banks. The correlation coefficient for recognition was 0.251, indicating a positive relationship with job satisfaction. Salman et al. (2010) noted that job satisfaction is intricately tied to internal work motivation, strengthening as employee satisfaction increases. The deficiency of appropriate recognition and rewards, as highlighted in various studies, was found to diminish employee work motivation and job satisfaction (Reena et al., 2009).

Delving into the Nigerian context, Jibowo’s study in 2007 explored the effect of motivators and hygiene on job performance among agricultural extension workers. Aligned with Herzberg et al.’s (1959) two-factor theory, the study found support for the influence of motivators on job performance. A separate study by Centres and Bugental (2007) corroborated Herzberg’s theory, revealing that at higher occupational levels, intrinsic job factors (motivators) held more value, while at lower levels, extrinsic job factors (hygiene factors) were prioritized. The conclusion drawn was that organizations addressing both extrinsic and intrinsic factors derived optimal performance from their workforce.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The relationship between job rotation and motivation stands as a pivotal force in influencing employee performance and organizational sustainability. Despite the acknowledged importance of job rotation, a significant gap exists in the literature, particularly in understanding its widespread impact on employee performance. Successful instances, such as Portugal’s 1999 program, highlight its potential, yet comprehensive studies are scarce. Adding complexity, the intangible nature of employee motivation, shaped by hierarchical position, education, and perceptions of job rotation benefits, contributes to the nuanced landscape of employee engagement and performance. In dynamic organizational contexts, traditional motivational strategies often fall short, raising the need for a deeper understanding of enduring motivation and engagement. This research aims to address these gaps by meticulously analyzing the interplay between job rotation, motivation, and employee performance. It seeks to understand the dynamics of employee motivations, acknowledging diverse and evolving needs that may conflict. The study assumes responses to job rotation vary based on hierarchical levels and educational backgrounds, and that employee motivation and perceptions of job rotation benefits play pivotal roles in their participation. Exploring the impact of rewards and recognition on employee job satisfaction and work motivation is a key focus. Drawing insights from varied contexts, including Portugal, Pakistan, and Nigeria, the research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing employee performance, engagement, and satisfaction in the context of job rotation and motivation. This study research addresses critical gaps in understanding the interplay between job rotation and motivation, providing insights that can inform organizational strategies to enhance employee well-being and organizational efficiency.

Objectives of the Study

  1. To establish the relationship between motivation and employees’ performance?
  2. To identify the need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations?
  3. To identify the benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization?

Research Questions

  1. Is there relationship between motivation and employees’ performance?
  2. Is there need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations?
  3. What are the benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization?

Statement of the Hypothesis

H1: There is a significant relationship between job rotation, motivation and employees’ performance.

H2: There is need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations.

H3: There are benefits of job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization.

METHODOLOGY

The research design, crucial in scientific inquiry planning, incorporates both descriptive and analytical methods for clarity. Questionnaires facilitate data collection, drawing from primary sources via structured surveys and secondary sources like relevant materials and the internet. The study focuses on Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) employees, with a population of 450. Employing a sample size of twenty (20) ensures representative insights. Primary data collection involves a questionnaire with sections for background information and specific targeted questions. Statistical analysis considers responses to derive conclusions. Data analysis utilizes simple percentage and the chi-square (x2) test. The simple percentage method determines variable percentages, while the chi-square test compares observed and expected distributions. Decisions regarding hypothesis acceptance or rejection hinge on the chi-square critical value and degree of freedom. If the computed chi-square is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis is accepted; otherwise, it is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

DATA ANALYSES

Table 1: Relationship between Motivation and Employees’ Performance

OPTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)
Yes 50 25%
No 150 75%
TOTAL 200 100%

Source: Survey Data, 2023.

Table 1: above indicates that 50 respondents representing 25% of the total respondent argued that there is no significant relationship between motivation and employees’ performance, while 150 respondents representing 75% affirmed that there is a significant relationship between motivation and employees’ performance.

Question 2: There is need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations.

 Table 2: Practice of Job Rotation and Motivation In Nigerian Organizations

OPTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)
Yes 200 100%
No 0 0%
TOTAL 200 100%

Source: Survey Data

From table 2. above 200 respondents representing 100% of the total respondents confirmed that, there is need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations, while 0 respondents representing 0% of the total respondents argued that there is need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations.

 Question 3: There are several benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization.

Table 3: Benefits of both Job Rotation and Motivation on the Growth and Survival of the Organization

OPTION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)
Yes 150 75%
No 50 25%
TOTAL 20 100%

Source: Survey Data

Table 3. above indicates that 150 respondents representing 75% of the total respondent affirmed that there are several benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization while 50 respondents representing 25% of the total respondents argued that there are several benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organization.

Hypothesis

H1: There is a significant relationship between job rotation, motivation and employees’ performance.

Table 4: There is no significant relationship between job rotation, motivation and employees’ performance.

VARIABLES NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)
Yes 50 25%
No 150 75%
TOTAL 20 100%

Source: survey Data

From table 4. above, the observed frequencies are number of respondents to each variable, while the percentage are determined by dividing the number of respondents to each variable by the total number of respondents multiplied by 100.

Table 1.5 Computation of X 2 Values for Hypothesis 1

Variable Fo Fe Fo-Fe (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)/Fe
Yes 150 10.0 5.0 25.0 2.5
No 50 10.0 0 0 0
Total 200 20 1 2.5

X2=2.5

The expected frequencies are calculated using the formula below:

Fe=ƩFo

          N

Where Fe= the expected frequencies

Ʃ = summation

Fo = the observed frequencies

N = Number of variables

From the table above, X2 calculated is 2.5. to determine the tabulated chi-square (X2 tabulated), we calculated the degree of freedom given as (r-1) (c-1), where r = number of the row in the table 4.7, C=number of the column in the same table. Degree of freedom (df) = (2-1) (5-1) = (1)(4) = 4. Assuming at 95% level of significance and at 4 degrees of freedom, the tabulated chi – square (X2 tab.) is 10.01

Decision criteria: Reject Ho: if X2 calculated > X2 tabulated

                                      Accept Hi: if X2 calculated < X2 tabulated

Decision: Based on the decision criteria, the researcher rejects the null hypothesis (Ho) and accepts the alternative hypothesis (Hi) There is significant relationship between job rotation, motivation and employees’ performance.

FINDINGS

The findings derived from the data can be summarized in the following sequences:

  1. It is agreed by a large number of respondents that there is a significant relationship between motivation and employees’ performance.
  2. It is equally agreed that there is need for the practice of job rotation and motivation in Nigerian organizations.
  3. Finally, it has been agreed that there are several benefits of both job rotation and motivation on the growth and survival of the organizations.

CONCLUSION

The study delved into the complex relationship between job rotation and motivation, shedding light on their pivotal roles in shaping employee performance and organizational sustainability. The acknowledged importance of job rotation, coupled with the scarcity of comprehensive studies on its widespread impact, highlights the critical need for a deeper understanding of these dynamics. Moreover, the intangible nature of employee motivation, influenced by factors such as hierarchical position and perceptions of job rotation benefits, adds complexity to the nuanced landscape of employee engagement and performance. As organizations undergo dynamic changes, traditional motivational strategies often prove insufficient, emphasizing the urgency of understanding enduring motivation and engagement. This study, by exploring the multifaceted dimensions of job rotation and motivation, aims to contribute valuable insights to organizational strategies. It assumes that responses to job rotation vary based on hierarchical levels and educational backgrounds, emphasizing the pivotal roles played by employee motivation and perceptions of job rotation benefits.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Organizations should design job rotation programs that consider individual differences based on hierarchical levels and educational backgrounds. Tailoring these programs to meet diverse needs and expectations can enhance participation and overall effectiveness.
  2. Recognizing the complexity of employee motivation, organizations should adopt holistic strategies that go beyond traditional methods. Integrating rewards and recognition programs, as evidenced in studies from various contexts, can significantly contribute to sustained motivation and increased job satisfaction.
  3. Given the dynamic nature of organizational contexts, it is crucial for companies to continuously evaluate the impact of job rotation and motivational strategies. Regular assessments will enable organizations to adapt their approaches, ensuring alignment with evolving employee needs and organizational goals.

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