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The Influence of Peer and Parental Pressures to the Academic Achievement of Grade 11 Students: A Quantitative Analysis

  • Gansino, Missy L
  • Liwa, Jezcelle N
  • Maambong, Progelie G
  • Balili, Eljohn S
  • Barreza, Wyll-Khen, C
  • Cortez, Robert Justin D
  • Domingo, Royce L
  • Lico, Noel Terrence C
  • Ponce, Lhey Alexis James
  • Sultan, Jelly R
  • Valdez, Moises Erwin C
  • Krystal Joy M. Clamares
  • Anna Marie O. Pelandas
  • 3057-3066
  • May 25, 2024
  • Psychology

The Influence of Peer and Parental Pressures to the Academic Achievement of Grade 11 Students: A Quantitative Analysis

Gansino, Missy L1., Liwa, Jezcelle N1., Maambong, Progelie G1., Balili, Eljohn S1., Barreza, Wyll-Khen, C1., Cortez, Robert Justin D1., Domingo, Royce L1., Lico, Noel Terrence C1., Ponce, Lhey Alexis James1, Sultan, Jelly R1., Valdez, Moises Erwin C1., Krystal Joy M. Clamares, PhD2., Anna Marie O. Pelandas, MAEd2

1Department of Education, Senior High School Students, Philippines

2Department of Education, Senior High School Teachers Division of Davao de Oro, Philippines

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.804285

Received: 27 April 2024; Accepted: 21 May 2024; Published: 25 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study dealt with the influence of peer and parental pressure on the Academic Achievement of grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. The primary goal of the study was to determine the level of peer pressure, parental pressure and academic achievement in terms of their respective indicators, the significant difference between peer pressure, parental pressure and academic achievement, and what domains of peer pressure and parental pressure substantially influence academic achievement. Also, this study utilized a quantitative-correlational design with 202 respondents among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. The average weighted mean, Pearson R, and multiple regression analysis were the statistical tools used in this study. Along with this, results showed a low level of peer pressure and a low level of parental pressure among Grade 11 students in terms of yielding to peer pressure, resistance to peer pressure, and peer encouragement as to Peer Pressure; and Self-efficacy, Creativity and Self-esteem as to Parental Pressure. Likewise, results showed a high level of academic achievement in Grade 11 students regarding mastery approach goal, performance approach goal and performance avoidance goal. In addition, there is a negligible correlation, and significant relationship between peer pressure and academic achievement. Hence, this leads to rejection of the null hypothesis. On the other hand, parental pressure and academic achievement shows no correlation and no significant relationship. Thus, this leads to not rejecting of the null hypothesis.  Also, all domains of peer pressure and parental pressure showed a low rating as perceived by students. Thus, less evident peer pressure can subtly influence individuals to conform to social norms, affecting their choices and behavior. Parental pressure, when infrequent but intense, may create stress and impact decision-making, influencing a person’s life choices.

Keywords: Peer Pressure, Parental Pressure, Academic Achievement, Philippines

INTRODUCTION

The academic performance of students in Bangladeshi universities, especially those with a Cumulative Grade Points Average (CGPA) <2.5, has become a significant concern, sparking extensive research focusing on identifying the causal factors involving parents, teachers, and students, aiming to comprehend and address the complex issues influencing their academic achievement (Shahjahan et., 2020). Academic literature has consistently emphasized the predominant impact of students’ personal characteristics, alongside contextual factors, on their educational outcomes, with student characteristics demonstrating the largest effect sizes, followed by school-related variables, and family aspects, underscoring the importance of addressing these influential factors to improve academic achievement (de Rozas, 2022). Therefore, creating a supportive, nurturing environment, free from overwhelming external expectations, can enhance students’ mental well-being, cultivate a genuine passion for learning, and, by promoting healthy communication and managing expectations, help strike a balance between academic progress and personal well-being, resulting in improved academic performance and increase students’ academic achievement (Gebresilase et al., 2023).

In the Philippines, particularly in Cebu City, Mandaue, the Johns Hopkins Center of Talented Youth notes that parents of academically talented students often exert pressure on their children to excel early, presenting a dichotomy where parental influence can both positively impact academic achievement and potentially cause performance anxiety due to unrealistic expectations (Salenga, 2021). Hence, ensuring the academic path stays aligned requires active and positive parental engagement to enhance motivation (Roy & García, 2018). In addition, motivational encouragement is vital for students to elevate self-efficacy and life satisfaction (Stavrulaki et al., 2021).  A significant problem within the Philippine education system is the subpar academic performance of students due to the influence of peer pressure, which often results in negative peer reinforcement, leading students to prioritize social acceptance over their academic responsibilities, resulting in distractions and diminished academic achievements (Nicolas, 2022). Peer pressure, whether positively enhancing academic engagement or negatively causing school disengagement with consequences like decreased attendance, lower grades, and strained family relationships, plays a pivotal role in shaping students’ social development, decision-making, and value formation (Sarkar et al., 2022). Thus, it is crucial to show support to the student by creating programs as this will encourage them to improve their behavior and associate themselves with peers that will positively influence them (Flores, 2022).

Research Objectives

  1. To determine the level of Peer Pressure in Grade 11 Students in terms of:

1.1 yielding to peer pressure

1.2 resistance to peer pressure; and

1.3 peer encouragement

  1. To determine the level of Parental Pressure in Grade 11 Students in terms of:

2.1 self-efficacy

2.2 creativity; and

2.3 self esteem

  1. To determine the level of Academic Achievement in Grade 11 Students in terms of:

3.1 mastery approach goal

3.2 performance approach goal; and

3.3 performance avoidance goal

  1. To determine the significant relationship between peer pressure and academic achievement among students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School.
  2. To determine the significant relationship between parental pressure and academic achievement among students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School.
  3. To determine which of the domains in peer pressure influences academic achievement.
  4. To determine which of the domains in parental pressure influences academic achievement.

METHODOLOGY

This research study used a quantitative non-experimental design, utilizing descriptive correlational techniques to explore the potential connection between two variables and assess the nature and strength of any identified relationship. When aiming to depict the state of a situation during the study and explore the reasons behind a specific phenomenon, the descriptive correlation method is deemed suitable. Correlational research design explores connections between variables without the researcher exerting control or manipulation over any of them.

A correlation indicates how closely and in what direction two or more variables are related (Bhandari, 2021). Correlational research stands out as the most effective quantitative research method, involving multiple quantitative variables obtained from a single group of subjects (Apuke, 2017). The survey focused on collecting quantitative data related to the mentioned phenomenon. The quantitative aspect involved a well-structured questionnaire tailored for the target respondents to respond to the inquiries. The process of gathering the data used questionnaire. The focus of the study was to determine the influence of peer pressure and parental pressure of Grade 11 students’ academic achievement among the Senior High School in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School in the municipality of Mawab, Davao De Oro.

Population and Sample

Simple random sampling was used in the selection of respondents. The subjects of the study were the 423 Grade 11 Students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. Moreover, the study employed stratified random sampling which enabled the researchers to obtain a sample population that best represents the entire population being studied, making sure that each subgroup of interest was represented. The Grade 11 Students were randomly selected among the Sections in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School.

According to Kline (2005), a sample size of 100-200 respondents is considered medium. In the case of Grade 11 students, out of 423 population of Grade 11 Students, a random sample of 202 respondents was selected. The sample size was computed using the Raosoft sample size calculator (Raosoft, 2004).

Statistical Tool

The following statistical tools were utilized for the data analysis and interpretation.

Mean. This statistical tool was used to determine the level of peer and parental pressures to the academic achievement of Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School, Mawab, Davao De Oro.

Pearson (r). This statistical tool was employed to determine the significance on the relationship between the peer pressure, parental pressure to the academic achievement of Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School, Mawab, Davao De Oro.

Multiple regression analysis. This statistical tool was used to determine the influence of peer pressure, parental pressure to the academic achievement of Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School, Mawab, Davao De Oro.

RESULTS

Level of Peer Pressure

Shown in Table 2 were the mean scores for the indicators of peer pressure among Grade 11 Students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School with an overall mean of 2.34 and described as low with a standard deviation of 0.66. The low level could be attributed to the low rating given by the respondents in all indicators. This entails that the respondents’ responses to the level of peer pressure are less evident in terms of yielding to peer pressure, resistance to peer pressure, peer encouragement.

The cited overall mean score was the result obtained from the following computed mean scores from highest to lowest: 2.46 or low for peer encouragement with standard deviation of 0.57; 2.39 or moderate for resistance to peer pressure with standard deviation of 0.50; and 2.16 or low for yielding to peer pressure with standard deviation of 0.91.

Table 2. Level of Peer Pressure

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Yielding to peer pressure 2.16 0.91 Low
Resistance to peer pressure 2.39 0.50 Low
Peer Encouragement 2.46 0.57 Low
Overall 2.34 0.66 Low

Level of Parental Pressure

Shown in Table 3 are the mean scores for the indicators of Parental Pressure among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School with an overall mean of 2.23 and described as low with a standard deviation of 0.98. The low level could be attributed to the low rating given by the respondents in all indicators. This entails that the respondent’s responses to the level of Parental Pressure are less evident in terms of self-efficacy, creativity, self-esteem.

The cited overall mean score was the result obtained from the following computed mean scores from highest to lowest: 2.31 or low for self-esteem with standard deviation of 1.68; 2.21 or low for self-efficacy with standard deviation of 0.90; and 2.18 or low for creativity with standard deviation of 0.85.

Table 3. Level of Parental Pressure

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Self-efficacy 2.21 0.90 Low
Creativity 2.18 0.85 Low
Self-esteem 2.31 1.68 Low
Overall 2.23 1.143 Low

Level of Academic Achievement

Shown in Table 4 were the mean scores for the indicators of academic achievement among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School with an overall mean of 4.24 and described as very high with a standard deviation of 0.59.  The very high level could be attributed to the very high rating given by the respondents in two indicators and high for the remaining indicators. This entails that the respondent’s responses to the level of academic achievement are very much positive in terms of mastery approach goal, performance approach goal, and performance avoidance goal.

The cited overall mean score was the result obtained from the following computed mean scores from highest to lowest: 4.28 or very high for performance approach goal with standard deviation of 0.58; 4.25 or very high for mastery approach goal with standard deviation of 0.60; and 4.19 or high for performance avoidance goal with standard deviation of 0.59.

Table 4. Level of Academic Achievement

Indicators Mean SD Descriptive Equivalent
Mastery approach goal 4.25 0.60 Very High
Performance Approach Goal 4.28 0.58 Very High
Performance Avoidance Goal 4.19 0.59 High
Overall 4.24 0.59 Very High

Significant Relationship between Peer Pressure and Academic Achievement

One of the crucial purposes of this study was to determine whether or not peer pressure has a significant relationship with academic achievement among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. Pearson r was used to determine the correlation between the two variables.

The results revealed that peer pressure versus academic achievement does show a significant relationship. This conclusion was based on a p-value of 0.004, which was less than the conventional 0.05 level of significance.

Therefore, the null hypothesis indicating that there was no significant relationship between peer pressure and academic achievements among the Grade 11 students of Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. High School was rejected. Moreover, Pearson’s R value which was -0.204 further means that there was a negligible correlation between peer pressure and academic achievement.

Significant Relationship between Parental Pressure and Academic Achievement 

Another crucial purpose of this study was to determine whether or not parental pressure has a significant relationship with academic achievement of Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. Pearson r was used to determine the correlation between the two variables.

Likewise, The results revealed that parental pressure versus academic achievement does not show a significant relationship. This conclusion was based on a p-value of 0.065, which was greater than the conventional 0.05 level of significance. Moreover, Pearson’s R value which was 0.130 further means that there was negligible correlation between parental pressure and academic achievement.

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Influence of Peer Pressure and Academic Achievement

Using the Multiple Regression Analysis, the data revealed that the influence of social support and emotional behavioral problems has f-value of 12.087 and corresponding significance p-value of <.001 which was significant.

Consistently, this means that peer pressure does influence the Academic Achievement of grade 11 students since the probability was less than 0.05. The R squared of 0.155 implies that 15.5% of the Academic Achievement of grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was influenced by their peer pressure, while 84.5% remaining were not covered by the study and influenced by other factors.

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Influence of Parental Pressure and Academic Achievement

Using the Multiple Regression Analysis, the data revealed that the influence of parental pressure and academic achievement has f-value of 2.252 and corresponding significance p-value of 0.084 which was not significant.

Consistently, this means that parental pressure does not influence the Academic Achievement of grade 11 students since the probability was greater than 0.05. The R squared of 0.033 implies that 3.3% of the Academic Achievement of grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was influenced by their peer pressure, while 96.7% remaining were not covered by the study and influenced by other factors.

DISCUSSIONS

Level of Peer Pressure

The respondents’ level of peer pressure in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was low. This means that the different peer pressure among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was less evident. Peer influence on academic achievement was often subtle and not always overt. While not frequently observed, students may experience indirect impacts on study habits, class choices, and attitudes towards academics as to yielding to peer pressure; resistance to peer pressure which means negative outcomes like lower academic performance are not common, suggesting that many students effectively resist or navigate peer pressure. However, in rare instances, some students may succumb to harmful peer pressure, leading to a lack of focus on studies; peer encouragement means it could affect academic achievements, as students may feel less motivated or encounter challenges without constructive support. Overall, peer influence on academic outcomes varies, with some students successfully resisting negative pressures, while others may face difficulties due to a lack of positive peer support.

In connection with Leshargie et al. (2019) proposition, the results highlight how negative peer pressure could subtly yet significantly impact students’ academic achievement. According to Laghi et al. (2019)  students might feel compelled to align with their peers’ attitudes towards studying and prioritizing social activities over academics can lead to hesitation in investing time in studies due to fear of social exclusion. This, in turn, can result in a decline in academic performance as negative peer pressure subtly shifts focus away from educational goals. The findings also lend support to Trigueros et al. (2020)  claim that negative peer pressure contributes to the development of unhealthy study habits. If a student’s social circle promotes procrastination or a lack of commitment to academics, these behaviors can become ingrained. The infrequent but powerful influence of negative peer pressure on study habits could lead to long-term consequences, affecting academic achievement over time.

Level of Parental Pressure

The respondents’ level of parental pressure in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was low. This means that the different parental pressure among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was less evident. This further means that parental pressure could have subtle yet profound effects on a student’s academic achievement where constant criticism and unrealistic expectations from parents could create a stressful environment. Also, pressure to meet impossible standards could make students anxious and afraid of failing, making it hard for them to concentrate on learning. Doubting their abilities due to parental expectations creates a tough situation, expressed subtly in behaviors and attitudes as to self-efficacy; creativity means that when students face strict expectations, the constant pressure to meet academic standards could stop them from thinking creatively and finding unique solutions to problems. This might lead to difficulty in understanding subjects deeply, as they may focus more on memorization than truly grasping the concepts.; self-esteem means that students with low self-esteem may develop a fear of failure, which could hinder their willingness to take risks or engage in challenging tasks and this fear of not meeting parental standards might prevent them from exploring new subjects or pursuing their own interests.

The findings of Tomaszek & Cymerman’s (2019) proposition indicated that negative parental pressure not only eroded a child’s self-esteem but also led to a diminished sense of self-worth, impacting the student’s academic confidence. Continuous comparison and belittling remarks fostered a self-fulfilling prophecy, with students perceiving themselves as incapable, thus hindering academic success. Contrary to Otani’s (2020) observations, where rebellious attitudes emerged as coping mechanisms to resist parental pressure, resulting in a lack of interest in academics. Academic underachievement then contributed to strained parent-child relationships and declining academic performance. Additionally, Rebai et al.’s (2020) proposition highlighted the potential limitation of a student’s exploration of their interests due to negative parental pressure, as rigid academic goals may force them into paths misaligned with their abilities or interests. This lack of autonomy was found to stifle creativity and intrinsic motivation, impeding the development of a well-rounded individual.

Level of Academic Achievement 

The respondents’ level of academic achievement at Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was high. This meant that different kinds of parental pressure were oftentimes manifested among Grade 11 students. This further meant that it opened doors to future opportunities, and when students performed well academically, they increased their chances of accessing higher education or securing desirable jobs where a solid academic foundation served as a stepping stone for personal and professional growth. This result was symmetrical with the work of Madigan & Kim (2020), who argued that academic achievement could boost self-esteem and confidence, where success in studies validated an individual’s capabilities, fostering a sense of self-worth. This newfound confidence often transcended academic settings, positively influencing one’s approach to challenges and interactions with others. This study was cognate with the conjecture of Tulubas et al. (2023) that academic success tended to correlate with improved cognitive skills, where engaging in learning activities and excelling academically could enhance critical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and overall intellectual prowess. These skills were transferable to real-world situations, contributing to a more adaptable and capable individual.

The high level of mastery approach goal indicated that academic achievement among Grade 11 students was oftentimes manifested and well-observed. This insinuated that a mastery approach goal centered around the desire to understand and master the material rather than solely focusing on outperforming others, and this mindset fostered a love for learning and encouraged a deeper understanding of the subjects at hand. Embracing a positive mastery approach, as noted by Jafari et al. (2019), increased student motivation. When students focused on mastering the content rather than just getting grades, they found internal motivation, actively engaged with the material for a deeper understanding.

Significant Relationship between Peer Pressure and Academic Achievement

The present study revealed a significant relationship between peer pressure and academic achievement among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. This implied that peer pressure influenced academic achievement among Grade 11 students, as seen in the data. This confirmed the main anchor of this study, the proposition of Ajzen (1991), which emphasized that peer pressure affects students’ academic achievement because when students succumb to peer pressure, they may prioritize social activities over their studies, leading to procrastination and incomplete assignments. This shift in focus hindered their academic progress as time meant for learning was diverted elsewhere. This agitated the other supporting anchor proposition used in this study, the proposition of Gini et al. (2020), that the emotional toll of succumbing to negative peer pressure could contribute to stress, anxiety, and a diminished sense of self-worth. These psychological factors could have a detrimental impact on cognitive functions, making it difficult for students to concentrate, retain information, and perform well academically.

Significance on the Relationship Between Parental Pressure and Academic Achievement

The present study revealed no significant relationship between parental pressure and academic achievement among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School. This implied that parental pressure did not influence academic achievement among Grade 11 students, which could be seen in the data, and this opposed the anchored theory Self Determination Theory by El Deci, which states that parental pressure has a significant influence. According to the proposition of Luthar et al. (2020), it stated that negative parental pressure was a concern for many, but its direct influence on academic achievement was often overstated. While parents played a crucial role in shaping a child’s educational journey, the impact of negative pressure on academic outcomes was not as substantial as commonly believed. This agitated the other supporting anchor proposition used in this study, the proposition of Cui et al. (2019), that students are individuals with their motivations and capabilities, and while parental expectations can create stress, resilience and internal motivation also came into play. Many students could thrive despite negative parental pressure, demonstrating that academic success is influenced by a myriad of factors beyond parental expectations.

Multiple Regression Analysis of The Influence of Peer Pressure and Academic Achievement 

The regression coefficient was used to test the significant influence of overall peer pressure and academic achievement among Grade 11 students. Using Multiple Regression in JASP Software, the data revealed that the influence of peer pressure towards academic achievement among Grade 11 students had a significant impact. Only 15.5% of the Academic Achievement among Grade 11 students at Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was influenced by peer pressure. The overall results of peer pressure predicted academic achievement in Grade 11 students. Therefore, the significance level of the hypothesis of peer pressure and academic achievement in Grade 11 students was rejected.

This result supported the analysis of Latifi et al. (2021) that the desire to fit in with a certain social group might have led students to prioritize social acceptance over academic responsibilities, resulting in a lack of focus on studies and a decline in overall performance. Additionally, when students witnessed their peers downplaying the importance of academic success, they may have adopted similar attitudes, hindering their own motivation to excel in their studies. Moreover, the perspective of Underhill et al. (2019) was accurate in declaring that subtle peer pressure could have contributed to students adopting unhealthy study habits. If the prevailing social norm emphasized shortcuts or minimal effort, students might have been influenced to adopt similar approaches, compromising the quality of their work and ultimately affecting their academic outcomes. To boot, the attestation of Walker et al. (2019) further endowed the findings of this study that seldomly manifested peer pressure could have influenced students’ choices of extracurricular activities. If the dominant social group valued non-academic pursuits over educational endeavors, students might have prioritized these activities at the expense of their studies, impacting their overall academic performance.

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Influence Parental Pressure and Academic Achievement 

The regression coefficient was used to test the significant influence of overall parental pressure and academic achievement among Grade 11 students. Using Multiple Regression in JASP Software, the data revealed that the influence of parental pressure towards academic achievement among Grade 11 students had no significant impact. Only 3.3% of the academic achievement among Grade 11 students at Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was influenced by parental pressure. The overall results of parental pressure predicted academic achievement in Grade 11 students. Therefore, the significance level of the hypothesis of parental pressure and academic achievement in Grade 11 students was not rejected.

This result challenges the analysis of Madigan & Curran (2020) by suggesting that infrequent negative parental pressure did not have the lasting impact needed to alter a student’s mindset or approach towards their studies. Furthermore, the perspective of Danioni & Barni (2019) appears inaccurate in asserting that students are not solely defined by their parents’ influence; they interact with various social and educational contexts that contribute to their overall development. Additionally, the disapproval of Klaif et al. (2021) further undermines the findings of this study, indicating that the diverse range of experiences outside the family sphere could dilute the impact of occasional negative parental pressure on academic achievement.

CONCLUSION   

Conclusions are drawn based on the results of the study. The study concludes that the level of influence of peer pressure among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was low, as well as its indicators, namely yielding to peer pressure, resistance to peer pressure and peer encouragement. Also, the level of influence of parental pressure among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was low, as well as its indicators, namely Self-efficacy, Creativity and Self-esteem. Furthermore, the overall level of academic achievement among Grade 11 students in Lorenzo S. Sarmiento Sr. National High School was high, as well as all 3 domains namely mastery approach goal, performance approach goal and performance avoidance goal. Moreover, the findings opposed the theoretical assumption of no significant relationship between the Peer Pressure and Academic Achievement Among Grade 11 students. In Contrast, the findings have not opposed the theoretical assumption of no significant relationship between the Parental Pressure and Academic Achievement Among Grade 11 students.

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