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Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance among WADECOR Employee Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi-Purpose Cooperative Employees

  • Amelie L. Chico
  • Irene B. Dela Torre
  • Aprilyn N. Garcia
  • Joseph Andrew A. Lopez
  • 879-887
  • May 30, 2024
  • Human resource management

Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance among WADECOR Employee Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi-Purpose Cooperative Employees

Amelie L. Chico1, Irene B. Dela Torre2, Aprilyn N. Garcia2 and Joseph Andrew A. Lopez2

1Adviser, UM Panabo College, Department Business Administration Education,

Panabo City, Philippines.

2Student, UM Panabo College, Department Business Administration Education,

Panabo City, Philippines.

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2024.803060S

Received: 21 April 2024; Revised: 27 April 2024; Accepted: 01 May 2024 Published: 30 May 2024

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the relationship between total quality management and employee job performance in WADECOR Employee Agrarian reform beneficiary multipurpose employees. The indicators used in this study are leadership, people management, customer focus, planning, and process management. The independent variable has an overall mean of 4.11 with descripted equivalent depicted as high, this indicates with an attribute response to the effectiveness indicators that are focused on speed, cost, and waste reduction, with process management extending innovation that affect the performance of creative thinking inside an organization and the dependent variable has overall mean of 4.17 described as high, this implies that WADECOR beneficiaries may sometimes vary from perspective and employees outlook. The researchers used quantitative non-experimental design, with fifty (50) employees among WADECOR Employee Agrarian reform beneficiaries multipurpose to analyze the relationship between total quality management and employee job performance. The statistical methods used in this study depicts a weighted mean and Pearson-r. The computed r-value is 0.01 and is associated with p-value of 0.000, less than 0.05. as a result, the null hypothesis is rejected this emphasize that the human factor influences corporate culture and employee performance in addition to environmental and organizational features, that results to TQM techniques will help to improve employee performance. Therefore, there is significant relationship between total quality management and employee job performance among WADECOR Employee Agrarian reform beneficiaries that affects the reputation and success of the organization.

Keywords: total quality management and employee job performance

INTRODUCTION

In today’s current situation, one of the problems encountered on employee job performance is observed is present in the workplace it showed that there has been a strong need for the enhancement of employee performance and recognition in particular in our police station. Employees (also known as human resources) are important assets for any firm since they contribute to its growth and success. It also emphasizes that when people are appropriately managed, they are seen as a critical part in achieving corporate success. However, the performance of public sector personnel in Pakistan, particularly at the grassroots level of government (local government areas), is inadequate, particularly in providing these vital services and others (Mahmood, Hamid, &Badlishah, 2021, p.1).

Employee job performance is seen in Human resource as an important and essential management function that includes over the past few years, HR practices have been common place in the west. HR procedures’ impact on globally, there is a lot of interest in performance as well as employee job performance organizations that are dedicated to when these HR procedures are used, the employee members have a sense of security and comfort alsothe improvement of the overall rating of the employee performs an important role in organizations, that improve the quality of employee job performance again. (Mohammad, Miah, Rahman, & Rahaman, 2017,p78)

Using Total Quality Management for employees who work distantly has a mostly positive impact on their productivity. Since it was indicated that employee job performance might be enhanced and increased by monitoring them based on employee job performance attributes.TQM would be used to improve employee job performance.  In order to move forward, it serves as essential for any organization’s management to analyze all the factors that contribute to a satisfied consumer. As a result, organizations must adapt and spread knowledge through providing training in regard to the significance of maintaining continuous improvement, as well as increasing productivity by enhancing employee job performance   in allowing employees and enriching their duties. Sweis (2019, p.4366). Additionally, as stated by Kaynak (2013, p.4358) the goal of overall quality management is to make sure that the quality-related areas are identified in each of the business’s functional areas.  Such unresolved concerns must be taken into consider, and the TQM concept assists in guaranteeing that theenterprise’s operational procedures and enhanced the employee job performance inside the company.

The findings of the study would give the following people insight and useful knowledge. Researchers and academicians may find information useful from the survey. It provided information that could act as the basis for more research.  This study has provided a complete description of how overall total quality management affects employee job performance. The entire total quality management can use this survey to better understand and value their fellow employees. The management will gain benefit from this study’s assistance in completely acceptance of TQM and putting its advantages to use.

In addition, despite total quality management considers continuous improvement there are related literatures for the variables of the study to give essential insights of the study and beneficial to make sound decisions that significantly affect job performance of the employee.

Total Quality Management is getting employee job performance involved in the improvement process through sharing of information encourages employees to participate in the process of quality improvement. Micklewright (2010, p.523) Involvement of employees after considering the advantages of their ideas after collecting suggestions from employees’ proposals should be put into action this might be done via a variety of techniques. Employee job performance engagement helps since when an employee encounters an issue, he or she has an opportunity to address it and enhance performance process, which includes more employee responsibility and higher skill requirements. Chelsea Goforth (2015, p.523)

Total quality management it has additionally involves a number of tools and quality approaches carried by every employee of the same company. Gharakhani (2013, p.2906). Total Quality Management it seeks to produce and transfer services that are better and efficient through promoting interaction among the organization Lakhal (2006, p.2906). Multiple steps have been taken to enhance the standard of the company’s products, including services and administration that has been made in connection advancement. Furthermore, Total Quality Management being a strategy for improving company efficiency through the employee job performance enhancing the effectiveness of all tasks, improving the performance and enhancing effectiveness of the work Tjiptono& Diana (2003, p.2906).

Company seeks to satisfy customer’s expectations, increasing environmental needs as well as internal business demands, satisfaction efficient. The adoption of TQM has an advantage that will eventually benefit the organization, promotes services and participation of the employees that will continue to have a positive effect on the performance of the business. connected with an employee’s job performance overall it is anticipated that the planned and controlled deployment of TQM will contribute to increasing employees Productivity and performance companies have to establish a suitable performance measurement method for determining attributes and standard of employee job performance and identify possibilities for improvement inside the company. Poernomo (2006, p.2905)

Management strategy TQM for enhancing organizational performance that also involves a number of behavioral and technical problems. The most significant variable in this study which includes good practices that can improve organizational management. The tool TQM is for the organizations to determine the effectiveness of the implementation and execution techniques. By tracking the adoption procedures in the goal of this investigation will be fulfilled with the aid of organization. This research has emphasized focusing on the five TQM principles of leadership, planning, customer focus, Process management and people management. Rahman (2004, p.14).

Practices include enhanced participation by employees, improved interaction, and increased productivity, greater performance besides that, better satisfaction among clients, lowered expenses and Competitive advantages will also contribute to the adoption of Total Quality management success common and organized method in management inside a business that strives to improve product quality and services by continuously making adjustments in response to opinions. Antony Leung, Knowles & Gosh (2002, p.14) state that the signs of successful.

This study is anchored on the theory of Sadikoglu and Zehir (2010, p.546) The majority of studies focused on TQM focuses on the success of organizations in activities the connection results were observed for performance in earlier investigations in fact that performance is measured in an organization’s overall view in connection of this the performance of the employees this study has thereby filled the gap by putting the emphasis just on employee job performance. This investigation has demonstrated the substantial and favorable connection with TQM to boost customer satisfaction and support employee job  performance satisfied with the good quality of products and attribute the good performance in the company TQM procedures improve employee job  performance it findings demonstrated a significant good effects of empowerment, communication, training, and cooperation habits and productivity of employees thus putting its ideals into practice and succeeding in its stated objectives of improving performance.Jun (2006, p.546)

Additionally, the overall result of employee behavior is employee job performance. Na-Nan (2018, p.4) name the three factors of quality, quantity, and time that affect employee work performance. The ability to complete tasks in accordance with the requirements of the workplace is taken into account by the quality dimension Na-Nan (2019, p.4). The quantity dimension relates to the quantity task that an employer does can perform according to the time and resources provided Koopmans (2014, p.4). If the person performs their work that is considered employee performance tasks and obligations effectively. A lot of companies evaluate their annual or monthly performance of an individual in to identify situations that require improvement Salako (2016, p.470). Furthermore, employee performance had a primary goal productivity by counting the number of permissible unit quality delivered by a worker within a given timeframe period business or organizational success depends on the output of employees. One of the most successful methods increasing organizational efficiency and profitability requires increasing employee output starting with the least efficient top management levels up through the organizational levels.Putteril& Rohrer (2005,p.470).

Employee Job performance is the overall anticipated value that an individual provides helps to organize the different behavioral events that occur across a timeframe standard performance alsois how effectively employees complete their tasks. Motowidlo& Kell (2012,p.59).The performance of employees often based on the knowledge, skills, ability and behavior required of the employees to execute their task. The majority of companies require to focus and attention on employee job performance plays an important role for developing that takes competitive advantage specially in the company Pawirosumarto (2017, p.59)

The researcher aimed to evaluate the relationship between Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance in WADECOR. It specifically; sought to answer the following objectives: 1. What is the level of Total Quality Management among the respondents of employees in WADECOR Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi-Purpose Cooperative? 2. What is level employee job performance in WADECOR? 3. Is there are significant relationship between Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance among employees in WADECOR? The null hypothesis of this study was tested at 0.05 level of significance, which stated that there is a significant relationship between Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance of employees in WADECOR Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries.

METHOD

This section of the study describes in detail how the study was conducted. Likewise, it presents the research participants, the materials/instruments design, and the procedures observed in the study.

Participants

The respondents of this study were under WADECOR employees assigned atDavao del Norte. All the Fifty employees (50) targets under WADECOR employees are selected to participate in this study. In determining the study participants, the researchers used total population sampling to select the study participants since the entire population was small and well-defined. The researchers chose and believed that the respondents could respond appropriately to determine the importance of total quality management and employee job performance of Employees in WADECOR. The respondents’ participation was entirely voluntary, and should they decide not to take part, they would not incur any costs or forfeit any rewards. They were free to revoke their consent and stop participating at any time.  Due to their participation in the study, they were not waiving any claims, rights, or recourse in the legal sense. The researchers believed that the selected respondents would be able to provide relevant information on the importance of Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance in WADECOR.

Materials/Instruments

The researchers utilized a standardized questionnaire as a tool. The questionnaire is the instrument used for gathering the data from the Employees in WADECOR. The first set of questions was taken from Danny Samson and Mile Terziovski (1999, p.19) which determines the level of Total Quality Management using five indicators; leadership, People Management, Customer Focus, Planning, and Process Management. Also, a questionnaire adapted from the study of Mohammed (2016, p.152) was used to measure Employee Job performance. The research questionnaire consists of three parts, namely part one which pertains to the profile of the respondents, part two pertains the Total Quality Management with the indicators and part three refers to Employee Job Performance. Experts in the fields validated the questionnaires to secure their validity. At this set of questions included information about the respondent’s responses toward Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance that was gathered, calculated by the statistician, and interpreted by the researchers.

The following scales that determined the total quality management are as follows: On a scale of 5 (Strongly Agree) with a range of 4.20-5.00 means that the respondents have very high knowledge about total quality management; 4 (Agree) with a range of 3.40-4.19 means that total quality management is high; 3 (Neutral) with a range of 2.60-3.39 means that total quality management is moderate; 2 (Disagree) with a range of 1.80-2.59 means that total quality management is low; 1 (Strongly Disagree) with a range of 1.00-1.79 means that total quality management is very low.

To determine the level of employee job performance are as follows:5 (Strongly Agree) with a range of 4.20-5.00 means that the respondents have very high knowledge about employee  job performance; 4 (Agree) with a range of 3.40-4.19 means that employee job performance is high; 3 (Neutral) with a range of 2.60-3.39 means that employee job performance is moderate; 2 (Disagree) with a range of 1.80-2.59 means that employee job performance is low; 1 (Strongly Disagree) with a range of 1.00-1.79 means that employee  job performance is very low.

Design and Procedures

Descriptive approaches were used to assess the acquired quantitative data techniques. Descriptive analyses lead to the emergence of correlational and non-experimental results as well as the finding of concerns that need further study Mugenda & Mugenda (2018). Additionally, Mugenda adds that this type of research enables the researcher in assessing whether the variables have a significant relationship at any given period. This means that the researchers described the link between the two variables in this study without the researcher’s intervention since the study intended to establish the impact of total quality management and employee job performance among employees in WADECOR, Davao del Norte. A correlational research design examines the relationships and the strength of these relationships between the variables. We conducted a pilot testing four times to assess the reliability. The independent variable showed an excellent reliability with a Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.95, while the dependent variable had excellent reliability with a Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.92.

According to Creswell (2016, p.48), the concern of this type of research design is the “what, how, and who” of a phenomenon of concern in the study. Berg (2015, p.48) agreed that descriptive survey research focuses on coming up with statistical information and provides a chance for generalizing the findings.A descriptive research design was, therefore, suitable since the study intended to establish the impact of total quality management on the way employee job performance in the WADECOR Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi- Purpose Cooperative. This design is where the data is collected using questions asked to the selected sample of the study the procedure of questioning is standard and the aim is to establish the association existing between the factors Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2016, p.48).

Moreover, this study went through a month process starting from the preparation for the research instrument, which included the questionnaire validation. Next, the researchers wrote a letter to conduct the study addressed to the Assistant Vice President HRD. Afterward, the researchers administered the research by conducting surveys and questionnaires form to their respondents. The survey questionnaire forms were privately sent to all Beneficiaries in WADECOR. Then, the collection and scoring of the data ensued. Lastly, simple random sampling was used in the study, which was followed by the application of statistical tools such as the following: (1) the mean to obtain the average in the sets of data; (2) the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient (r) to know if there is a significant relationship between the variables in the study total quality management and employee job performance among WADECOR Employee Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi- Purpose Cooperative.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section presents the analysis and interpretation of data on the levels of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Employee Job Performance (EJP) among employees in WADECOR. The indicators of TQM and EJP were presented and discussed, starting with the levels of TQM. The sequence of major topics in the study is as follows: The level of Total Quality Management among employees in WADECOR in terms of leadership, people management, customer focus, planning, process management; the level of employee job performance among employees in WEARBEMPCO in terms of employee job performance.

Level of Total Quality Management

Shown in Table 1 is the mean score for the indicators of total quality management, with an overall mean of 4.11, described as high with a standard deviation of 0.28. The high level could be attributed in response to the high rating given by the respondents in indicators in terms of Leadership, People Management, Customer Focus, Planning, and Process Management. The cited total mean score was the outcome acquired from the subsequently computed mean scores from the highest to lowest indicators: 4.13 or high for people management, 4.12 or high for planning, 4.11 or high for customer focus, 4.10 or high for leadership, and 4.03 or high for process management.

Table 1. Level of Total Quality Management

Indicators Standard Deviation Mean Descriptive Equivalent
Leadership 0.38 4.10 High
People Management 0.33 4.13 High
Customer Focus 0.38 4.11 High
Planning 0.38 4.12 High
Process Management 0.39 4.03 High
Overall 0.28 4.11 High

Furthermore, process management got a mean of 4.03 which means high. This means that the level of total quality management in terms of process management is pretty manifested. The finding of this study by the according Benner & Tushman (2004,p.374) when it comes to process management, the effectiveness indicators are focused on the areas of speed, cost, and waste reduction, with process management also extending to innovation development. These factors, particularly in the manufacturing industry, has a significant effect on the performance of creative thinking inside an organization. Process is very important to maintain a high to very total quality management practices.

Level of Employee Job Performance

Shown in Table 2 is the overall mean of 4.17, described as high with a standard deviation of 0.42. The cited total mean score was the outcome acquired from the subsequently computed mean scores from the highest to lowest questions: 4.28 or very high for question number eight, (the item depicts a good behavior) this implies that employees in WADECOR possess behavior that is par in their respective job performance on the other hand, the next item 4.22 or very high for question number ten, (the item depicts “I have knowledge and abilities as an employee”)  garnered a mean score, respectively item number one got the same mean score of 4.22 or very high for question number one,(stipulates in the item question “I am responsible of my actions as an employee”).

The lowest item reflects that “I have an inspirational perspective and outlook” got a mean score 4.06. The item possess a drive that mostly employees if they feel inspired on their respective job performance, realization and indirect reflection of how much an employee like his job whether failure and successes.

In the remaining items stipulates in (I have a good performance) garnered 4.20 or very high for determining good performance, this further implies that organization’s goal among employees with high production in day-to-day endeavor reflects on good performance.

In the item seven under job performance (I have the capacity to communicate effectively) depictsa mean of 4.18, communication really possess a significant role in the organization that will probably smoothen the flow of communications transition.

Table 2. Level of Employee job Performance

Variable Standard Deviation Mean Descriptive Equivalent
Employee Performance 0.42 4.17 High

So, this means that employee job performance of WADECOR Beneficiaries Multi- Purpose Cooperative in terms of performance may vary sometimes to perspective and outlook. But they are trying to work as a cooperative to set aside performance perspective and outlook that may affect the performance job of the organization.

Significant Relationship of Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance among Employees in WADECOR Beneficiaries Multi- Purpose Cooperative

In assessing total quality management and employee job performance, the researchers used correlation analysis. The researchers also used 0.05 as the alpha to determine the significance of each subscale. It was shown in Table 3 that total quality management and employee job performances have a significant relationship. The study rejected the null hypothesis because total quality management and employee job performance have significance with a p-value of 0.000.

Table 3. Significant Relationship between Total Quality Management and Employee Job Performance

Variables Standard Deviation Mean Description R-value P- Value
Total Quality Management 0.28 4.11 High 0.01 0.000
Employee Job Performance 0.42 4.17 High 4.77 0.000

Table 3 reveals the result of the P- the value of 0.000, which is less than 0.05. So, the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, there is a significant relationship between total quality management and employee job performance. It implies that Total Quality Management possess a considerable impact on employee performance, according to studies conducted by Zakuan and Zahari (2016,p. 216) on the relationship between TQM and employee performance in the Malaysian manufacturing sector. The researchers emphasize the importance of the human element on the reputation and success of the firms. They discovered that, in addition to environmental and organizational elements, the human factor also influences corporate culture and, consequently, employee performance. Multi-purpose Cooperative is diverse organization in terms of leadership, people management, customer focus, and planning in consonance with the expected result with regards to job performance it may lead to better performance among human capital. As a result, TQM techniques will help to improve employee performance.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

The discussion of findings, conclusion, and recommendations that the researchers made based on the results of the investigation was presented in this chapter.

Conclusions

The study’s findings, derived from the data, are listed below. Based on the findings and discussions, logical conclusions were developed to address the study issues. The level of Employee Job Performance is high, indicating that it is much more applied. In comparison, the level of Employee Job Performance is high, which indicates that it is remarkably developed. Total Quality Management and Employee Job performance of WADECOR significantly correlate. Also, this finding is supported by TQM has been widely adopted and effectively used in numerous small and large organizations, offering them a competitive advantage in both local and international markets through the production of items of excellent quality to meet consumer demands N.M. Zakuan (2008, p.2).The set of competences relevant to the goals can be used to define employee performance of the company or the division within the company where a person works Aarabi (2012,p.2). In this study, the author will evaluate employee job performance using two factors for workplace environment and satisfaction.

Recommendation

Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendation is suggested:

Improving Total Quality management under Leadership, that possess high degree of unity of purpose, the cooperative aim to eliminate barriers between individuals and or department, the researcher recommends that WADECOR should prioritize customer-centricityas it is important for a good motivation coming from Leaders to be a leader by example. It should be the core focus of the company’s management approach, helping businesses stay competitive, foster innovation, and facilitate continuous improvement. By putting the customer at the heart of their operations, businesses can build strong relationships, exceed expectations, and thrive in today’s dynamic marketplace. In addition, enhance communication channels to establish effective means through which customers can easily reach out, provide feedback, or seek assistance. Actively listen to customer concerns, respond promptly, and implement necessary improvements based on their feedback.Develop and implement loyalty programs that provide incentives and rewards for repeat customers. Offer exclusive discounts, personalized offers, or special access to events or content. Make the loyalty program easily accessible and user-friendly. By implementing these recommendations and continuously striving to improve, WADECOR can enhance their management practices and create an environment that encourages customers to return and become loyal advocates for their company.

Secondly, the researcher recommends that the cooperative members feel that they can achieve and feel to have an inspirational perspective and outlook in the organization. To maintain total quality management on employee job performance, WADECOR, should encourage employee involvement by involving employees in decision-making processes and problem-solving initiatives related to quality management. Encourage them to contribute their ideas and suggestions for process improvement and innovation. It is also important to set clear expectations and communicate them to employees. Ensure that employees understand their roles and responsibilities, as well as the quality standards they are expected to meet. Additionally, WADECOR should offer comprehensive training programs to equip employees with the necessary skills and knowledge to perform their jobs effectively. Regularly assess training needs and provide ongoing development opportunities to enhance employee competence. By implementing these recommendations, WADECOR can foster a culture of total quality management that emphasizes continuous improvement, employee engagement, and performance excellence.

In conclusion, future researchers might suggest another study, which would serve as a reference for their own research. Additionally, there is a need for enhancing total quality management to boost operational effectiveness, encourage ongoing enhancements, and meet the ever-changing needs and expectations of customers. It is crucial to recognize that the actions taken today will have a significant impact on the organization’s future.

REFERENCES

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