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Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among Employees of New Visayas Elementary School

Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among Employees of New Visayas Elementary School

Amelie L. Chico1*, Angelica Asilom2, Queenie Joy Bulicatin2, and Cherry Ann Nalam2
1UM Panabo College, Adviser, Department Business Administration Education, Panabo City, Philippines.
2UM Panabo College, Student, Department Business Administration Education, Panabo City, Philippines.

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.70717

Received: 26 June 2023; Accepted: 03 July 2023; Published: 27 July 2023

ABSTRACT

 This study entitled, “Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among Employees of New Visayas Elementary School”. The researchers aim to understand how employees can manage their stress in the workplace, whether it affects their job performance. The study was conducted at New Visayas Elementary School where the participants employees in the said place. A quantitative correlational research design was used in this study. The survey questionnaire consists of twenty-eight questions conducted to the twenty-one employees of New Visayas Elementary School to gather data. It was found out that employees have 4.36 which means a very high level of workplace stress management among employees, 3.96 which means a high level of job performance of New Visayas Elementary School. There is a significant relationship between the two variables. It means a significant relationship exists between Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among New Visayas Elementary School employees. According to Baytas (2018, p.2), all activities related to the work performed by employees were defined as job performance. Performance is related to the quality of the way employees do their job. If employees do not have the knowledge, skills, and competencies for the work they will do, stress on them increases, and while they lose their motivation, their performance may also decrease.

Keywords: Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance

INTRODUCTION

Job performance is one of the most significant in the organization. It determines their work performance in their institution. When employees job performance decreased productivity, it will provide low performance quality which leads to a negative impact on the success of the organization. Understanding each employee’s job performance is vital because organizational decisions are based on individual performance Sonnentag, Volmer, and Spychala, (2008, p.2), as cited by Alromaihi and Alshomaly (2017, p.2), leading to organizational success. Job performance is the behavior that accomplishes results supported by Armstrong and Taylor (2014, p.2) or whether an employee is performing well on the job Jared, Balouch, and Hassan, (2014, p.2).

Job performance is essential; it assesses employees to perform a job well. It is a component of human resource management that is researched academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology. Job performance is an essential factor in determining the success and outcomes of an organization. Referring to Campbell 1990, cited by Rabindra, Nrusingh, & Lalatendu (2015 para.2), describes job performance as an individual-level variable or something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance, which are higher-level variables. Job performance is important because it increases employee productivity and engagement. Employees that are actively involved in their work environments stay longer and achieve greater outcomes. Increasing employee engagement is essential for increasing productivity stated by Hearn (2018 para.1).

The study of Shane (2010, p.2), cited by Chikwem (2017, p.2), examined that Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance have a strong relationship and correlation. The various concepts and ideas presented in a variety of published resources as well as the various authors were emphasized in this study. This gives the present researchers an intellectual framework and collective intelligence. Above all, this literature improves the significance of this study.

The significance of this study is that it shows how stress at work can affect the ability to accomplish job performance by affecting their creativity, productivity, and physical, emotional, and mental health. However, it may turn bad stress into good stress to maintain motivation by maintaining a positive attitude, making the right plans, using workplace stress management strategies, and developing healthy habits.

In Panabo City, one of the employees at New Visayas Elementary School stated that it has the potential to alter her physical energy, mental power, and emotional support, as well as the environment, which is crucial to their performance. Furthermore, interaction with students, preparation and planning, effectiveness in presenting subject matters, relationships with other employees, self-improvement, and teaching techniques are some factors that affect her job performance. Therefore, the researchers were interested in conducting the study in this milieu.

The researchers have not found any study about workplace stress management and job performance in the locality of Panabo City, hence identifying the study’s research gap. This factor led the researchers to select and develop an interest in conducting a survey that is similar to the variable described above. These aspects also prompted the researchers to look at this study.

In general, managing stress in the workplace can make the difference between success and failure in job performance. Emotions are contagious, and stress impacts the quality of interactions with others. The better at managing stress, the more it will positively affect job performance.

Upon completing this study, the researchers aim to determine workplace stress management practices and how the employees impact their ability to perform their jobs. The findings may show that employees and the researchers conducting the study will improve their performance and productivity, considering that workplace stress management is critical to the success of their productivity performance.

According to Bilgili and Tekin (2019, p.2169) in Workplace Stress Management, as cited by Altindag (2020). mostly, intense competition environment, changes in the social and economic structure, and technological developments can also cause stress, which is the outcome of modern life. The fact that individuals face stress at every moment of their lives adversely affects both their work and daily lives. Therefore, managing stress has become increasingly important for both employees and organizations.

Furthermore, workplace stress management and wellness programs can help reduce the degree and impact of stress and restore an employee’s depleted psychological resources Tetrick and Winslow, (2015, p.573). Chen and Silverthorne (2008: p. 573), As cited by Altindag (2020), defined job stress as psychological and physiological reactions caused by employees due to unfavorable conditions and circumstances in the workplace.

In Job Performance, to better understand effectiveness on jobs, it is crucial to learn about links between job performance, people, and situation factors. Job performance is a considerable factor influencing any organization’s profitability (Bevan, 2012, p. 15544). Performance is essential for organizations as employees’ performance leads to business success. Also, performance is important for individuals, as achieving tasks can be a source of satisfaction (Muchhal, 2014, p. 15544). Job performance can be defined as behaviors or activities to accomplish the organization’s objectives. Performance is the result of the work of a person or group in an organization at a particular time, which reflects how well the person or group reaches the qualification of a job in a mission of the organization’s goal achievement. Many factors could influence the employee’s job performance, including equipment, physical work environment, meaningful work, standard operating procedures, the reward for good or bad systems, performance expectancy, and feedback on performance, in addition to knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Stop, 2003 p.15544) cited by Al-Omari & Okasheh (2017). The physical work environment and its influence have been vastly studied since the environment can hinder, intervene with, or set limits on the range of work behaviors that are displayed which, in turn, potentially impacts task performance.

Moreover, in human resource management, job performance is seen as the “ultimate dependent variable,” making its evaluation a capital problem (Villagrasa 2019 para.1). According to Martocchio (2015 para.1) states that job performance is defined as the overall expected value to the organization of an individual’s behavioral episodes during a specific time period. As cited by Delos Santos (2022).

Therefore, according to Campbell & Wiernik (2015 para.1), job performance is a term that refers to actions that employees may direct and that advance organizational objectives. Job performance is a construct that stimulates behavior connected to achievement with evaluative components, according to Motowildo (2021, p.38), as cited by Forson, Dwamena, Opoko & Adjavon (2021, p.38). Most studies on this link have focused on the influence of autonomous and intrinsic motivation on performance, making the case that autonomously motivated people have particular underlying beliefs and behaviors and, as a result, perform at their best. According to the principle of self-determination, self-driven motivation is a requirement for improved performance. That is, there is a good chance that people will perform better at work if they are better informed about the meaning of their work, feel a feeling of ownership, and have some degree of autonomy.

This study aimed to determine if there is a relation between workplace stress management and job performance among New Visayas Elementary School employees. This research was guided by the following questions: 1. What is the level of workplace stress management among employees in New Visayas Elementary School? 2. What is the level of Job Performance among employees in New Visayas Elementary School? 3. Is there any significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School? The null hypothesis of this study was tested at a 0.05 level of significance states that there is a significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School.

METHOD

This chapter presented the methods used in the conduct of the study. It comprises participants, materials/instruments, and design and procedure.

Participants

The participants of this study were the employees of New Visayas Elementary School located at Barangay New Visayas, Panabo City. Twenty-one employees of New Visayas Elementary School are eligible to participate in the study and to answer the survey on workplace stress management and job performance. The researchers used total population sampling. Total sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique where the researcher chooses to examine the entire population.

Materials/Instruments

The researchers used a standardized questionnaire adapted from Adigun, Afolabi, and Yusuf (2018, p.126) and Ramos-Villagrasa, Barrada, Fernández-del-Río, and Koopmans (2019, p.195). The adapted questionnaires were used to determine the respondent’s responses to the independent and dependent variables. The research questionnaire is divided into two sections: The first pertains to the level of workplace stress management, and the second is about job performance, both questionnaires were validated by the panel members.

The scale used to determine the level of workplace stress management is as follows: (1) the scale of 4.21–5.00 is considered very high, which means that the level of workplace stress management is always practiced; (2) the scale of 3.41–4.20 is considered as high, which means that the level of workplace stress management is often practiced; (3) the scale of 2.61–3.40 is considered as moderate, which means that the level of workplace stress management is sometimes practiced; (4) the scale of 1.81–2.60 is considered as low, which means that the level of workplace stress management is less practiced; (5) the scale of 1.00–1.80 is considered as very low, which means that the level of workplace stress management is not practiced.

The scale used to determine the level of job is as follows: (1) the scale of 4.21–5.00 is considered very high, which means that the level of job performance is very satisfactory; (2) the scale of 3.41–4.20 is considered as high, which means that the level of job performance is satisfactory; (3) the scale of 2.61–3.40 is considered as moderate, which means that the level of job performance is fair; (4) the scale of 1.81–2.60 is considered as low, which means that the level of job performance is less satisfactory; (5) the scale of 1.00–1.80 is considered as very low, which means that the level of job performance is not satisfactory.

Design and Procedure

The researchers used a correlational-quantitative research design in the study. The correlation coefficient is a statistical measure that calculates the strength of the relationship. Correlation quantitative design is a type of non-experimental research method in which the researchers measure two variables, the independent and dependent variables. The design is chosen because it takes over the study conducted by the researchers as they point to identify workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School.

            The data-gathering procedures in conducting the study involved the following steps: First, Initial Interview. The researchers asked for the names of the teachers of the employees to address the letter asking permission to conduct a study. Second, Seeking Permission to Conduct the Study. The researchers sent a letter asking permission from employees to conduct a study. Third, Validation of the Instrument. Validators validated the questionnaire. Fourth, Administration of the Instrument. Upon approval, the researchers personally administered the questionnaire. The distribution was done during their time. Personal interview was conducted for clarity of the answers from respondents. Fifth, Retrieval of the questionnaire. After the researcher’s administration of the questionnaire, the data were immediately collected. Lastly, the Collective of data. After collecting the questionnaire, it was immediately tallied and subjected to statistical interpretation.

The following statistical tools were used in this study: (1) Weighted means. This was used to determine the level of workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School. (2) Pearson-r. This was used to determine the significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presented the results of the study. It illustrates how data has been interpreted and analyzed and the following implications for supporting the analytical discussion.

Level of the Workplace Stress Management

Presented in Table 1 is the scale of workplace stress management. Workplace stress management has a grand mean of 4.36, which is very high, which means that workplace stress management is the most effective.

Table 1. Workplace Stress Management

Variable Overall Mean Descriptive Equivalent
Workplace Stress Management 4.36 Very High

Too much pressure, however, may have workplace stress-related implications, such as employee mental alienation and impact on individual performance stated by Sdrolias (2015, p.1). Also, the destruction of team spirit, dissatisfaction with or absence, or even resignation from work can be manifestations of work stress stated by McCarty and Strahan (2018, p.1).

According to Reddy (2018 p.61)) in their study concludes that streamwise difference in workplace stress does exist in employees. It is crucial to deal with stress at a personal, social, and institutional level. Remedies such as feedback, yoga, life skills training, mindfulness, meditation, and psychotherapy have helped deal with stress. Identifying the main reason for workplace stress is the key to dealing with it. Professionals can provide customized stress management plans. The integrated well-being of the employees is important not only for the individual but also for the institute.

According to Sharma (2016, p.62), The use of various techniques to reduce stress was observed in their study. One physical activity performed each day can help with the stress issue. One can also adopt various time management tools and get involved with leisure activities which can benefit employees.

Level of Job Performance

Presented in Table 2 is the scale of job performance. The job performance has a grand mean of 3.95, which describe as high, which means that their job performance is efficient.

Table 2. Job Performance

Variable Overall Mean Descriptive Equivalent
Job Performance 3.95 High

A good job performance assures an individual of security; hence they do not hop from one job to another in search of a new position. This happens when their managers can understand their expectations and professional goals and give them feedback from time to time just to ensure they are at their best. Overall, good job performance enhances an employee’s reputation and career development, as stated by McQuerrey (2014, p.3).

Job performance management helps ensure workers contribute towards the organization’s objectives, goals, and mission, setting employee expectations and motivating them to work hard. An effective performance management system should enhance an organization’s success and ensure that the employees are well-motivated (cited by Cushway, 2015, p.3). Engagement focuses on work performed at a job and represents the willingness to dedicate physical, cognitive, and emotional resources to this work stated by Preston & Watetu (2017, p.1).

Significant Relationship between Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School

Presented in Table 3 is the result of the significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School. The grand mean of workplace stress management is 4.36, and the overall mean of job performance is 3.95. The standard deviation of the two variables is 0.69 and 1.08. The r-value is 0.616, and the p-value is 0.003. The null hypothesis (Ho) for this study is rejected since P-value is less than 0.05, which means a significant relationship exists between the two variables.  

Table 3. Significant Relationship between Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among employees of New Visayas Elementary School

Variables Standard deviation Mean Description r-value P-value
Workplace Stress Management 0.69 4.36 Very High 0.616** 0.003
Job performance 1.08 3.95 High

Many researchers argue that stress in the workplace has an impact on performance in one way or the other. Dean (2002 p. 2), as cited by Fonkeng (2018) view, work-related stress as a leading cause of low productivity in the workplace. Gaumail (2003 p.2), as cited by Fonkeng (2018), stated that he believes stress affects organizational outcomes such as decreased performance, increased absenteeism, and dissatisfaction. In the same breadth, stated as Desseller (2000 p.2), as cited by Fonkeng (2018), concurred that the consequences of organizational stress are far-reaching, leading to a reduction in the quality and quantity of job performance. Meanwhile, Frost (2003 p.2) by Fonkeng (2018) state that hardworking and valuable employees who experience negative experiences in the workplace have their hopes dashed, their goals derailed, and their confidence undermined. He asserts that organizations should endeavor to identify emotional pain when it occurs and act to intervene in potentially lethal situations in the workplace that can be reversed.

It means a significant relationship exists between Workplace Stress Management and Job Performance among New Visayas Elementary School employees. According to Baytas (2018, p.2), all activities related to the work performed by employees were defined as job performance. Performance is related to the quality of the way employees do their job. If employees do not have the knowledge, skills, and competencies for the work they will do, stress on them increases, and while they lose their motivation, their performance may also decrease. Therefore, the study is supported by the theory of Shane (2010, p.2), cited by Chikwem (2017, p.2), that there is a significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

This section summarizes the findings, the researchers’ conclusions, and recommendations based on the investigation results.

Based on the study’s findings, the following conclusions are drawn: the level of workplace stress management has a grand mean of 4.36, which is described as very high. The level of job performance has a grand mean of 3.95, which describe as high. There is a significant relationship between workplace stress management and job performance among New Visayas Elementary School employees. The grand mean of workplace stress management is 4.36, and the grand mean of job performance is 3.95. The standard deviation of the two variables is 0.69 and 1.08. The r-value is 0.616, and the p-value is 0.003. The null hypothesis (Ho) for this study is rejected since P-value is less than 0.05, which means a significant relationship exists between the two variables.

Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that you practice mindfulness and be aware of the workplace stress management work, as it affects job performance.

The researcher would like to recommend the following, pointing to the lowest results. First is on the level of workplace stress management item 5 on stress workshop, that the institution will make programs on physical wellness and promote healthy living. Through this, they can improve a healthy mind and disposition in the workplace and enhance job performance.

Moreover, in the level of job performance, item 17 got the lowest mean score of 2.33, which states, “I talked to colleagues about negative aspects of my work” the researcher recommends a friendly environment to promote a good ambiance and mood to perform the job well. On the other hand, the school administrator should conduct team building by this so that they can help teachers build strong relationships and improve coping, empathy, and trust in the group, enhance creativity, and boost self-esteem.

In addition, in the level of job performance, item 14 got the low mean score of 2.48, which states, “I complained about minor work-related issues at work” the researcher recommends that the teachers should have unity so that they do not complain about their work. Furthermore, the school administrator should have evaluated the teachers to know their performance in their work to improve their job.

Furthermore, future researchers may use this study since the findings of this study indicate that there is a relationship between workplace stress management and job performance. Future researchers will benefit from this research’s sound advice as they investigate any areas that need to be explored in it or earlier studies. In the future, many additional factors currently producing workplace stress management and job performance can be identified and investigated to determine their relationships, which leads to an increasing characteristic and the workplace environment.

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